Characterization of the postjunctional alpha 2C-adrenoceptor mediating vasoconstriction to UK14304 in porcine pulmonary veins.
ABSTRACT: In terms of postjunctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the pulmonary circulation, no evidence is available with regard to the receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction. Therefore, we characterized the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contraction in isolated porcine pulmonary veins.alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was studied using a tissue bath protocol. mRNA profile and relative quantification of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes were determined in porcine pulmonary veins using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR.In porcine pulmonary veins, noradrenaline, phenylephrine (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist), UK14304 and clonidine (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists) caused concentration-dependent contractions. The rank order of agonist potency was: NA approximately UK14304 approximately clonidine > phenylephrine. UK14304 responses were antagonised by MK912 (noncompetitive antagonist parameter pD'(2): 10.1), rauwolscine (pK(B): 9.5), yohimbine (pK(B): 9.1), WB4101 (pK(B): 8.7), ARC239 (pK(B): 7.5), prazosin (pK(B): 7.1) and BRL44408 (pK(B): 7.0). Antagonist potencies fitted best with radioligand binding data (pK(i)) at the human recombinant alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (r(2)=0.96, P=0.0001). Correlation with alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors was lower (r(2)=0.74, P>0.01) and no correlation was obtained with alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors. Moreover, RT-PCR studies in porcine pulmonary veins showed mRNA signals for alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors, but not for alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, whilst real-time PCR studies indicated a prominent expression of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor mRNA.Postjunctional alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors mediated contraction in porcine pulmonary veins. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors also seem to be present in this tissue. Since alpha(2)-adrenoceptor responsiveness is increased when pulmonary vascular tone is elevated, alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor antagonists may be beneficial in diseases such as pulmonary hypertension or congestive heart failure.
Project description:1. This study was designed to assess the molecular and cellular events involved in the up-regulation (and receptor supersensitivity) of brain alpha(2)-adrenoceptors as a result of chronic depletion of noradrenaline (and other monoamines) by reserpine. 2. Chronic reserpine (0.25 mg kg(-1) s.c., every 48 h for 6 - 14 days) increased significantly the density (B(max) values) of cortical alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist sites (34 - 48% for [(3)H]-UK14304, 22 - 32% for [(3)H]-clonidine) but not that of antagonist sites (11 - 18% for [(3)H]-RX821002). Competition of [(3)H]-RX821002 binding by (-)-adrenaline further indicated that chronic reserpine was associated with up-regulation of the high-affinity state of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. 3. In cortical membranes of reserpine-treated rats (0.25 mg kg(-1) s.c., every 48 h for 20 days), the immunoreactivities of various G proteins (Galphai(1/2), Galphai(3), Galphao and Galphas) were increased (25 - 34%). Because the high-affinity conformation of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor is most probably related to the complex with Galphai(2) proteins, these results suggested an increase in signal transduction through alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (and other monoamine receptors) induced by chronic reserpine. 4. After alpha(2)-adrenoceptor alkylation, the analysis of receptor recovery (B(max) for [(3)H]-UK14304) indicated that the increased density of cortical alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in reserpine-treated rats was probably due to a higher appearance rate constant of the receptor ((Delta)r=57%) and not to a decreased disappearance rate constant ((Delta)k=7%). 5. Northern- and dot-blot analyses of RNA extracted from the cerebral cortex of saline- and reserpine-treated rats (0.25 mg kg(-1), s.c., every 48 h for 20 days) revealed that reserpine markedly increased the expression of alpha(2a)-adrenoceptor mRNA in the brain (125%). This transcriptional activation of the receptor gene expression appears to be the cellular mechanism by which reserpine induces up-regulation in the density of brain alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.
