On the development of nicotine dependence in adolescence.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the natural history of drug dependence. This article describes the development and predictors of DSM-IV nicotine dependence in adolescence when tobacco use is initiated. In a two-stage design, a survey was administered to 6th-10th graders in the Chicago Public Schools to select a cohort of adolescents. Household interviews were conducted with adolescents five times and with one parent (predominantly mothers) three times over 2 years. The analytical sample includes 353 youths, who started using tobacco within 12 months preceding Wave 1 or between Waves 1-5. Survival analysis estimated latency to individual DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria and the full dependence syndrome. Twenty-five percent of youths experienced the syndrome within 23 months of tobacco use onset. Tolerance, impaired control and withdrawal were experienced most frequently. Youths who developed full dependence experienced their first symptom faster after tobacco use onset than those who experienced only one criterion through the end of the observation period. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the importance of time-constant and time-varying sociodemographic, tobacco and other drug use, parental and peer smoking, social psychological and biological risk factors for experiencing the first criterion and the full syndrome. Pleasant initial sensitivity to tobacco and number of cigarettes smoked the prior month predicted both outcomes. Parental dependence predicted the full syndrome. Significant covariates were generally the same across gender and racial/ethnic subgroups. The predictive significance of the initial smoking experience and parental dependence highlight the potential importance of genetic factors in the etiology of nicotine dependence.
Project description:To examine bidirectional influences of onset of psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers.A prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents and mothers drawn from a large city school system. Adolescents were interviewed five times and mothers three times over 2 years.Chicago, Illinois.Subsample of adolescent smokers (n = 814).Selected DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, nicotine dependence and selected risk factors were ascertained.Among lifetime smokers, 53.7% experienced at least one nicotine dependence criterion; 26.1% full dependence; 14.1% experienced an anxiety disorder, 18.8% a mood disorder and 29.5% a disruptive disorder. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders were comorbid: nicotine-dependent youths had higher rates of individual and multiple disorders than those not dependent. Controlling for other covariates, mood disorder and nicotine dependence did not predict each other; anxiety disorder predicted nicotine dependence. Bidirectional influences were observed for disruptive disorder and nicotine dependence. Predictors of onset of full nicotine dependence included earlier onset age of tobacco use, high initial pleasant sensitivity to tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use, abuse and dependence and parental nicotine dependence. Predictors of psychiatric disorder onset included gender, race/ethnicity, other psychiatric disorders, illicit drug abuse or dependence and parental depression and delinquency.Initial pleasant experiences of smoking are predictive of later development of nicotine dependence. There may be reciprocal influences between disruptive disorder and development of nicotine dependence in adolescence, and intergenerational transmission of parental nicotine dependence and psychopathology.
Project description:We describe the nature and predictors of developmental trajectories of symptoms of DSM-IV nicotine dependence in adolescence following smoking initiation. Data are from a longitudinal cohort of 324 new smokers from grades 6-10 in the Chicago Public Schools, interviewed 5 times at 6-month intervals. Monthly data on DSM-IV symptoms of nicotine dependence were available for 36 months. Growth mixture modeling was applied to the monthly histories to identify trajectories of DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence. A four-class solution best fitted the data: no DSM criterion (47.7%); early onset/chronic course (19.8%); early onset/remission (17.3%); late onset (15.2%). Blunt use prior to cigarette use was associated with the three symptomatic trajectories. Conduct disorder and prior heavy smoking were associated with Class 2 (chronic). Conduct disorder differentiated Class 2 from Class 4 (late onset), while pleasant initial sensitivity to the first tobacco experience was associated with Classes 2 and 3 (remit) and differentiated Class 2 from Class 4. Novelty seeking characterized Class 3. Parental dependence differentiated chronicity (Class 2) from remission (Class 3) among those who developed symptoms early. Being Hispanic reduced membership in Classes 3 and 4, and being male for Class 3. The data highlight the importance of parental nicotine dependence as a risk factor for early and sustained nicotine dependence by the offspring, pleasant initial sensitivity and conduct disorder for early onset of dependence, and blunt use prior to smoking for all trajectories. The factors important for onset of dependence are not necessarily the same as those for sustained course.
