Structure of outer membrane protein G by solution NMR spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: The bacterial outer membrane protein G (OmpG), a monomeric pH-gated porin, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and refolded in beta-octyl glucoside micelles. After transfer into dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the solution structure of OmpG was determined by solution NMR spectroscopy at pH 6.3. Complete backbone assignments were obtained for 234 of 280 residues based on CA, CB, and CO connection pathways determined from a series of TROSY-based 3D experiments at 800 MHz. The global fold of the 14-stranded beta-barrel was determined based on 133 long-range NOEs observed between neighboring strands and local chemical shift and NOE information. The structure of the barrel is very similar to previous crystal structures, but the loops of the solution structure are quite flexible.
Project description:The outer membrane protein G (OmpG) is a monomeric 33 kDa 14-stranded ?-barrel membrane protein functioning as a nonspecific porin for the uptake of oligosaccharides in Escherichia coli. Two different crystal structures of OmpG obtained at different values of pH suggest a pH-gated pore opening mechanism. In these structures, extracellular loop 6 extends away from the barrel wall at neutral pH but is folded back into the pore lumen at low pH, blocking transport through the pore. Loop 6 was invisible in a previously published solution NMR structure of OmpG in n-dodecylphosphocholine micelles, presumably due to conformational exchange on an intermediate NMR time scale. Here we present an NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-based approach to visualize the conformational dynamics of loop 6 and to calculate conformational ensembles that explain the pH-gated opening and closing of the OmpG channel. The different loop conformers detected by the PRE ensemble calculations were validated by disulfide cross-linking of strategically engineered cysteines and electrophysiological single channel recordings. The results indicate a more dynamically regulated channel opening and closing than previously thought and reveal additional membrane-associated conformational ensembles at pH 6.3 and 7.0. We anticipate this approach to be generally applicable to detect and characterize functionally important conformational ensembles of membrane proteins.
Project description:Several membrane proteins and numerous membrane-active peptides have been studied in detergent micelles by solution NMR. However, the detailed structure of these complexes remains unknown. We propose a modeling approach that treats the protein and detergent in atomistic detail and the solvent implicitly. The model is based on previous work on dodecylphosphocholine micelles, adapted for use with the CHARMM36 force field and extended to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. Solvation parameters were slightly adjusted to reproduce experimental data on aggregation numbers and critical micelle concentrations. To test the approach, several membrane-active peptides and three ?-barrel membrane proteins were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of a large number of detergent molecules. Their experimentally determined secondary structure was maintained and the RMSD values were less than 2 Å. Deformations were commonly observed in the N or C termini. The atomistic view of the protein-micelle systems that this approach provides could be useful in interpreting biophysical experiments carried out in the presence of detergent.
Project description:Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between the integral outer membrane protein OmpX from Escherichia coli and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) provided a detailed description of protein-detergent interactions. The NOEs were measured in 3D (15)N- and (13)C-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY spectra recorded with selectively methyl-protonated and otherwise uniformly (2)H,(13)C,(15)N-labeled OmpX in micelles of DHPC at natural isotope abundance. In these mixed micelles the NMR structure of OmpX consists of an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. The OmpX surface area covered with intermolecular NOEs to the DHPC hydrophobic tails forms a continuous cylinder jacket of approximately 28 A in height, which is centered about the middle of the long axis through the beta-barrel. In addition, some intermolecular NOEs with methyl groups of the DHPC polar head were identified along both boundaries of this cylinder jacket. The experimental data suggest that the hydrophobic surface areas of OmpX are covered with a monolayer of DHPC molecules, which appears to mimic quite faithfully the embedding of the beta-barrel in a double-layer lipid membrane.
Project description:X-ray crystallography and solution NMR of detergent-reconstituted OmpA (outer membrane protein A from E. coli) had shown that this protein forms an eight-stranded transmembrane ?-barrel, but only limited information was obtained for the extracellular loops. In NMR studies of OmpA in two different detergent micelles, "NMR-invisible" amino acid residues in-between the extracellular loops and the ?-barrel prevented complete structural characterization. Here, we show that this NMR-invisible ring around the ?-barrel of OmpA is also present in lipid bilayer nanodiscs and in mixed micelles with a third detergent, thus suggesting that the implicated rate processes have a functional role rather than representing an artifact of the protein reconstitution. In addition to sequence-specific NMR assignments for OmpA in the nanodiscs, the present results are based on a protocol of micro-coil TROSY- and CRINEPT-type NMR diffusion measurements for studying the hydrodynamic properties and the foldedness of [(2)H,(15)N]-labeled membrane proteins in nanodiscs. This protocol can be applied under conditions closely similar to those used for NMR structure determinations or crystallization trials.
Project description:Interest in nanopore technology has been growing due to nanopores' unique capabilities in small molecule sensing, measurement of protein folding, and low-cost DNA and RNA sequencing. The E. coli ?-barrel outer membrane protein OmpG is an excellent alternative to other protein nanopores because of its single polypeptide chain. However, the flexibility of its extracellular loops ultimately limits applications in traditional biosensing. We deleted several residues in and near loop 6 of OmpG. The dynamic structure of the new construct determined by NMR shows that loops 1, 2, 6, and 7 have reduced flexibilities compared to those of wild-type. Electrophysiological measurements show that the new design virtually eliminates flickering between open and closed states across a wide pH range. Modification of the pore lumen with a copper chelating moiety facilitates detection of small molecules. As proof of concept, we demonstrate concurrent single-molecule biosensing of glutamate and adenosine triphosphate.
