Adenoviral p53 gene transfer and gemcitabine in three patients with liver metastases due to advanced pancreatic carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current therapies for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas do not improve the life expectancy of patients. METHODS: In a non-randomized pilot trail we tested whether a local therapy based upon an adenoviral gene transfer of wild type p53 in combination with gemcitabine administration would be safe in patients with liver metastases due to pancreatic carcinoma. We report on the clinical course of three patients with respect to safety, tolerability and tumor response. RESULTS: Transient grade III toxicities occurred with fever, leucopenia, elevation of AP, ALT, AST, GGT, while grade IV toxicity occurred for bilirubin only. Laboratory tests suggested disseminated intravascular coagulation in all three patients, but fine needle biopsies of liver did not show any histological evidence of thrombus or clot formation. Progression of liver metastases was documented in one and stable disease in another patient two months after treatment. However, a major improvement with regression of the indexed lesion by 80% occurred in a third patient after a single administration of 7.5 x 10(12) viral particles, and time to progression was extended to six months. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of viral gene transfer and chemotherapy temporarily controls and diminishes tumor burden. Improvement of the toxicity profile is necessary. Further trials are warranted to improve treatment and life expectancy of patients suffering from fatal diseases such as pancreatic carcinoma.
Project description:PURPOSE: The liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic solid tumors. If the liver is the only site of metastatic disease, regional treatment options can offer the benefit of high local exposure with limited systemic toxicity, especially for patients without (further) systemic treatment options. We report the results of our experience with isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) in patients with isolated liver metastases from a variety of primary tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with isolated unresectable liver metastases from a variety of tumors (13 uveal melanomas, 2 neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 1 hepatocellular carcinoma, and 1 high-grade sarcoma) were treated with a 60-min IHP using 200 mg melphalan. Patients were monitored for toxicity, response according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria, and survival. RESULTS: One melanoma patient was not perfused due to insufficient isolation of the liver. There was no treatment-related mortality. Reversible grade 3 or 4 hepatoxicity occurred in 10 (56%) patients, while veno-occlusive disease occurred in 4 (22%) patients. Of the 12 uveal melanoma patients who were perfused, 4 (33%) patients had a partial hepatic response, 6 (50%) patients had stable hepatic disease, and 2 (17%) patients were immediately progressive. Median disease-free survival was 6.6 months with a median overall survival of 10.0 months. Fifty percent of other primary tumors showed at least partial remission, including one complete remission in a high-grade sarcoma patient. CONCLUSION: IHP with melphalan shows activity in patients with liver metastases from a variety of primary tumors, but other or additional drugs may improve therapeutic outcome.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of unresectable liver metastases. METHODS:Twenty-five patients with unresectable liver metastases treated with IMRT were enrolled from January 2003 to September 2016. The median longest diameter of the lesions was 3.3 cm (range, 1.6-16.7 cm). The fraction dose ranged from 2 to 5.2 Gy, with a median total dose of 50 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy). RESULTS:The median follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.1-48.8 months). The overall survival rates at 1 and 2 years were 46.4% and 27.4%, respectively. The 1-year local control rate was 69.8%. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 26.3%. One patient had grade 4 liver dysfunction. One case of grade 4 leukopenia and one case of grade 3 leukopenia occurred, and one case of grade 3 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was observed. CONCLUSION:IMRT may be a promising and safe treatment for unresectable liver metastases and can be used as a treatment option.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To review the experience and to evaluate the treatment plan of using helical tomotherapy (HT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. METHODS: Between November 1st, 2006 and May 31, 2009, 10 cervical cancer patients histologically confirmed were enrolled. All of the patients received definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with whole pelvic HT (WPHT) followed by brachytherapy. During WPHT, all patients were treated with cisplatin, 40 mg/m2 intravenously weekly. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). RESULTS: The mean survival was 25 months (range, 3 to 27 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control and distant metastasis-free rates at 2 years were 67%, 77%, 90% and 88%, respectively. The average of uniformity index and conformal index was 1.06 and 1.19, respectively. One grade 3 of acute toxicity for diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and three grade 3 leucopenia were noted during CCRT. Only one grade 3 of subacute toxicity for thrombocytopenia was noted. There were no grade 3 or 4 subacute toxicities of anemia, leucopenia, genitourinary or gastrointestinal effects. Compared with conventional whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT), WPHT decreases the mean dose to rectum, bladder and intestines successfully. CONCLUSION: HT provides feasible clinical outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Long-term follow-up and enroll more locally advanced cervical carcinoma patients by limiting bone marrow radiation dose with WPHT technique is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND: New therapeutic options for metastatic pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. In pancreatic cancer, overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been reported in up to 45%. This multicentre phase II study investigated the efficacy and toxicity of the HER2 antibody trastuzumab combined with capecitabine in the patients with pancreatic cancer and HER2 overexpression. METHODS: Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) after 12 weeks. A total of 212 patients were screened for HER2 expression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) HER2 expression was: 83 (40%) grade 0, 71 (34%) grade 1, 31 (15%) grade 2, 22 (11%) grade 3. A total of 17 patients with IHC +3 HER2 expression or gene amplification could be assessed for the treatment response. Grade 3/4 treatment toxicities were: each 7% leucopenia, diarrhoea, nausea and hand-foot syndrome. Progression-free survival after 12 weeks was 23.5%, median overall survival (OS) 6.9 months. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates +3 HER2 expression or gene amplification in 11% of patients. Contrary to breast and gastric cancer, only 7 out of 11 (64%) patients with IHC +3 HER2 expression showed gene amplification. Although the therapy was well tolerated, PFS and OS did not perform favourably compared with standard chemotherapy. Together, we do not recommend further evaluation of anti-HER2 treatment in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Purpose:Patients with close or positive margins after surgery for pancreatic carcinoma are at a high risk for recurrence. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows for safe dose escalation with great conformity and short duration of treatment. Herein, we report the initial results of a prospective observational study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment option. Methods and Materials:Patients eligible for the study had pathologically proven T1-4N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma with a positive margin (?1 mm) or a close margin defined as <2.5 mm. Patients were treated with either neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, if eligible for systemic therapy. All patients received 36 Gy in 3 fractions to the close or positive margin site. Results:From February 2013 to January 2018, 50 patients were enrolled with 49 patients treated on protocol and included in the analysis. The median age was 71 years. The median clinical target volume was 11.3 cc and median planning target volume 22.0 cc. The median overall survival was 23.7 months (95% confidence interval, 13.6-33.8). Local progression-free survival at 1 and 2 years was 85% and 77%, respectively. Regional progression-free survival at 1 and 2 years was 73% and 73%, respectively. Distant metastases-free survival was 57% and 49% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Grade 3+ radiation toxicity was only 4.1% and occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions:Adjuvant pancreatic SBRT was shown to be a safe and feasible treatment option for patients with high-risk pancreatic adenocarcinoma and close or positive margins. This is the first prospective study of SBRT in high-risk postoperative pancreatic cancer. Our results yielded significant local and regional control with low rates of acute toxicity. This technique does not interrupt the administration of systemically dosed multiagent chemotherapy and can be safely interdigitated between cycles because SBRT is only 1 week of treatment.
Project description:Introduction:Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for patients with liver metastases. This study evaluated the impact of high versus low dose image-guided SBRT of hepatic metastases. Methods and materials:This is a single-center retrospective study of patients with liver metastases treated with SBRT. For analyses, patients were divided into two groups: ?100 Gy and >100 Gy near-minimum Biological Effective Doses (BED98%). The main outcomes were local control (LC), toxicity and overall survival (OS). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine prognostic variables on LC and OS. Results:Ninety patients with 97 liver metastases (77% colorectal) were included. Median follow-up was 28.6 months. The two-year LC rates in the ?100 Gy and >100 Gy BED98% group were 60% (CI: 41-80%) and 90% (CI: 80-100%), respectively (p = 0.004). Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 7% vs 2% in the ?100 Gy and >100 Gy group (p = 0.23). Two-year OS rates in the ?100 Gy and >100 Gy group were 48% (CI: 32-65%) and 85% (CI: 73-97%), respectively (p = 0.007). In multivariable Cox regression analyses, group dose and tumor volume were significantly correlated with LC (HR: 3.61; p = 0.017 and HR: 1.01; p = 0.005) and OS (HR: 2.38; p = 0.005 and HR: 1.01; p = <0.0001). Conclusion:High dose SBRT provides significantly better local control and overall survival than low dose SBRT without increasing toxicity. When surgical resection is not feasible, high dose SBRT provides an effective and safe treatment for liver metastases.
Project description:Gemcitabine is a potent radiosensitizer. When combined with standard radiotherapy (XRT) the gemcitabine dose must be reduced to about 10% of its conventional dose. Oxaliplatin and erlotinib also have radiosensitizing properties. Oxaliplatin and gemcitabine have demonstrated synergy in vitro. We aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine with concurrent XRT, then oxaliplatin, gemcitaibine, and erlotinib with XRT in the treatment of locally advanced and low-volume metastatic pancreatic or biliary cancer.A modified 3+3 dose-escalation design was used for testing 4 dose levels of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine given once weekly for a maximum of 6 weeks with daily XRT in fractions of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or grade 3 toxicity resulting in a treatment delay of >1 week. In addition, dose reduction in 2 of the 3 patients in a given cohort was counted as a DLT in dose escalation-deescalation rule in the modified 3+3 design.Eighteen patients were enrolled, all with pancreatic cancer. Grade 4 transaminitis in a patient in cohort 3 resulted in cohort expansion. Cohort 4, the highest planned dose cohort, had no DLTs. The recommended phase II dose is oxaliplatin 50 mg/m(2)/wk with gemcitabine 200 mg/m(2)/wk and 50.4 Gy XRT. The most prevalent grade 3 toxicities were nausea (22%), elevated transaminases (17%), leucopenia (17%), and hyperglycemia (17%). Median progression-free survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 4.6-11.1 mo) and median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% confidence interval, 7.1-16.7 mo). The addition of erlotinib was poorly tolerated at the first planned dose level, but full study of the combination was hindered by early closure of the study.Weekly oxaliplatin 50 mg/m/wk combined with gemcitabine 200 mg/m/wk and XRT for pancreatic cancer has acceptable toxicity and interesting activity.