Project description:Evidence-based changes planned for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) include combining dependence and three of the abuse criteria into one disorder and adding a criterion indicating craving. Because DSM-IV did not include a category for nicotine abuse, little empirical support is available for aligning the nicotine use disorder criteria with the DSM-5 criteria for other SUDs.Latent variable analyses, bootstrap tests and likelihood ratio tests were used to explore the unidimensionality, psychometric properties and information of the nicotine criteria.A sample of household residents selected from the Israeli population register yielded 727 life-time cigarette smokers.DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria and proposed abuse and craving criteria, assessed with a structured interview.Three abuse criteria (hazardous use, social/interpersonal problems and neglect roles) were prevalent among smokers, formed a unidimensional latent trait with nicotine dependence criteria, were intermixed with dependence criteria across the severity spectrum and significantly increased the diagnostic information over the dependence-only model. A craving criterion was shown to fit well with the other criteria.Similar to findings from research on other substances, nicotine dependence, abuse and craving criteria appear to derive from a common underlying dimension. The results support alignment of nicotine criteria with those for alcohol and drug use disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th edition.
Project description:The fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) proposes aligning nicotine use disorder (NUD) criteria with those for other substances, by including the current DSM fourth edition (DSM-IV) nicotine dependence (ND) criteria, three abuse criteria (neglect roles, hazardous use, interpersonal problems) and craving. Although NUD criteria indicate one latent trait, evidence is lacking on: (1) validity of each criterion ; (2) validity of the criteria as a set ; (3) comparative validity between DSM-5 NUD and DSM-IV ND criterion sets ; and (4) NUD prevalence.Nicotine criteria (DSM-IV ND, abuse and craving) and external validators (e.g., smoking soon after awakening, number of cigarettes per day) were assessed with a structured interview in 734 lifetime smokers from an Israeli household sample. Regression analysis evaluated the association between validators and each criterion. Receiver operating characteristic analysis assessed the association of the validators with the DSM-5 NUD set (number of criteria endorsed) and tested whether DSM-5 or DSM-IV provided the most discriminating criterion set. Changes in prevalence were examined.Each DSM-5 NUD criterion was significantly associated with the validators, with strength of associations similar across the criteria. As a set, DSM-5 criteria were significantly associated with the validators, were significantly more discriminating than DSM-IV ND criteria, and led to increased prevalence of binary NUD (two or more criteria) over ND.All findings address previous concerns about the DSM-IV nicotine diagnosis and its criteria and support the proposed changes for DSM-5 NUD, which should result in improved diagnosis of nicotine disorders.
Project description:To identify patterns and correlates of developmental trajectories of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria from adolescence to early adulthood.The analytical sample of lifetime smokers (N=877) is from a longitudinal cohort of 6th-10th graders drawn from an urban school system. Subjects were interviewed 5 times at 6-month intervals and once 4.5 years later. Growth mixture models were estimated to identify trajectories of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria over ages 12-23.A four-class solution fitted the data best: No dependence criteria (class 1, 32.0%); early onset/chronic course (class 2, 26.1%); early onset/remission (class 3, 15.4%); late onset (class 4, 26.5%). There appeared to be three critical periods. At ages 12-15, symptoms increased rapidly. As of age 16, the early onset/chronic class stabilized at high levels of symptoms, the early onset/remission class started its symptomatic decline, and the late onset class experienced a sharp increase in symptoms. At age 20, there was a convergence in the prevalence of symptoms experienced at high (classes 2 and 4) and low levels (classes 1 and 3). Extensiveness of smoking and marijuana use were associated with higher baseline levels of nicotine dependence criteria. Anxiety disorders were associated with all three symptomatic trajectories. Parental smoking and nicotine dependence were associated specifically with the early/chronic class, while pleasant initial sensitivity and earlier onset ages of cigarette and marijuana use characterized the two early onset classes (2 and 3).Trajectories of dependence criteria constitute an advantageous phenotype for research and intervention over static summaries of smoking behaviors.
Project description:To compare the concurrent and predictive validities of two subsets of DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence (tolerance and withdrawal; withdrawal; difficulty controlling use; and use despite harm) to the concurrent and predictive validity of the full DSM-IV criteria.Analysis of baseline and outcome data from three randomized clinical trials of cigarette smoking treatment.San Francisco, California.Two samples of cigarette smokers (n = 810 and 322), differing with regard to baseline characteristics and treatment received, derived from three randomized clinical trials.DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria were measured at baseline with a computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Additional baseline measures included the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), number of cigarettes smoked per day, breath carbon monoxide (CO) level, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS), the Michigan Nicotine Reinforcement Questionnaire (M-NRQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence was assessed at week 12.Full DSM-IV criteria displayed greater concurrent validity than either of the two subsets of criteria. However, DSM-IV symptoms accounted for only a nominal amount of the variance in baseline smoking-related characteristics and were unrelated to smoking abstinence at week 12. Cigarettes smoked per day was the only significant predictor of abstinence at week 12.Although the findings do not provide a compelling alternative to the full set of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria, its poor psychometric properties and low predictive power limit its clinical and research utility.
