The Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity regulator HrpB induces 3-hydroxy-oxindole synthesis.
ABSTRACT: The transcriptional activator HrpB of the bacterial wilt causing betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum represents a key regulator for pathogenicity. In particular, it drives expression of hrp genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) as well as effector molecules for delivery into the host cytosol to promote disease. However, the HrpB regulon extends beyond this T3SS. We describe here an HrpB-activated operon of six genes that is responsible for the synthesis of a fluorescent isatin derivative of 149 Amu that we named HDF for HrpB-dependent factor and that we purified from culture supernatants. The structure of the labile molecule was solved by using NMR and CD spectroscopy to be (3S)-3-hydroxy-indolin-2-one and confirmed by its chemical synthesis and MS spectrometry. HDF was found to be present at 20 nM in wild-type cultures grown on minimal medium, and its synthesis increased 15-fold upon overproduction of HrpB, confirming that HrpB activates HDF synthesis. The addition of tryptophan significantly stimulated HDF biosynthesis and was shown to represent the precursor molecule for HDF synthesis. A search for the biological function of the molecule revealed that HDF induces acyl-homoserine lactone receptor-mediated reporter activity of the well studied LuxR transcriptional regulator of Vibrio fischeri. Thus, our results provide evidence that the specificity of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) receptors is clearly broader than previously considered. The failure to detect induction by HDF of the described endogenous quorum-sensing circuits of the pathogen points to a role in interfering with cell-cell signaling of rivalling bacteria.
Project description:Many proteobacteria use acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum-sensing signals. Traditionally, biological detection systems have been used to identify bacteria that produce acyl-homoserine lactones, although the specificities of these detection systems can limit discovery. We used a sensitive approach that did not require a bioassay to detect production of long-acyl-chain homoserine lactone production by Rhodobacter capsulatus and Paracoccus denitrificans. These long-chain acyl-homoserine lactones are not readily detected by standard bioassays. The most abundant acyl-homoserine lactone was N-hexadecanoyl-homoserine lactone. The long-chain acyl-homoserine lactones were concentrated in cells but were also found in the culture fluid. An R. capsulatus gene responsible for long-chain acyl-homoserine lactone synthesis was identified. A mutation in this gene, which we named gtaI, resulted in decreased production of the R. capsulatus gene transfer agent, and gene transfer agent production was restored by exogenous addition of N-hexadecanoyl-homoserine lactone. Thus, long-chain acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing signals to enhance genetic exchange in R. capsulatus.
Project description:The human pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei possesses multiple type III secretion system (T3SS) gene clusters. One of these, the B. pseudomallei T3SS2 (T3SS2(bp)) gene cluster, which apparently plays no role in animal virulence, is also found in six additional Burkholderia spp. and is very similar to T3SSs found in phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp. and Ralstonia solanacearum. The T3SS2(bp) gene cluster also encodes an AraC-type regulatory protein (HrpB(bp)) that is an ortholog of HrpB, the master regulator of the R. solanacearum T3SS (T3SS(rso)) and its secreted effectors. Transcriptome analysis showed that HrpB(bp) activates the expression of T3SS2(bp) genes, as well as their orthologs in R. solanacearum. In addition to activating T3SS2(bp), HrpB(bp) also upregulates the expression of ~30 additional B. pseudomallei genes, including some that may confer production of adhesive pili, a polyketide toxin, several putative T3SS2(bp)-secreted effectors, and components of a regulatory cascade. T3SS2(bp) promoter regions were found to contain a conserved DNA motif (p2(bp) box) identical in sequence and position to the hrp(II) box required for HrpB-dependent T3SS(rso) transcription activation. The p2(bp) box is also present in the promoter regions of the essentially identical T3SS found in the very closely related species Burkholderia thailandensis (T3SS2(bt)). Analysis of p2(bp) box mutants showed that it is essential for HrpB(bp)-mediated transcription activation in both species. Although it has been suggested that T3SS2(bp) and T3SS2(bt) may function in phytopathogenicity, we were unable to demonstrate a phytopathogenic phenotype for B. thailandensis in three different plant hosts.
