Inflammation directs memory precursor and short-lived effector CD8(+) T cell fates via the graded expression of T-bet transcription factor.
ABSTRACT: As acute infections resolve, effector CD8(+) T cells differentiate into interleukin-7 receptor(lo) (IL-7R(lo)) short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and IL-7R(hi) memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) capable of generating long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells. By using another SLEC marker, KLRG1, we found that KLRG1(hi) effector cells began appearing early during infection and were committed to downregulating IL-7R. Unlike IL-7R(hi) MPECs, KLRG1(hi) IL-7R(lo) SLECs relied on IL-15, but IL-15 could not sustain their long-term maintenance or homeostatic turnover. The decision between SLEC and MPEC fates was regulated by the amount of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) present during T cell priming. According to the amount of inflammation, a gradient of T-bet was created in which high T-bet expression induced SLECs and low expression promoted MPECs. These results elucidate a mechanism by which the innate immune system sets the relative amounts of a lineage-determining transcription factor in activated CD8(+) T cells and, correspondingly, regulates their memory cell potential.
Project description:During acute viral infections in mice, IL-7R? and KLRG1 together are used to distinguish the short-lived effector cells (SLEC; IL-7R?lo KLRGhi ) from the precursors of persisting memory cells (MPEC; IL-7R?hi KLRG1lo ). We here show that these markers can be used to define distinct subsets in the circulation and lymph nodes during the acute phase and in "steady state" in humans. In contrast to the T cells in the circulation, T cells derived from lymph nodes hardly contain any KLRG1-expressing cells. The four populations defined by IL-7R? and KLRG1 differ markedly in transcription factor, granzyme and chemokine receptor expression. When studying renal transplant recipients experiencing a primary hCMV and EBV infection, we also found that after viral control, during latency, Ki-67-negative SLEC can be found in the peripheral blood in considerable numbers. Thus, combined analyses of IL-7R? and KLRG1 expression on human herpes virus-specific CD8+ T cells can be used to separate functionally distinct subsets in humans. As a noncycling IL-7R?lo KLRG1hi population is abundant in healthy humans, we conclude that this combination of markers not only defines short-lived effector cells during the acute response but also stable effector cells that are formed and remain present during latent herpes infections.
Project description:It is unclear where within tissues subsets of effector and memory CD8 T cells persist during viral infection and whether their localization affects function and long-term survival. Following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we found most killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)(lo)IL-7R(hi) effector and memory cells, which are long-lived and high proliferative capacity, in the T cell zone of the spleen. In contrast, KLRG1(hi)IL-7R(lo) cells, which appear terminally differentiated and have shorter life spans, were exclusively localized to the red pulp. KLRG1(lo)IL-7R(hi) T cells homed to the T cell zone using pertussis toxin-sensitive chemokine receptors and appeared to contact gp38(+) stromal cells, which produce the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. The transcription factors T-bet and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 controlled effector CD8 T cell splenic migration. Effector CD8 T cells overexpressing T-bet homed to the red pulp, whereas those lacking B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 homed to the T cell zone. Upon memory formation, CD62L(+) memory T cells were predominantly found in the T cell zone, whereas CD62L(-) cells were found in the red pulp. Thus, effector and memory CD8 T cell subset localization within tissues is linked to their differentiation states, and this may identify anatomical niches that regulate their longevity and homeostasis.
Project description:In response to infection, CD8(+) T cells integrate multiple signals and undergo an exponential increase in cell numbers. Simultaneously, a dynamic differentiation process occurs, resulting in the formation of short-lived effector cells (SLECs; CD127(low)KLRG1(high)) and memory precursor effector cells (CD127(high)KLRG1(low)) from an early effector cell that is CD127(low)KLRG1(low) in phenotype. CD8(+) T cell differentiation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection differed significantly than during Listeria monocytogenes infection with a substantial reduction in early effector cell differentiation into SLECs. SLEC generation was dependent on Ebi3 expression. Furthermore, SLEC differentiation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection was enhanced by administration of CpG-DNA, through an IL-12-dependent mechanism. Moreover, CpG-DNA treatment enhanced effector CD8(+) T cell functionality and memory subset distribution, but in an IL-12-independent manner. Population dynamics were dramatically different during secondary CD8(+) T cell responses, with a much greater accumulation of SLECs and the appearance of a significant number of CD127(high)KLRG1(high) memory cells, both of which were intrinsic to the memory CD8(+) T cell. These subsets persisted for several months but were less effective in recall than memory precursor effector cells. Thus, our data shed light on how varying the context of T cell priming alters downstream effector and memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation.
Project description:Early after priming, effector CD8 T cells are distinguished into memory precursor and short-lived effector cell subsets (MPECs and SLECs). Here, we delineated a distinct in vivo heterogeneity in killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG-1) expression, which was strongly associated with diverse MPEC and SLEC fates. These in vivo MPECs and SLECs expressed equivalent levels of cytotoxic molecules and effector cytokines. Using a unique in vivo degranulation assay, we found that the MPECs and SLECs similarly encountered infected target cells and elaborated equivalent levels of cytotoxicity in vivo. These data provide direct in vivo evidence that memory-fated cells pass through a robust effector phase. Additionally, the preferential localization of the MPECs in the lymph nodes, where a lesser degree of cytotoxicity was elaborated, suggests that the MPECs may be protected from excessive stimulation and terminal differentiation by virtue of their differential tissue localization. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the linear decreasing potential model of memory differentiation.