Project description:1. Antagonistic properties of OPC-28326 ([4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethylamino)-1-(3,5-dimethyl-4-propionyl-aminobenzoyl)] piperidine hydrochloride monohydrate), a selective peripheral vasodilator, were investigated by analysing the data from functional studies in various tissues from the rat and binding studies of the drug to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes. 2. Using a human recombinant receptor and rat kidney cortex, we found that OPC-28326 displays affinities to alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors with K(i) values of 2040, 285, and 55 nM, respectively. The K(i) values of yohimbine for alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors were 3.0, 2.0 and 11.0 nM, respectively. 3. B-HT 920, an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, produced a pressor response via peripheral postsynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation (thought to be an alpha(2B)-subtype) in a reserpine-pretreated pithed rat preparation. OPC-28326 (3 - 30 mg kg(-1), i.v.) and yohimbine (0.3 - 3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) caused dose-dependent rightward shift in the pressor dose-response curve induced by B-HT 920. The apparent pA(2) values were 1.55 (0.87 - 2.75, 95% confidence interval) and 0.11 (0.06 - 0.21) mg kg(-1), respectively. The potency of OPC-28326 was about 14 times less than that of yohimbine. 4. Clonidine inhibited the tension developed by electrical stimulation, of the rat vas deferens, by its peripheral presynaptic alpha(2A/D)-adrenoceptor action. OPC-28326 (1 - 100 microM) and yohimbine (10 - 1000 nM) caused a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve of clonidine. The pA(2) values were 5.73 (5.54 - 5.91) and 7.92 (7.84 - 8.01), respectively, providing evidence for a potency of OPC-28326 of about 155 times less than that of yohimbine. 5. Mydriasis was induced by brimonidine via stimulation of central alpha(2A/D)-adrenoceptors in anaesthetized rats. Intravenous OPC-28326 had no effect on this action, even at a very high dose of 10 mg kg(-1) i.v., while yohimbine (0.1 - 0.3 mg kg(-1) i.v.) inhibited mydriasis in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that OPC-28326 was at least 100 times less potent than yohimbine in regard to the anti-mydriatic effect. 6. These data suggest that OPC-28326 preferentially exerts peripheral and postsynaptic antagonistic actions on the alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor has multiple functions, including inhibiting release of noradrenaline from presynaptic nerve terminals. A human alpha(2C) polymorphism, Del322-325, a potential risk factor for heart failure, has been reported to exhibit reduced signalling in CHO cells. To further understand the role of the Del322-325 polymorphism on receptor signalling, we attempted to replicate and further study the reduced signalling in HEK293 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human alpha(2C) wild-type (WT) and Del322-325 adrenoceptors were stably transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding was performed to determine affinities for both receptors. In intact cells, inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by WT and Del322-325 clones with a range of receptor densities (200-2320 fmol.mg(-1) protein) was measured following agonist treatment. KEY RESULTS: Noradrenaline, brimonidine and clonidine exhibited similar binding affinities for WT and Del322-325. Brimonidine and clonidine also had similar efficacies and potencies for both receptors for the inhibition of cyclic AMP production at all receptor densities tested. A linear regression analysis comparing efficacy and potency with receptor expression levels showed no differences in slopes between WT and Del322-325. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The alpha(2C) WT and Del322-325 adrenoceptors exhibited similar binding properties. Additionally, inhibition of cyclic AMP production by Del322-325 was similar to that of WT over a range of receptor densities. Therefore, in intact HEK293 cells, the alpha(2C)-Del322-325 polymorphism does not exhibit reduced signalling to adenylyl cyclase and may not represent a clinically important phenotype.
Project description:1. The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 produces vasoconstriction in the porcine isolated ear artery. 2. UK14304 (0.3 microM) produced a small contraction of porcine isolated ear arteries which was 7.8+/-3.3% of the response to 60 mM KCl. Similar sized contractions were obtained after precontraction with either 30 nM angiotensin II, or 0.1 microM U46619 (8.2+/-1.8% and 10.2+/-2.6% of 60 mM KCl response, respectively). However, an enhanced alpha2-adrenoceptor response was uncovered if the tissue was precontracted with U46619, and relaxed back to baseline with 1-2 microM forskolin before the addition of UK14304 (46.9+/-9.6% of 60 mM KCl response). 3. The enhanced responses to UK14304 in the presence of U46619 and forskolin were not inhibited by the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.1 microM), but were inhibited by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (1 microM), indicating that the enhanced responses were mediated via postjunctional alpha2-adrenoceptors. 4. In the presence of 0.1 microM U46619 and 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), 1 microM forskolin produced an increase in [3H]-cyclic AMP levels in porcine isolated ear arteries. Addition of 0.3 microM UK14304 prevented this increase. 5. The enhanced UK14304 response was dependent upon the agent used to relax the tissue. After relaxation of ear arteries precontracted with 10 nM U46619 and relaxed with forskolin the UK14304 response was 46.9+/-9.6% of the 60 mM KCl response, and after relaxation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) the response was 24.8+3.3%. However, after relaxation of the tissue with levcromakalim the UK14304 response was only 8.2+/-1.7%, which was not different from the control response in the same tissues (12.2+/-5.6%). An enhanced contraction was also obtained after relaxation of the tissue with the cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (23.2+/-1.3%) indicating that at least part of the enhanced response to UK14304 is independent of the ability of the agonist to inhibit cyclic AMP production. 