Project description:The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two complete acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signaling systems, LasR-LasI and RhlR-RhlI. LasI catalyzes the synthesis of N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), and LasR is a transcription factor that requires 3OC12-HSL as a ligand. RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4), and RhlR is a transcription factor that responds to C4. LasR and RhlR control the transcription of hundreds of P. aeruginosa genes, many of which are critical virulence determinants, and LasR is required for RhlR function. We developed an ultra-high-throughput cell-based assay to screen a library of approximately 200,000 compounds for inhibitors of LasR-dependent gene expression. Although the library contained a large variety of chemical structures, the two best inhibitors resembled the acyl-homoserine lactone molecule that normally binds to LasR. One compound, a tetrazole with a 12-carbon alkyl tail designated PD12, had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 30 nM. The second compound, V-06-018, had an IC50 of 10 microM and is a phenyl ring with a 12-carbon alkyl tail. A microarray analysis showed that both compounds were general inhibitors of quorum sensing, i.e., the expression levels of most LasR-dependent genes were affected. Both compounds also inhibited the production of two quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors, elastase and pyocyanin. These compounds should be useful for studies of LasR-dependent gene regulation and might serve as scaffolds for the identification of new quorum-sensing modulators.
Project description:Strain RB38 was recovered from a former dumping area in Malaysia. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified strain RB-38 as Pandoraea pnomenusa. Various biosensors confirmed its quorum sensing properties. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was subsequently used to characterize the N-acyl homoserine lactone production profile of P. pnomenusa strain RB38, which validated that this isolate produced N-octanoyl homoserine lactone as a quorum sensing molecule. This is the first report of the production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone by P. pnomenusa strain RB38.
Project description:Many Gram-negative bacteria can regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner via quorum-sensing systems using N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which are typical quorum-sensing signaling molecules, and thus modulate physiological characteristics. N-acyl-homoserine lactones are small chemical molecules produced at low concentrations by bacteria and are, therefore, difficult to detect. Here, a biosensor system method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were combined to detect and assay AHL production. As demonstrated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC No. 2955, a Gram-negative acetic acid-producing bacterium and a typical bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis strain, produces six different AHLs, including N-acetyl-homoserine lactone, N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone, and N-tetradecanoyl-homoserine lactone. Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SX-1, another Gram-negative acetic acid-producing bacterium, which can synthesize BC, produces seven different AHLs including N-acetyl-homoserine lactone, N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone, and N-tetradecanoyl-homoserine lactone. These results lay the foundation for investigating the relationship between BC biosynthesis and quorum-sensing systems.
Project description:We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium.
Project description:In Vibrio fischeri, the autoinducer N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AI-1) governs the cell density-dependent induction of the luminescence operon via the LuxR transcriptional activator. The synthesis of AI-1 from bacterial metabolic intermediates is dependent on luxI. Recently, we found a second V. fischeri autoinducer molecule, N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AI-2), that in E. coli also activates the luminescence operon via LuxR. A locus independent of luxI was identified as being required for AI-2 synthesis. This 2.7-kb ain (autoinducer) locus was characterized by transposon insertion mutagenesis, deletion and complementation analysis, and DNA sequencing. A single 1,185-bp gene, ainS, was found to be the sole exogenous gene necessary for the synthesis of AI-2 in Escherichia coli. In addition, a V. fischeri ainS mutant produced AI-1 but not AI-2, confirming that in its native species ainS is specific for the synthesis of AI-2. ainS is predicted to encode a 45,580-Da protein which exhibits no similarity to LuxI or to any of the LuxI homologs responsible for the synthesis of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones in a variety of other bacteria. The existence of two different and unrelated autoinducer synthesis genes suggests the occurrence of convergent evolution in the synthesis of homoserine lactone signaling molecules. The C-terminal half of AinS shows homology to a putative protein in Vibrio harveyi, LuxM, which is required for the synthesis of a V. harveyi bioluminescence autoinducer. Together, AinS and LuxM define a new family of autoinducer synthesis proteins. Furthermore, the predicted product of another gene, ainR, encoded immediately downstream of ainS, shows homology to LuxN, which is similarly encoded downstream of luxM in V. harveyi and proposed to have sensor/regulator functions in the bioluminescence response to the V. harveyi auto inducer. This similarity presents the possibility that AI-2, besides interacting with LuxR, also interacts with AinR under presently unknown conditions.
