The anti-amnesic and neuroprotective effects of donepezil against amyloid beta25-35 peptide-induced toxicity in mice involve an interaction with the sigma1 receptor.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, is also a high affinity sigma(1) receptor agonist. We examined the involvement of sigma(1) receptors in its anti-amnesic and neuroprotective properties against amyloid beta(25-35) peptide-induced toxicity in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice were given an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta(25-35) peptide (9 nmol) 7-9 days before being tested for spontaneous alternation and passive avoidance. Hippocampal lipid peroxidation was measured 7 days after Abeta(25-35) injection to evaluate oxidative stress. Donepezil, the sigma(1) agonist PRE-084 or the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors tacrine, rivastigmine and galantamine were administered either 20 min before behavioural sessions to check their anti-amnesic effects, or 20 min before Abeta(25-35) injection, or 24 h after Abeta(25-35) injection and then once daily before behavioural sessions, to check their pre- and post-i.c.v. neuroprotective activity, respectively. KEY RESULTS: All the drugs tested were anti-amnesic, but only the effects of PRE-084 and donepezil were prevented by the sigma(1) antagonist BD1047. Only PRE-084 and donepezil showed neuroprotection when administered pre i.c.v.; they blocked lipid peroxidation and learning deficits, effects inhibited by BD1047. Post i.c.v., PRE-084 and donepezil showed complete neuroprotection whereas the other ChE inhibitors showed partial effects. BD1047 blocked these effects of PRE-084, attenuated those of donepezil, but did not affect the partial effects of the other ChE inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The potent anti-amnesic and neuroprotective effects of donepezil against Abeta(25-35)-induced toxicity involve both its cholinergic and sigma(1) agonistic properties. This dual action may explain its sustained activity compared to other ChE inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tetrahydro-N, N-dimethyl-5, 5-diphenyl-3-furanmethanamine hydrochloride (ANAVEX1-41) is a potent muscarinic and sigma(1) (sigma (1)) receptor ligand. The sigma (1) receptor modulates glutamatergic and cholinergic responses in the forebrain and selective agonists are potent anti-amnesic and antidepressant DRUGS. WE HAVE HERE ANALYSED THE SIGMA (1) COMPONENT IN THE BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS OF ANAVEX1-41. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Binding of ANAVEX1-41 to muscarinic and sigma (1) receptors were measured using cell membranes. Behavioural effects of ANAVEX1-41 were tested in mice using memory (spontaneous alternation, passive avoidance, water-maze) and antidepressant-like activity (forced swimming) procedures. KEY RESULTS: In vitro, ANAVEX1-41 was a potent muscarinic (M(1)>M(3), M(4)>M(2) with K(i) ranging from 18 to 114 nM) and selective sigma (1) ligand (sigma (1), K(i)=44 nM; sigma (2), K(i)=4 microM). In mice, ANAVEX1-41 failed to affect learning when injected alone (0.03-1 mg kg(-1)), but attenuated scopolamine-induced amnesia with a bell-shaped dose response (maximum at 0.1 mg kg(-1)). The sigma (1) antagonist BD1047 blocked the anti-amnesic effect of ANAVEX1-41 on both short- and long-term memories. Pretreatment with a sigma (1) receptor-directed antisense oligodeoxynucleotide prevented effects of ANAVEX1-41 only in the passive avoidance procedure, measuring long-term memory. ANAVEX1-41 reduced behavioural despair at 30 and 60 mg kg(-1), without involving the sigma (1) receptor, as it was not blocked by BD1047 or the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ANAVEX1-41 is a potent anti-amnesic drug, acting through muscarinic and sigma (1) receptors. The latter component may be involved in the enhancing effects of the drug on long-term memory processes.