Project description:The three-dimensional structure of PrP110-136, a peptide encompassing the conserved hydrophobic region of the human prion protein, has been determined at high resolution in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR. The results support the conclusion that the (Ctm)PrP, a transmembrane form of the prion protein, adopts a different conformation than the reported structures of the normal prion protein determined in solution. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement studies with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid indicated that the conserved hydrophobic region peptide is not inserted symmetrically in the micelle, thus suggesting the presence of a guanidium-phosphate ion pair involving the side chain of the terminal arginine and the detergent headgroup. Titration of dodecylphosphocholine into a solution of PrP110-136 revealed the presence of a surface-bound species. In addition, paramagnetic probes located the surface-bound peptide somewhere below the micelle-water interface when using the inserted helix as a positional reference. This localization of the unknown population would allow a similar ion pair interaction.
Project description:Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) dimerization is an important step in erythrocyte formation. Its transmembrane domain (TMD) and juxtamembrane (JM) region are essential for signal transduction across the membrane. A construct compassing residues S212-P259 and containing the TMD and JM region of the human EpoR was purified and reconstituted in detergent micelles. The solution structure of the construct was determined in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles by solution NMR spectroscopy. Structural and dynamic studies demonstrated that the TMD and JM region are an ?-helix in DPC micelles, whereas residues S212-D224 at the N-terminus of the construct are not structured. The JM region is a helix that contains a hydrophobic patch formed by conserved hydrophobic residues (L253, I257, and W258). Nuclear Overhauser effect analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments suggested that the JM region is exposed to the solvent. The structures of the TMD and JM region of the mouse EpoR were similar to those of the human EpoR.
Project description:The bacterial outer membrane enzyme PagP transfers a palmitate chain from a phospholipid to lipid A. In a number of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, PagP confers resistance to certain cationic antimicrobial peptides produced during the host innate immune response. The global fold of Escherichia coli PagP was determined in both dodecylphosphocholine and n-octyl-beta-d-glucoside detergent micelles using solution NMR spectroscopy. PagP consists of an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel preceded by an amphipathic alpha helix. The beta-barrel is well defined, whereas NMR relaxation measurements reveal considerable mobility in the loops connecting individual beta-strands. Three amino acid residues critical for enzymatic activity localize to extracellular loops near the membrane interface, positioning them optimally to interact with the polar headgroups of lipid A. Hence, the active site of PagP is situated on the outer surface of the outer membrane. Because the phospholipids that donate palmitate in the enzymatic reaction are normally found only in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane, PagP activity may depend on the aberrant migration of phospholipids into the outer leaflet. This finding is consistent with an emerging paradigm for outer membrane enzymes in providing an adaptive response toward disturbances in the outer membrane.
Project description:A 21 residue peptide from the C2 domain of the antihaemophilic factor VIII competes with factor VIII for membrane-binding sites in vitro. Here, we provide the structure and topography of the peptide in solution, on dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The peptide assumes an amphipathic structure comprising an extended N-terminal region and a C-terminal helix. The average root-mean-square deviation is 0.7+/-0.2 A for the superimposition of the backbone atoms of Ile6 to Arg18 on the lowest energy structure. Whereas the backbone conformation is similar to that in SDS micelles, the Trp11 side-chain orientation is dramatically changed. The indole ring is nearly parallel to the peptide backbone in SDS micelles but perpendicular in DPC micelles. Further, pKa values of the two histidines change by more than 1 pH unit in SDS relative to DPC, which localizes the imidazole rings to the interfacial region. Line-broadening induced by spin-labelled phosphatidylcholine shows that most of the amino acid side-chains that penetrate the DPC micelle are hydrophobic. Thus, the long axis of the peptide lies parallel to the micelle surface and the hydrophobic face of the alpha-helix provides hydrophobic membrane interaction. The large chemical shift changes shown by Trp11 and N-terminal amino acid residues in SDS relative to DPC indicate that this region may be involved in membrane phospholipid recognition. 1H-NMR assignments, CD spectra, one-dimensional 1H-NMR spectra, chemical-shift analysis and nuclear Overhauser effect information are reported in Supplementary Publication SUP 50184 (11 pages), which has been deposited at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies can be obtained according to the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1997) 321, 8.
Project description:Repair of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is inhibited by the presence of myelin proteins that prevent axonal regrowth. Consequently, growth inhibitors and their common receptor have been identified as targets in the treatment of injury to the CNS. Here we describe the structure of the extracellular domain of the neurite outgrowth inhibitor (Nogo) in a membrane-like environment. Isoforms of Nogo are expressed with a common C terminus containing two transmembrane (TM) helices. The ectodomain between the two TM helices, Nogo-66, is active in preventing axonal growth [GrandPre T, Nakamura F, Vartanian T, Strittmatter SM (2000) Nature 403:439-444]. We studied the structure of Nogo-66 alone and in the presence of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) vesicles and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles as membrane mimetics. We find that Nogo-66 is largely disordered when free in solution. However, when bound to a phosphocholine surface Nogo-66 adopts a unique, stable fold, even in the absence of TM anchors. Using paramagnetic probes and protein-DPC nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), we define portions of the growth inhibitor likely to be accessible on the cell surface. With these data we predict that residues (28-58) are available to bind the Nogo receptor, which is entirely consistent with functional assays. Moreover, the conformations and relative positions of side chains recognized by the receptor are now defined and provide a foundation for antagonist design.