Project description:Several risk factors predict clinical outcome in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs); however, the impact of their combination has not been investigated so far.A retrospective analysis of stage IV GEP-NENs was performed. Multivariate analysis for progression of disease (PD) was performed by Cox proportional hazards method to obtain a risk score. Area under the curve obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the score performance. Progression-free survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.Two hundred eighty-three stage IV GEP-NENs were evaluated, including 93 grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (32.9%), 153 grade 2 neuroendocrine tumors (54%), and 37 grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (13.1%). Independent risk factors for PD were Ki67, proportion of metastatic liver involvement, and presence of extra-abdominal metastases. The risk score was calculated as follows: (0.025 × Ki67)?+?[(0 if no liver metastases or liver involvement <25%) OR (0.405 if liver involvement 25%-50%) OR (0.462 if liver involvement >50%)]?+?[(0 if no extra-abdominal metastases) OR (0.528 if extra-abdominal metastases present)]. The risk score accuracy to predict PD was superior compared with the G grading system (area under the curve: 0.705 and 0.622, respectively). Three subgroups of patients with low, intermediate, and high risk of PD according to risk score were identified, median progression-free survival being 26 months, 19 months, and 12 months, respectively.In stage IV GEP-NENs, a risk score able to predict PD was obtained by combining Ki67, proportion of metastatic liver involvement, and presence of extra-abdominal metastases. The score may help to discriminate patients with different progression risk level to plan tailored therapeutic approaches and follow-up programs. The Oncologist 2017;22:409-415Implications for Practice: Clinical outcome of patients with advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is affected by several risk factors, including the proliferative index Ki67, extension of liver metastases, and the presence of distant extra-abdominal lesions. A risk score that combines these variables may help physicians dealing with these diseases to plan the optimal therapeutic approach and follow-up program.
Project description:Although the adrenal glands are not common sites of metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this metastasis can be met in patients with advanced HCC in some clinical settings. However, the effectiveness of radiotherapy against such metastases is unclear. Therefore, we performed the present multi-institutional study to investigate tumor response, overall survival (OS), treatment-related toxicity, and prognostic factors after radiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 134 patients who completed a planned radiotherapy for their adrenal metastases. Complete response was noted in 6 (4.3%), partial response in 48 (34.0%), and stable disease in 78 patients (55.3%). The median OS was 12.8 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 53.1%, 23.9%, and 9.3%, respectively. Grade 3 anorexia occurred in 2 patients, grade 3 diarrhea in 1, and grade 3 fatigue in 1. Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors had significant effects on OS: controlled intrahepatic tumor; controlled extrahepatic metastasis; and Child-Pugh class A. Although patients with adrenal metastasis from HCC had poor OS, radiotherapy provided an objective response rate of 38.3% and disease stability of 93.6%, with minimal adverse events. Therefore, radiotherapy for these patients could represent a good treatment modality, especially for patients with controlled intrahepatic tumors, controlled extrahepatic metastasis, and good hepatic function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lutetium-177-DOTA-octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) significantly increases survival and response rates in patients with grade I and grade II neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). However, survival and response rates are significantly lower in patients with bulky liver metastases. Increasing the tumor-absorbed dose in liver metastases may improve response to 177Lu-DOTATATE. The LUTIA (Lutetium Intra-Arterial) study aims to increase the tumor-absorbed dose in liver metastases by intra-arterial (IA) administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE, compared to conventional intravenous (IV) administration. METHODS:A multicenter, within-patient randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 26 patients with progressive, liver-dominant, unresectable grade I or grade II NET will be conducted. Patients with bilobar bulky disease will be randomly allocated to receive IA treatment into either the left or the right hepatic artery. Using this approach, one liver lobe will be treated intra-arterially (first-pass effect), while the contralateral lobe will receive an intravenous treatment as a second-pass effect. The primary endpoint of this study is the difference in tumor-to-non-tumor ratio of 177Lu-DOTATATE uptake between the two liver lobes on post-treatment SPECT/CT (IA versus IV). Secondary endpoints include absorbed dose in both liver lobes, tumor response, dose-response relationship, toxicity, uptake in extrahepatic lesions, and renal uptake. DISCUSSION:This multicenter, within-patient RCT will investigate whether IA administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE results in a higher activity concentration in liver metastases compared to IV administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03590119. Registered on 17 July 2018.