Adipocyte LDL receptor-related protein-1 expression modulates postprandial lipid transport and glucose homeostasis in mice.
ABSTRACT: Diet-induced obesity and its serious consequences such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are rapidly becoming a major global health threat. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dietary fat causes obesity and diabetes is of paramount importance in order to identify preventive and therapeutic strategies. Increased dietary fat intake results in high plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL). Tissue uptake of TGRL has been shown to promote glucose intolerance. We generated mice with an adipocyte-specific inactivation of the multifunctional receptor LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to determine its role in mediating the effects of TGRL on diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Knockout mice displayed delayed postprandial lipid clearance, reduced body weight, smaller fat stores, lipid-depleted brown adipocytes, improved glucose tolerance, and elevated energy expenditure due to enhanced muscle thermogenesis. We further demonstrated that inactivation of adipocyte LRP1 resulted in resistance to dietary fat-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. These findings identify LRP1 as a critical regulator of adipocyte energy homeostasis, where functional disruption leads to reduced lipid transport, increased insulin sensitivity, and muscular energy expenditure.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Typically, obesity results from an inappropriate balance between energy uptake from nutrient consumption and burning of calories, which leads to a pathological increase in fat mass. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and diabetes. Inhibitory G proteins (G?i) form a subfamily that is involved in the regulation of adipose tissue function. Among the three G?i members, i.e. G?i1, G?i2, G?i3, the G?i2, protein is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue. However, the functions of the G?i2 isoform in adipose tissue and its impact on the development of obesity are poorly understood. METHODS:By using AdipoqCreERT2 mice, we generated adipocyte-specific Gnai2-deficient mice to study G?i2 function, specifically in white and brown adipocytes. These mice were fed either a control diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD). Mice were examined for obesity development, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. We examined adipocyte morphology and the development of inflammation in the white adipose tissue. Finally, intracellular cAMP levels as an indicator of G?i signaling and glycerol release as an indicator of lipolysis rates were measured to verify the impact of G?i2 on the signaling pathway in brown and white adipocytes. RESULTS:An adipocyte-specific deficiency of G?i2 significantly reduced diet-induced obesity, leading to decreased fat masses, smaller adipocytes and decreased inflammation in the white adipose tissue relative to littermate controls. Concurrently, oxygen consumption of brown adipocytes and in vivo measured energy expenditure were significantly enhanced. In addition, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of HFD-fed adipocyte-specific Gnai2-deficient mice were improved compared to the respective controls. In the absence of G?i2, adrenergic stimulation of intracellular adipocyte cAMP levels was increased, which correlated with increased lipolysis and energy expenditure. CONCLUSION:We conclude that adipocyte G?i2 is a major regulator of adipocyte lipid content in diet-induced obesity by inhibiting adipocyte lipolysis in a cAMP-dependent manner resulting in increased energy expenditure.
Project description:Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K) 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko) with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.
Project description:Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy. After weaning, the offspring were given the HF diet for 12 weeks to promote obesity. The mothers, regardless of which group, did not display maternal body weight change and glucose intolerance either before pregnancy or after weaning. Compared to the HF group, the H1N and H5N, but not the H9N, offspring developed glucose intolerance earlier, with more severely imbalanced glucose homeostasis. These offspring also displayed hepatocyte degeneration and significant adipocyte hypertrophy associated with higher expression of lipogenesis genes. The molecular mechanistic study showed blunted insulin signaling, overactivated adipocyte Akt signaling and hepatic AMPK signaling with enhanced lipogenesis genes in the H1N and H5N versus the NF offspring. However, maternal H9N diets normalized glucose and lipid metabolism of the offspring via resensitized insulin signaling and normalized Akt and AMPK signaling. In summary, we showed that a long-term maternal diet intervention effectively released the intergenerational obesogenic effect of maternal HF diet independent of maternal weight management.
Project description:Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis.White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2fl/fl × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2fl/fl × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots. Additionally, we used multiple housing temperatures to investigate the role of active brown/beige adipocytes in this process.Hig2 localized to LDs in SGBS cells, a human adipocyte cell strain. Mice with adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency in all adipose depots demonstrated reduced visceral adipose tissue weight and increased glucose tolerance. This metabolic effect could be attributed to brown/beige adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency since Hig2fl/fl × Ucp1 cre+ mice displayed the same phenotype. Furthermore, when adipocyte-deficient Hig2 mice were moved to thermoneutral conditions in which non-shivering thermogenesis is deactivated, these improvements were abrogated and glucose intolerance ensued. Adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficient animals displayed no detectable changes in adipocyte lipolysis or energy expenditure, suggesting that Hig2 may not mediate these metabolic effects by restraining lipolysis in adipocytes.We conclude that Hig2 localizes to LDs in adipocytes, promoting adipose tissue lipid deposition and that its selective deficiency in active brown/beige adipose tissue mediates improved glucose tolerance at 23 °C. Reversal of this phenotype at thermoneutrality in the absence of detectable changes in energy expenditure, adipose mass, or liver triglyceride suggests that Hig2 deficiency triggers a deleterious endocrine or neuroendocrine pathway emanating from brown/beige fat cells.