Project description:Pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is mediated through the infiltration of perivascular macrophages into the brain with the secretion of viral, neurotoxic and inflammatory proteins. One of these proteins is cathepsin B (CATB), a lysosomal cysteine protease that induces neuronal apoptosis, and increases in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from HIV-1 infected patients (Cantres-Rosario et al. AIDS 27(3):347-356, 2013). Cocaine further potentiates CATB neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (Zenón et al. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol 9(5):703-715, 2014). Modulation of sigma-1 (Sig1R) by cocaine increases oxidative species, cytokines and other factors that promote lysosomal disruption. However, the role of Sig1R in CATB secretion and HIV-1 replication in macrophages exposed to cocaine is unknown. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of Sig1R would alter CATB secretion from HIV-1 infected macrophages in vitro and in vivo. To test our hypothesis, monocyte derived-macrophages (MDM) from HIV-1 seronegative donors were isolated, infected with HIV-1ADA, and pretreated with Sig1R antagonist (BD1047) or Sig1R agonist (PRE-084) prior to cocaine exposure and followed for 3,6,9 and 11 days post-infection (dpi). Experiments in vivo were conducted using the HIV encephalitis mouse model (HIVE) with BD1047 treatments prior to cocaine for 14 days. Results demonstrate that in presence of cocaine, BD1047 decreases CATB secretion at 11 dpi, while PRE-084 did not have an effect. In the mouse model, BD1047 treatment prior to cocaine decreased CATB expression, cleaved caspase-3 an p24 antigen levels, reduced astrocytosis, but did not increase MAP-2 or synaptophysin. Results demonstrate that Sig1R plays a role in the modulation of CATB levels in HIV-1 infected MDM exposed to cocaine in vitro and in vivo. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive weakness, muscle atrophy, and paralysis due to the loss of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). Sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R) activation promotes neuroprotection after ischemic and traumatic injuries to the central nervous system. We recently reported that sigma-1R agonist (PRE-084) improves the survival of MNs after root avulsion injury in rats. Moreover, a mutation of the sigma-1R leading to frontotemporal lobar degeneration/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was recently described in human patients. In the present study, we analyzed the potential therapeutic effect of the sigma-1R agonist (PRE-084) in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS. Mice were daily administered with PRE-084 (0.25 mg/kg) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Functional outcome was assessed by electrophysiological tests and computerized analysis of locomotion. Histological, immunohistochemical analyses and Western blot of the spinal cord were performed. PRE-084 administration from 8 weeks of age improved the function of MNs, which was manifested by maintenance of the amplitude of muscle action potentials and locomotor behavior, and preserved neuromuscular connections and MNs in the spinal cord. Moreover, it extended survival in both female and male mice by more than 15 %. Delayed administration of PRE-084 from 12 weeks of age also significantly improved functional outcome and preservation of the MNs. There was an induction of protein kinase C-specific phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in SOD1(G93A) animals, and a reduction of the microglial reactivity compared with untreated mice. PRE-084 exerts a dual therapeutic contribution, modulating NMDA Ca(2+) influx to protect MNs, and the microglial reactivity to ameliorate the MN environment. In conclusion, sigma-1R agonists, such as PRE-084, may be promising candidates for a therapeutical strategy of ALS.
Project description:Sigma-1 receptor antagonists promote antinociception in several models of pain, but the effects of sigma-1 agonists on nociception (particularly when the nociceptive system is primed) are not so well characterized; therefore we evaluated the effects of sigma-1 agonists on pain under different experimental conditions. The systemic administration of the selective sigma-1 agonists (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084, as well as the nonselective sigma-1 agonist carbetapentane (used clinically as an antitussive drug), did not alter sensitivity to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions. However, they greatly promoted secondary mechanical allodynia after priming the nociceptive system with capsaicin. These effects of sigma-1 agonists were consistent in terms potency with the affinities of these drugs for sigma-1 receptors, were reversed by sigma-1 antagonists, and were not observed in sigma-1 knockout mice, indicating that they are sigma-1-mediated. Repeated systemic treatment with PRE-084 induced proallodynic effects even 24?h after treatment completion, but only after the nociceptive system was primed. However, neither the presence of this drug in the organism nor changes in sigma-1 receptor expression in areas involved in pain processing explains its long-term effects, suggesting that sustained sigma-1 agonism induces plastic changes in the nociceptive system that promote nociception.