Project description:Naïve antigen-specific CD8 T cells expand in response to infection and can be phenotypically separated into distinct effector populations, which include memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) and short-lived effector cells (SLECs). In the days before the peak of the T cell response, a third population called early effector cells (EECs) predominate the antigen-specific response. However, the contribution of the EEC population to the CD8 T cell differentiation program during an antimicrobial immune response is not well understood. To test if EEC populations were pre-committed to either an MPEC or SLEC fate, we purified EECs from mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes (LM) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), where the relative frequency of each population is known to be different at the peak of the response. Sorted EECs transferred into uninfected hosts revealed that EECs were pre-programmed to differentiate based on early signals received from the distinct infectious environments. Surprisingly, when these same EECs were transferred early into mismatched infected hosts, the transferred EECs could be diverted from their original fate. These results delineate a model of differentiation where EECs are programmed to form MPECs or SLECs, but remain susceptible to additional inflammatory stimuli that can alter their fate.
Project description:Although it is known that interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-15 influence the survival and turnover of CD8+ T cells, less is known about how these cytokines affect different subsets during the course of the immune response. We find that IL-7 and IL-15 differentially regulate CD8+ T-cell subsets defined by KLRG1 and CD127 expression during the contraction phase of the immune response. The provision of IL-15, or the related cytokine IL-2, during contraction led to the preferential accumulation of KLRG1(hi)CD127(lo) CD8+ T cells, whereas provision of IL-7 instead favored the accumulation of KLRG1(lo)CD127(hi) cells. While IL-7 and IL-15 both induced proliferation of KLRG1(lo) cells, KLRG1(hi) cells exhibited an extraordinarily high level of resistance to cytokine-driven proliferation in vivo despite their dramatic accumulation upon IL-15 administration. These results suggest that IL-15 and IL-2 greatly improve the survival of KLRG1(hi) CD8+ T cells, which are usually destined to perish during contraction, without inducing proliferation. As the availability of IL-15 and IL-2 is enhanced during periods of extended inflammation, our results suggest a mechanism in which a population of cytokine-dependent KLRG1(hi) CD8+ T cells is temporarily retained for improved immunity. Consideration of these findings may aid in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies against infectious disease and cancer.
Project description:At the peak of the CD8 T cell response to acture viral and bacterial infections, expression of the Interleukin-7 Receptor (IL-7R) marks Memory Precursor Effector CD8 T Cells (MPECs) from other Short-Lived Effector CD8 T cells (SLECs), which are IL-7Rlo. This study was designed to determine the gene expression differences between these two subsets of effector CD8 T cells. Keywords: expression comparison Overall design: This study compared IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo LCMV-specific P14 Transgenic CD8 T cells, sorted from LCMV armstrong infected recipient mice 6/7 days after infection. Data includes 3 independent replicates for the IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo groups.
Project description:At the peak of the CD8 T cell response to acture viral and bacterial infections, expression of the Interleukin-7 Receptor (IL-7R) marks Memory Precursor Effector CD8 T Cells (MPECs) from other Short-Lived Effector CD8 T cells (SLECs), which are IL-7Rlo. This study was designed to determine the gene expression differences between these two subsets of effector CD8 T cells. Experiment Overall Design: This study compared IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo LCMV-specific P14 Transgenic CD8 T cells, sorted from LCMV armstrong infected recipient mice 6/7 days after infection. Data includes 3 independent replicates for the IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo groups.
Project description:The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway impacts various aspects of CD8 T cell homeostasis, such as effect versus memory cell differentiation, during viral infection. We used microarrays to determine which downstream molecules were affected and what other signaling pathways were interconnected with the Akt pathway by constitutive activation of Akt in LCMV-infected CD8 T cells. Overall design: Splenocytes from naive P14/WT or P14/Akt mice were stained with anti-CD8 and anti-Ly5.1, and CD8 T cells were sorted using a FACSAria II instrument. Purified Ly5.1+ CD8 T cells from P14/WT or P14/Akt mice were transferred into B6 mice, which were subsequently infected with LCMV Armstrong. At day 8 post infection, splenocytes were stained with anti-CD8, anti-Ly5.1, anti-KLRG1, and anti-CD127. Following staining, short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) were sorted using the FACSAria II instrument; the purity of the sorted cells was >95%. A total of 5 samples were analyzed, including WT naive, WT SLEC, WT MPEC, Akt naive and Akt SLEC.
Project description:CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that sustains the clonal expansion of virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells, while simultaneously suppressing the expression of surface markers associated with short-lived effector cell (SLEC) differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that Bcl11b supports the acquisition of memory precursor effector cell (MPEC) phenotype and, thus, its absence causes near complete loss of lymphoid and lung-resident memory cells. Interestingly, despite having normal levels of T-bet and Eomesodermin, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to execute effector differentiation needed for anti-viral cytokine production and degranulation, suggesting a non-redundant role of Bcl11b in regulation of this program. Thus, Bcl11b is a critical player in fate decision of SLECs and MPECs, as well as effector function and memory formation.