Project description:Plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are elevated in obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as steatosis, but the metabolic role of TIMP-1 is unclear. Here we investigated how the presence or absence of TIMP-1 affected the development of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice.Timp1 knockout (TKO) and wild type (TWT) mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD) or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD). We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance, as well as insulin tolerance. In addition, the histology of liver and adipose tissues was examined and expression of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissues was determined by RT-qPCR.TKO mice gained less weight and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation.Collectively, our results indicate that TIMP-1 contributes to the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance and may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake. Fasting serum glucose, serum insulin levels and glucose intolerance were all improved in ARA treated mice. Furthermore, ARA increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) expression, and the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle tissues, and also prevented skeletal muscle atrophy. In addition, the numbers of brown adipocytes and the expressions of PGC1? and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were elevated in the brown adipose tissues of ARA treated mice. Our results show that ARA can prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in C5BL/6 mice and suggests that the mechanism responsible is related to the promotion of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissues.
Project description:Background:Dietary fat has been suggested to be the cause of various health issues. Obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease are known to be associated with a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. Few prospective pharmaceutical therapies that directly target NAFLD are available at present. A Traditional Chinese Medicine, ginseng-plus-Bai-Hu-Tang (GBHT), is widely used by diabetic patients to control glucose level or thirst. However, whether it has therapeutic effects on fat-induced hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Methods:This study was conducted to examine the therapeutic effect of GBHT on fat-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance in mice. Results:GBHT protected mice against HFD-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia compared with mice that were not treated. GBHT inhibited the expansion of adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy. No ectopic fat deposition was found in the livers of HFD mice treated with GBHT. In addition, glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was also improved by GBHT. Conclusion:GBHT prevents changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in a HFD mouse model. Our findings provide evidence for the traditional use of GBHT as therapy for the management of metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have important roles in adipocyte differentiation, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Here to assess how these pathways can compensate for each other, we created mice with a double tissue-specific knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors to eliminate all insulin/IGF-1 signalling in fat. These FIGIRKO mice had markedly decreased white and brown fat mass and were completely resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity and age- and high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Energy expenditure was increased in FIGIRKO mice despite a >85% reduction in brown fat mass. However, FIGIRKO mice were unable to maintain body temperature when placed at 4?°C. Brown fat activity was markedly decreased in FIGIRKO mice but was responsive to ?3-receptor stimulation. Thus, insulin/IGF-1 signalling has a crucial role in the control of brown and white fat development, and, when disrupted, leads to defective thermogenesis and a paradoxical increase in basal metabolic rate.
Project description:The phytochemical oxyresveratrol has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including prevention of obesity. However, the exact reason underlying the anti-obese effects of oxyresveratrol is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of oxyresveratrol in adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Oxyresveratrol suppressed lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers during the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Administration of oxyresveratrol in HFD-fed obese mice prevented body-weight gains, lowered adipose tissue weights, improved lipid profiles, and increased glucose tolerance. The anti-obese effects were linked to increases in energy expenditure and higher rectal temperatures without affecting food intake, fecal lipid content, and physical activity. The increased energy expenditure by oxyresveratrol was concordant with the induction of thermogenic genes including Ucp1, and the reduction of white adipocyte selective genes in adipose tissue. Furthermore, Foxo3a was identified as an oxyresveratrol-induced gene and it mimicked the effects of oxyresveratrol for induction of thermogenic genes and suppression of white adipocyte selective genes, suggesting the role of Foxo3a in oxyresveratrol-mediated anti-obese effects. Taken together, these data show that oxyresveratrol increases energy expenditure through the induction of thermogenic genes in adipose tissue and further implicates oxyresveratrol as an ingredient and Foxo3a as a molecular target for the development of functional foods in obesity and metabolic diseases.
Project description:The preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) is a key process in fat mass increase and thus it is regarded as a compelling target for preventing or treating obesity. Of adipogenic hormone receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has crucial roles in adipogenesis and lipid accumulation within adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the NEDD8 (neuronal precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8)-based post-translation modification (neddylation) of PPAR? is essential for adipogenesis. During adipogenesis, NEDD8 is robustly induced in preadipocytes and conjugates with PPAR?, leading to PPAR? stabilization. When the neddylation process was blocked by NEDD8-targeting siRNAs (or viral vectors) or an inhibitor MLN4924, adipocyte differentiation and fat tissue development were substantially impaired. We also demonstrate that MLN4924 effectively prevents the high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. This study provides a better understanding of how the PPAR? signaling pathway starts and lasts during adipogenesis and a potential anti-obesity strategy that targets the neddylation of PPAR?.