Treatment of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours with the novel radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [177Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr3]octreotate.
ABSTRACT: Medical treatment and chemotherapy are seldom successful in achieving objective tumour reduction in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Treatment with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide may result in partial remissions in 10-25% of patients. The newer analogue [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate (octreotate) has a ninefold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide (177)Lu, it has proved very successful in achieving tumour regression in animal models. The effects of (177)Lu-octreotate therapy were studied in 35 patients with neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours who underwent follow-up for 3-6 months after receiving their final dose. Patients were treated with doses of 100, 150 or 200 mCi (177)Lu-octreotate, to a final cumulative dose of 600-800 mCi, with treatment intervals of 6-9 weeks. Nausea and vomiting within the first 24 h after administration were present in 30% and 14% of the administrations, respectively. WHO toxicity grade 3 anaemia, leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred after 0%, 1% and 1% of the administrations, respectively. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance did not change significantly. The effects of the therapy on tumour size were evaluable in 34 patients. Three months after the final administration, complete remission was found in one patient (3%), partial remission in 12 (35%), stable disease in 14 (41%) and progressive disease in seven (21%), including three patients who died during the treatment period. Tumour response was positively correlated with a high uptake on the octreoscan, limited hepatic tumour mass and a high Karnofsky Performance Score. Because of the limited efficacy of alternative therapies, many physicians currently adopt an expectant attitude when dealing with patients with metastatic GEP tumours. However, in view of the high success rate of therapy with (177)Lu-octreotate and the absence of serious side-effects, we advocate its use in patients with GEP tumours without waiting for tumour progression.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTA<sup>0</sup>-Tyr<sup>3</sup>-octreotate (<sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE) is one of the most reliable treatments for unresectable, progressive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with somatostatin receptor expression. We have, for the first time, reported the results of the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry, and efficacy of this treatment for Japanese patients with NET.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with unresectable, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS)-positive NETs were enrolled in this phase I clinical trial. They were treated with 29.6 GBq of <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE (four doses of 7.4 GBq) combined with amino acid solution infusion plus octreotide long-acting release (LAR) 30 mg. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, and dosimetry of a single administration of this treatment in patients with SRS-positive NETs.<h4>Results</h4>Six Japanese patients (three men and three women; mean age 61.5 years; range 50-70 years) with SRS-positive unresectable NETs were recruited. <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE was eliminated from the blood in a two-phase manner. Cumulative urinary excretion of radioactivity was 60.1% (range 49.0%-69.8%) within the initial 6 h. The cumulative renal absorbed dose for 29.6 GBq of <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE was 16.8 Gy (range 12.0-21.2 Gy), and the biological effective dose was 17.0 Gy (range 12.2-21.5 Gy). Administration of <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE was well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicities. Grade 3 lymphopenia occurred in two (33.3%) cases, but there were no other severe toxicities. Four patients achieved partial response (objective response rate, 66.7%), one patient had stable disease, and one patient had progressive disease.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PRRT with <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE was well-tolerated and showed good outcomes in Japanese patients with unresectable NETs. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTA<sup>0</sup>-Tyr<sup>3</sup>-octreotate .
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><sup>177</sup>Lu-[DOTA<sup>0</sup>, Tyr<sup>3</sup>]-octreotate (<sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate) is used for treatment of patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expressing neuroendocrine tumors. However, complete tumor remission is rarely seen, and optimization of treatment protocols is needed. In vitro studies have shown that irradiation can up-regulate the expression of SSTR1, 2 and 5, and increase <sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate uptake. The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-tumor effect of a <sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate priming dose followed 24 h later by a second injection of <sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate compared to a single administration of <sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate, performed on the human small intestine neuroendocrine tumor cell line, GOT1, transplanted to nude mice.<h4>Results</h4>Priming resulted in a 1.9 times higher mean absorbed dose to the tumor tissue per administered activity, together with a reduced mean absorbed dose for kidneys. Priming gave the best overall anti-tumor effects. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no statistically significant difference in tumor response between treatment with and without priming. Gene expression analysis demonstrated effects on cell cycle regulation. Biological processes associated with apoptotic cell death were highly affected in the biodistribution and dosimetry study, via differential regulation of, e.g., APOE, BAX, CDKN1A, and GADD45A.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Priming had the best overall anti-tumor effects and also resulted in an increased therapeutic window. Results indicate that potential biomarkers for tumor regrowth may be found in the p53 or JNK signaling pathways. Priming administration is an interesting optimization strategy for <sup>177</sup>Lu-octreotate therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, and further studies should be performed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the reported effects.