6. Relaxation of U46619 contracted ear arteries with SNP could be inhibited by the NO-sensitive guanylyl-cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) indicating that production of cyclic GMP is necessary for the relaxant effect of SNP. However, ODQ had no effect on the relaxation of tissue by forskolin, suggesting that this compound does not act via production of cyclic GMP. Biochemical studies showed that while forskolin increases the levels of cyclic AMP in the tissues, SNP had no effect on the levels of this cyclic nucleotide. 7. In conclusion, enhanced contractions to the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 can be uncovered in porcine isolated ear arteries by precontracting the tissue with U46619, followed by relaxation back to baseline with forskolin, SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP before addition of UK14304. There was a greater contractile response to UK14304 after relaxation with forskolin than with SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, suggesting that cyclic AMP-dependent and- independent mechanisms are involved in the enhancement of the UK14304 response.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer, the most common cancer in women in most countries, is a highly stressful disease. Catecholamines released during stress bind to adrenoceptors and we have recently described alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in human breast cell lines, linked to enhanced cell proliferation. The purpose was to assess the in vivo effects of compounds acting on alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in a reliable model of breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The expression of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-PCR in the mouse mammary tumour cell line MC4-L5. Proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and tumours were measured daily. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP digoxigenin nick-end labelling. KEY RESULTS: Incubation for 2 days with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (clonidine and dexmedetomidine) significantly enhanced proliferation of the mouse mammary tumour cell line MC4-L5. These agonists also significantly stimulated tumour growth of the progestin-dependent tumour C4-HD even in the presence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). In every tumour tested (C4-HD, CC4-2-HD and CC4-3-HI), regardless of MPA sensitivity, clonidine significantly enhanced tumour growth in the absence of MPA. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and rauwolscine, completely reversed the effects of clonidine. However, the group receiving yohimbine alone showed a nonsignificant but constant increase in tumour growth, whereas rauwolscine alone diminished tumour growth significantly, behaving as a reverse agonist. In CC4-3-HI tumours, rauwolscine treatment enhanced apoptosis and diminished the mitotic index, whereas clonidine had the inverse effect. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists enhanced tumour growth and rauwolscine behaved in vivo as a reverse agonist, suggesting that it may be tested for adjuvant treatment.
Project description:The reduction of skin blood flow induced by local cooling results from a reflex increase in sympathetic output and an enhanced vasoconstrictor activity of cutaneous vessels. The present study investigated the latter local response in vivo in tetrodotoxin-treated mice, in which the sympathetic nerve tone was abolished.Male ddY mice, anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, were treated with tetrodotoxin and artificially ventilated. The plantar skin blood flow (PSBF) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry.Cooling the air temperature around the left foot from 25 to 10 degrees C decreased the PSBF of the left foot. Bunazosin, an alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, RS79948, an alpha (2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, and MK-912, an alpha (2C)-adrenoceptor antagonist, all significantly inhibited the cooling-induced reduction of PSBF; the inhibition by bunazosin was relatively small compared with that by RS79948 and MK-912. The response was not affected by guanethidine or bretylium, but was diminished in adrenalectomized mice. An intra-arterial injection of clonidine, an alpha (2)-adrenoceptor agonist, to the left iliac artery of adrenalectomized mice caused a transient decrease in PSBF, which was significantly augmented at 10 degrees C. MK-912 suppressed only the augmented portion at 10 degrees C. Y-27632, H-1152 and fasudil, Rho kinase inhibitors, also inhibited the cooling-induced reduction of PSBF. RS79948 caused no further reduction of the cooling-induced response after the inhibition by Y-27632.Local cooling-induced reduction of skin blood flow in mice primarily results from increased reactivity of alpha (2C)-adrenoceptors to circulating catecholamines, in which the Rho/Rho kinase pathway is involved.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was carried out to elucidate which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated the inhibition of noradrenaline and adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla of mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Isolated adrenal medullae from wild-type and alpha(2A), alpha(2B) and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor knockout (KO) mice were placed in superfusion chambers. Catecholamine overflow was evoked by 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (500 microM) in absence or in presence of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine. The effect of medetomidine was tested in presence of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists rauwolscine, WB 4101, spiroxatrine, phentolamine and prazosin. KEY RESULTS: In wild-type mice, medetomidine reduced noradrenaline and adrenaline overflow in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50) in nM: 1.54 and 1.92; E(max) in % of inhibition: 91 and 94, for noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively). The pK (D) values of the antagonists for noradrenaline overflow did not correlate with pK(D) values at alpha(2A), alpha(2B), or alpha(2C) binding sites. The pK (D) values of the antagonists for adrenaline overflow correlated positively with pK(D) values at alpha(2C) binding sites (opossum kidney cells). The effect of medetomidine (100 nM) on noradrenaline overflow was significantly reduced in all three alpha(2)KO mice (57, 54, 44 % inhibition, for alpha(2A), alpha(2B), and alpha(2C), respectively), whereas the effect of medetomidine on adrenaline overflow was greatly reduced in alpha(2C)KO mice (14 % inhibition). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In the adrenal medulla of mice, all three alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha(2A), alpha(2B), and alpha(2C)) play an equal role in the inhibition of noradrenaline overflow, whereas the alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor is the predominant alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype involved in the inhibitory mechanism controlling adrenaline overflow.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic and primary sensory nerves, which modulate vascular tone through the release of noradrenaline and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), respectively. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats results in vasodepressor responses which are mainly mediated by CGRP release. The present study has investigated the role of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the inhibition of these vasodepressor responses. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 144 pithed male Wistar rats were pretreated with hexamethonium (2 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) followed by i.v. continuous infusions of either methoxamine (15 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or clonidine (3, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the spinal cord (T(9)-T(12)) resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in diastolic blood pressure. KEY RESULTS: The infusion of clonidine (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), as compared to those of methoxamine (15 or 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the vasodepressor responses to electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of alpha-CGRP (0.1-1 microg kg(-1)). This inhibition by clonidine was: (i) antagonized by 300 microg kg(-1) rauwolscine (alpha(2A/2B/2C)), 300 and 1000 microg kg(-1) BRL44408 (alpha(2A)), or 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) MK912 (alpha(2C)); and (ii) unaffected by 1 ml kg(-1) saline, 100 microg kg(-1) BRL44408, 3000 and 10,000 microg kg(-1) imiloxan (alpha(2B)) or 3 microg kg(-1) MK912. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The inhibition produced by 10 microg kg(-1) min(-1) clonidine on the vasodepressor (perivascular) sensory outflow in rats may be mainly mediated by prejunctional alpha(2A)/alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors.
Project description:1. Locus coeruleus neurons in adult rats express binding sites and mRNA for alpha(1)-adrenoceptors even though the depolarizing effect of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonists on neonatal neurons disappears during development. 2. In this study intracellular microelectrodes were used to record from locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices of adult rats and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR) was used to investigate the mRNA expression of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in juvenile and adult rats. 3. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine had no effect on the membrane conductance of locus coeruleus neurons (V(hold) -60 mV) but decreased the G protein coupled, inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) conductance induced by alpha(2)-adrenoceptor or mu-opioid agonists. The GIRK conductance induced by noradrenaline was increased in amplitude when alpha(1)-adrenoceptors were blocked with prazosin. 4. RT - PCR of total cellular RNA isolated from microdissected locus coeruleus tissue demonstrated strong mRNA expression of alpha(1a)-, alpha(1b)- and alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors in both juvenile and adult rats. However, only mRNA transcripts for the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors were consistently detected in cytoplasmic samples taken from single locus coeruleus neurons of juvenile rats, suggesting that this subtype may be responsible for the physiological effects seen in juvenile rats. 5. Juvenile and adult locus coeruleus tissue expressed mRNA for the alpha(2a)- and alpha(2c)-adrenoceptors while the alpha(2b)-adrenoceptor was only weakly expressed in juveniles and was not detected in adults. 6. The results of this study show that alpha(1)-adrenoceptors expressed in adult locus coeruleus neurons function to suppress the GIRK conductance that is activated by mu-opioid and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.
Project description:A fusion protein was generated between the porcine alpha2A-adrenoceptor and a pertussis-toxin-insensitive (Cys351-->Gly) variant of the alpha subunit of Gi1alpha by direct in-frame fusion of the N-terminus of the G-protein to the C-terminus of the receptor. The fusion protein could be transiently expressed to high levels in COS-7 cells. Addition of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro- 1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine (UK14304) to membranes of pertussis-toxin-treated transfected cells resulted in a concentration-dependent stimulation of high-affinity GTPase activity. Vmax estimations for the GTPase activity demonstrated an induced catalytic-centre activity of 2.0+/-0.2 min-1 for Gi1alpha when the alpha2A-adrenoceptor was maximally stimulated by UK14304 with a Km for GTP of 0.37+/-0.07 microM. Co-expression of excess beta1gamma2 along with the alpha2A-adrenoceptor-Gi1alpha fusion protein resulted in greater maximal UK14304-induced stimulation of high-affinity GTPase activity (2.1+/-0.2-fold) without alteration in agonist EC50. These studies demonstrate the functionality of the fusion construct, its capacity to interact with betagamma complex and its utility in measuring agonist regulation of the catalytic-centre activity of GTP by a receptor-associated G-protein.