Project description:We assessed the feasibility of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) manual, plus transdermal patch nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to treat co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence.Seven of 12 (58.3%) adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of both nicotine and cannabis dependence completed 10 weeks of individual CBT and NRT.Participants smoked 12.6?±?4.9 tobacco cigarettes per day at baseline, which was reduced to 2.1?±?4.2 at the end of treatment (F ?=?23.5, p?<?.0001). The reduction in cannabis use from 10.0?±?5.3 inhalations per day at baseline to 8.0?±?5.3 inhalations per day at 10 weeks was not significant (F ?=?1.12, p?=?.37). There was a significant decrease from the mean baseline Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scores at weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 of treatment (F ?=?19.8, p?<?.001) and mean Client Satisfaction Questionnaire scores were uniformly high (30.6?±?1.9).A CBT plus NRT treatment program significantly reduced tobacco smoking but did not significantly reduce cannabis use in individuals with co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. There was no compensatory increase in cannabis use following the reduction in tobacco smoking, suggesting that clinicians can safely pursue simultaneous treatment of co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. The intervention was well-liked by the 7 of the 12 enrollees who completed the study.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tobacco use disorder (TUD), previously known as nicotine dependence, was associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, little is known about the prevalence of TUD and symptom manifestation in smokers with lung cancer. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of TUD using DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in patients diagnosed with lung cancer and analyze their tobacco use characteristics. METHODS:A total of 200 histologically confirmed lung cancer patients who used tobacco within the prior 12-month period at the time of diagnosis were recruited for this study. Participants were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires to determine TUD symptoms and smoking-related behaviors, and self-administered Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was also administered. RESULTS:The prevalence of DSM-5 TUD was 92.0% (n = 184). Of a total of 200 subjects, 23 (11.5%), 35 (17.5%), and 126 (63.0%) were classified into mild, moderate, and severe TUD categories, respectively. A total of 19 (81.3%) moderate TUD and 98 (77.8%) severe TUD patients had attempted smoking cessation. Of these subjects, 21 (21.4%) severe TUD and 12 (63.2%) moderate TUD patients tried more than three times. The number of satisfied criteria under DSM-5 TUD was positively correlated with FTND score, cumulative lifetime smoking amount, and daily smoking levels. CONCLUSIONS:Smokers diagnosed with lung cancer showed a high prevalence of DSM-5 TUD. Their heavy and consistent tobacco use suggests reduced motivation to abstain from smoking.
Project description:Current theoretical models of nicotine dependence assume a close relationship between use and dependence; however, previous data suggest that many daily smokers fail to develop nicotine dependence.To determine what percentage of daily smokers fail to meet DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence within their lifetime, how non-dependence relates to duration and quantity of cigarette use, and whether other tobacco use and/or specific dependence criteria differentiate never-dependent and dependent smokers.Cross-sectional data collected via personal interview from a nationally representative sample of 8213 past year daily smokers were analyzed.Approximately 39.4% of daily smokers never reached nicotine dependence. While the probability of remaining non-dependent decreased with smoking quantity and duration since the onset of daily smoking, a substantial portion of individuals (37.7%) who reported smoking >or=10 cigarettes per day and began smoking daily >or=10 years prior, remained never nicotine dependent.The absence of nicotine dependence in heavy daily smokers may result from limitations in the measurement of dependence and/or nicotine exposure. Alternatively, some individuals may be relatively resistant to becoming nicotine dependent despite extensive use. The latter explanation would have important implications for understanding the nature of nicotine dependence.
Project description:Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are activated by both endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, making sequence variations in these receptors likely candidates for association with tobacco phenotypes. Previous studies have found evidence for significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region containing the CHRNA6 and CHRNB3 genes and tobacco behaviors. In this study, we provide support for an association between these genes and tobacco dependence in the National Youth Survey Family Study wave 10, a nationally representative sample of households. Eight SNPs in the CHRNA6 and CHRNB3 genomic region were genotyped in 1051 subjects, approximately half of whom are members of sibling pairs. Genetic association with DSM-IV dependence was assessed using a family-based approach as implemented in the statistical package PBAT. Individual SNPs were tested for association with quit attempts and overall dependence. Variation in CHRNA6 was found to be associated with tobacco dependence (p=0.007 in Caucasians). SNPs in CHRNB3 were found to be associated with the number of quit attempts (p=0.0024). Together these results further implicate the region downstream of CHRNA6 and the region upstream of CHRNB3 in risk of nicotine dependence.