Project description:Although immunization against amyloid-beta (Abeta) holds promise as a disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD), it is associated with an undesirable accumulation of amyloid in the cerebrovasculature [i.e., cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)] and a heightened risk of micro-hemorrhages. The central and peripheral mechanisms postulated to modulate amyloid with anti-Abeta immunotherapy remain largely elusive. Here, we compared the effects of prolonged intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) versus systemic delivery of anti-Abeta antibodies on the behavioral and pathological changes in an aged Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Prolonged i.c.v. infusions of anti-Abeta antibodies dose-dependently reduced the parenchymal plaque burden, astrogliosis, and dystrophic neurites at doses 10- to 50-fold lower than used with systemic delivery of the same antibody. Both i.c.v. and systemic anti-Abeta antibodies reversed the behavioral impairment in contextual fear conditioning. More importantly, unlike systemically delivered anti-Abeta antibodies that aggravated vascular pathology, i.c.v.-infused antibodies globally reduced CAA and associated micro-hemorrhages. We present data suggesting that the divergent effects of i.c.v.-delivered anti-Abeta antibodies result from gradually engaging the local (i.e., central) mechanisms for amyloid clearance, distinct from the mechanisms engaged by high doses of anti-Abeta antibodies that circulate in the vasculature following systemic delivery. With robust efficacy in reversing AD-related pathology and an unexpected benefit in reducing CAA and associated micro-hemorrhages, i.c.v.-targeted passive immunotherapy offers a promising therapeutic approach for the long-term management of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, causing progressive paralysis and death. Nowadays, there is no effective therapy and most patients die 2-5 years after diagnosis. Sigma-1R is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in the CNS and specially enriched in MNs. Mutations on the Sigma-1R leading to frontotemporal lobar degeneration-ALS were recently described in human patients. We previously reported the therapeutic role of the selective sigma-1R agonist 2-(4-morpholi-nethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (PRE-084) in SOD1G93A ALS mice, that promoted spinal MN preservation and extended animal survival by controlling NMDA receptor calcium influx. Resveratrol (RSV, trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol with promising neuroprotective effects. We recently found that RSV administration to SOD1G93A mice preserves spinal MN function and increases mice survival. These beneficial effects were associated to activation of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, leading to the modulation of autophagy and an increase of mitochondrial biogenesis. The main goal of this work was to assess the effect of combined RSV and PRE-084 administration in SOD1G93A ALS mice. METHODS: We determined the locomotor performance of the animals by rotarod test and evaluated spinal motoneuron function using electrophysiological tests. RESULTS: RSV plus PRE-084 treatment from 8 weeks of age significantly improved locomotor performance and spinal MN function, accompanied by a significant reduction of MN degeneration and an extension of mice lifespan. In agreement with our previous findings, there was an induction of PKC-specific phosphorylation of the NMDA-NR1 subunit and an increased expression and activation of Sirt1 and AMPK in the ventral spinal cord of treated SOD1G93A animals. CONCLUSIONS: Although combined PRE and RSV treatment significantly ameliorated SOD1G93A mice, it did not show a synergistic effect compared to RSV-only and PRE-084-only treated groups.
Project description:Sigma(1) receptors (?(1)Rs) are intracellularly mobile chaperone proteins implicated in several disease processes, as well as psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Here we report that although selective ?(1)R agonists (PRE-084, (+)-pentazocine) lacked reinforcing effects in drug-naive rats, over the course of 28 experimental sessions, which was more than sufficient for acquisition of cocaine self-administration, responding was not maintained by either ?(1)R agonist. In contrast, after subjects self-administered cocaine ?(1)R agonists were readily self-administered. The induced reinforcing effects were long lasting; a response for which subjects had no history of reinforcement was newly conditioned with both ?(1)R agonists, extinguished when injections were discontinued, and reconditioned when ?(1)R agonists again followed responses. Experience with food reinforcement was ineffective as an inducer of ?