Project description:A large number of Gram-negative bacteria employ N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules in quorum sensing, which is a population density-dependent mechanism to coordinate gene expression. Antibody RS2-1G9 was elicited against a lactam mimetic of the N-acyl homoserine lactone and represents the only reported monoclonal antibody that recognizes the naturally-occuring N-acyl homoserine lactone with high affinity. Due to its high cross-reactivity, RS2-1G9 showed remarkable inhibition of quorum sensing signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen in humans. The crystal structure of Fab RS2-1G9 in complex with a lactam analog revealed complete encapsulation of the polar lactam moiety in the antibody-combining site. This mode of recognition provides an elegant immunological solution for tight binding to an aliphatic, lipid-like ligand with a small head group lacking typical haptenic features, such as aromaticity or charge, which are often incorporated into hapten design to generate high-affinity antibodies. The ability of RS2-1G9 to discriminate between closely related AHLs is conferred by six hydrogen bonds to the ligand. Conversely, cross-reactivity of RS2-1G9 towards the lactone is likely to originate from conservation of these hydrogen bonds as well as an additional hydrogen bond to the oxygen of the lactone ring. A short, narrow tunnel exiting at the protein surface harbors a portion of the acyl chain and would not allow entry of the head group. The crystal structure of the antibody without its cognate lactam or lactone ligands revealed a considerably altered antibody-combining site with a closed binding pocket. Curiously, a completely buried ethylene glycol molecule mimics the lactam ring and, thus, serves as a surrogate ligand. The detailed structural delineation of this quorum-quenching antibody will aid further development of an antibody-based therapy against bacterial pathogens by interference with quorum sensing.
Project description:Quorum sensing systems regulate gene expression in response to bacterial population density. Acyl-homoserine lactones are a class of quorum sensing molecules found in cattle rumen that are thought to regulate the gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and thus help this pathogen survive in animal gastrointestinal tracts. However, the specific bacteria that produce these signaling molecules in bovine and porcine gastrointestinal tracts are unknown. Here we developed methods to concentrate gastrointestinal fluids and screen the bacteria that produce acyl-homoserine lactones. We isolated a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain YZ1 from cattle rumen, and an Aeromonas hydrophila strain YZ2 from pig intestine. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants indicated at least three specific classes of acyl-homoserine lactones produced by YZ1, and a C4-acyl-homoserine lactone produced by YZ2. Transformation of E. coli with P. aeruginosa or A. hydrophila luxI homologs,which can produce short- or long-chain acyl-homoserine lactones conferred upon E. coli the ability to synthesize acyl-homoserine lactones and affected gene expression, motility, and acid tolerance of E. coli. This is the first study reporting the isolation and characterization of acyl-homoserine lactone synthase-positive bacteria from cattle rumen and swine intestines.
Project description:We worked with microarrys analysis in presence of 3-oxo-C12-HSL molecule to analyze the profile of the genes implicated in the Quorum Quenching network in A.baumannii clinical strains. Interestingly, only 13 genes were overexpressed under 3-oxo-C12-HSL molecule being the most level a gene which encodes an Alpha/beta hydrolase enzyme (5.01). The 46.15% of the genes overexpressed were implicated in the synthesis of the acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). Overall design: The arrays were designed (Bioarray Genetic Diagnosis, Alicante) using eArray (Agilent) from the complete genome of A. baumannii strain (Ab ST-2 clon_2010). Experiments were performed from three biological replicates of RNA treated with DNAse obtained from a culture in exponential average phase (optical density at 600 nm of 0.6) in the presence of 3-oxo-C12- HSL at a final concentration of 10 uM. As a negative control (RNA untreated) RNA was used with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, a solvent of said acyl homoserine lactone). The RNA samples were quantified in a NanoDrop ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies). Quality and integrity analysis of the samples was carried out in an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer with the RNA 6000 Nano reagents and the RNA Nano Chips (Agilent Technologies).