(1)R agonist reinforcement. Although a variety of dopamine receptor antagonists blocked cocaine self-administration, consistent with its dopaminergic mechanism, PRE-084 self-administration was entirely insensitive to these drugs. Conversely, the ?R antagonist, BD1063, blocked PRE-084 self-administration but was inactive against cocaine. In microdialysis studies i.v. PRE-084 did not significantly stimulate dopamine at doses that were self-administered in rats either with or without a cocaine self-administration experience. The results indicate that cocaine experience induces reinforcing effects of previously inactive ?(1)R agonists, and that the mechanism underlying these reinforcing effects is dopamine independent. It is further suggested that induced ?(1)R mechanisms may have an essential role in treatment-resistant stimulant abuse, suggesting new approaches for the development of effective medications for stimulant abuse.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) impacts on calcium ion signalling and has a plethora of ligands. This study investigated Sig1R and its ligands in relation to endogenous calcium events of endothelial cells and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Intracellular calcium and patch clamp measurements were made from human saphenous vein endothelial cells and HEK 293 cells expressing exogenous human TRPC5, TRPM2 or TRPM3. Sig1R ligands were applied and short interfering RNA was used to deplete Sig1R. TRP channels tagged with fluorescent proteins were used for subcellular localization studies. KEY RESULTS:In endothelial cells, 10-100 ?M of the Sig1R antagonist BD1063 inhibited sustained but not transient calcium responses evoked by histamine. The Sig1R agonist 4-IBP and related antagonist BD1047 were also inhibitory. The Sig1R agonist SKF10047 had no effect. Sustained calcium entry evoked by VEGF or hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited by BD1063, BD1047 or 4-IBP, but not SKF10047. 4-IBP, BD1047 and BD1063 inhibited TRPC5 or TRPM3, but not TRPM2. Inhibitory effects of BD1047 were rapid in onset and readily reversed on washout. SKF10047 inhibited TRPC5 but not TRPM3 or TRPM2. Depletion of Sig1R did not prevent the inhibitory actions of BD1063 or BD1047 and Sig1R did not co-localize with TRPC5 or TRPM3. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The data suggest that two types of Sig1R ligand (BD1047/BD1063 and 4-IBP) are inhibitors of receptor- or chemically activated calcium entry channels, acting relatively directly and independently of the Sig1R. Chemical foundations for TRP channel inhibitors are suggested.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Subtypes of sigma (?) receptors, ?? and ??, can be pharmacologically distinguished, and each may be involved in substance-abuse disorders. ?-Receptor antagonists block cocaine place conditioning and ?-receptor agonists are self-administered in rats that previously self-administered cocaine. Self-administration of abused drugs has been related to increased dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, however, ?-receptor agonist effects on mesolimbic DA are not fully characterized. METHODS:Receptor-binding studies assessed affinities of ?-receptor ligands for ?-receptor subtypes and the DA transporter; effects on DA transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens shell were assessed using in vivo microdialysis. RESULTS:Cocaine (.1-1.0 mg/kg intravenous [IV]), the nonselective ?(½)-receptor agonist DTG (1.0-5.6 mg/kg IV), and the selective ??-receptor agonist PRE-084 (.32-10 mg/kg IV) dose-dependently increased DA to ?275%, ?150%, and ?160% maxima, respectively. DTG-induced stimulation of DA was antagonized by the nonselective ?(½)-receptor antagonist BD 1008 (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal [IP]) and the preferential ??-receptor antagonist SN 79 (1-3 mg/kg IP), but not by the preferential ??-receptor antagonist, BD 1063 (10-30 mg/kg IP). Neither PRE-084 nor cocaine was antagonized by BD 1063 or BD 1008. CONCLUSIONS:?-Receptor agonists stimulated DA in a brain area critical for reinforcing effects of cocaine. DTG effects on DA appear to be mediated by ??-receptors rather than ??-receptors. However, DA stimulation by cocaine or PRE-084 does not likely involve ?-receptors. The relatively low potency on DA transmission of the selective ??-receptor agonist, PRE-084, and its previously reported potent reinforcing effects, suggest a dopamine-independent reinforcing pathway that may contribute to substance-abuse disorders.
Project description:Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) oligomers are likely to underlie the earliest amnesic changes in Alzheimer's disease through impairment of synaptic function. A recent work from the laboratories of Tae-Wan Kim and Gilbert Di Paolo and colleagues implicates the phosphoinositide signaling pathway in synaptic changes due to elevation of Abeta oligomers. Given that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is central to many essential processes in neurons including neuronal and synaptic function, reduction in the levels of PIP2 in response to oligomeric Abeta could explain many of the phenotypes that have been observed with oligomeric Abeta. The data open up a new target for protecting neurons from Abeta-induced synaptic impairment.