Cross-reactive T-cell responses to the nonstructural regions of dengue viruses among dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever patients in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT: Dengue virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. Attempts to develop effective vaccines have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the absence of suitable experimental models for dengue viral infection. The magnitude of T-cell responses has been reported to correlate with dengue disease severity. Sixty Malaysian adults with dengue viral infections were investigated for their dengue virus-specific T-cell responses to 32 peptides antigens from the structural and nonstructural regions from a dengue virus isolate. Seventeen different peptides from the C, E, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 regions were found to evoke significant responses in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of samples from 13 selected patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). NS3 and predominantly NS3(422-431) were found to be important T-cell targets. The highest peaks of T-cell responses observed were in responses to NS3(422-431) and NS5(563-571) in DHF patients. We also found almost a sevenfold increase in T-cell response in three DHF patients compared to three DF patient responses to peptide NS3(422-431). A large number of patients' T cells also responded to the NS2B(97-106) region. The ELISPOT analyses also revealed high frequencies of T cells that recognize both serotype-specific and cross-reactive dengue virus antigens in patients with DHF.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In order to understand the role of dengue virus (DENV) specific T cell responses that associate with protection, we studied their frequency and phenotype in relation to clinical disease severity and resolution of viraemia in a large cohort of patients with varying severity of acute dengue infection.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Using ex vivo IFN? ELISpot assays we determined the frequency of dengue viral peptide (DENV)-NS3, NS1 and NS5 responsive T cells in 74 adult patients with acute dengue infection and examined the association of responsive T cell frequency with the extent of viraemia and clinical disease severity. We found that total DENV-specific and DENV-NS3-specific T cell responses, were higher in patients with dengue fever (DF), when compared to those with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). In addition, those with DF had significantly higher (p = 0.02) DENV-specific T cell responses on day 4 of infection compared to those who subsequently developed DHF. DENV peptide specific T cell responses inversely correlated with the degree of viraemia, which was most significant for DENV-NS3 specific T cell responses (Spearman's r = -0.47, p = 0.0003). The frequency of T cell responses to NS1, NS5 and pooled DENV peptides, correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia but had no association with levels of liver transaminases. In contrast, total DENV-IgG inversely correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia and levels of liver transaminases.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Early appearance of DENV-specific T cell IFN? responses before the onset of plasma leakage, appears to associate with milder clinical disease and resolution of viraemia, suggesting a protective role in acute dengue infection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although the role of dengue virus (DENV)-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of acute dengue infection is emerging, the functionality of virus-specific T cells associated with milder clinical disease has not been well studied. We sought to investigate how the functionality of DENV-NS3 and DENV-NS5 protein-specific T cells differ in patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). METHODS:Using intracellular cytokine assays, we assessed the production of interferon ? (IFN?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?), and CD107a expression in adult patients with acute DF (n?=?21) and DHF (n?=?22). RESULTS:Quadruple cytokine-producing, polyfunctional DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells were more frequent in those with DF when compared to those with DHF. While DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells in patients with DF expressed IFN??>?TNF-??>?MIP-??>?CD107a, T cells of those with DHF predominantly expressed CD107a?>?MIP-1??>?IFN??>?TNF-?. Overall production of IFN? or TNF-? by DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells was significantly higher in patients with DF. The majority of NS3-specific T cells in patients with DF (78.6%) and DHF (68.9%) were single-cytokine producers; 76.6% of DENV-NS5-specific T cells in those with DF and 77.1% of those with DHF, produced only a single cytokine. However, no significant association was found with polyfunctional T-cell responses and the degree of viraemia. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the functional phenotype of DENV-specific T cells are likely to associate with clinical disease severity.
Project description:Major Phytoconstituents of Actinidia deliciosa were explored for their anti-viral potential against dengue virus (DENV). The docking of these phytoconstituents was performed on 7 viral targets- 4 DENV non structural protein (NS5-SAM binding domain, NS5 RdRp domain, NS3 helicase & NS2B-NS3 protease) and 3 DENV structural proteins (Envelope protein-?-OD domain, stem domain & Domain III). The analysis was done on the basis of binding affinity, type of interactions (bond type and distance) and interaction with amino acids significant in viral replication. The top 5 phytoconstituents with best docking score have been reported.
Project description:Most live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines in current clinical trials are produced from Vero cells. In a previous study we demonstrated that an infectious cDNA clone-derived dengue type 4 (DEN-4) virus retains higher genetic stability in MRC-5 cells than in Vero cells. For this study we investigated two DEN-4 viruses: the infectious cDNA clone-derived DEN-4 2A and its derived 3' NCR 30-nucleotide deletion mutant DEN-4 2A?30, a vaccine candidate. Mutations in the C-prM-E, NS2B-NS3, and NS4B-NS5 regions of the DEN genome were sequenced and compared following cell passages in Vero and MRC-5 cells. Our results indicate stronger genetic stability in both viruses following MRC-5 cell passages, leading to significantly lower RNA polymerase error rates when the DEN-4 virus is used for genome replication. Although no significant increases in virus titers were observed following cell passages, DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2A?30 virus titers following Vero cell passages were 17-fold to 25-fold higher than titers following MRC-5 cell passages. Neurovirulence for DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2A?30 viruses increased significantly following passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. In addition, more severe DEN-induced hemorrhaging in mice was noted following DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2A?30 passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. Target mutagenesis performed on the DEN-4 2A infectious clone indicated that single point mutation of E-Q(438)H, E-V(463)L, NS2B-Q(78)H, and NS2B-A(113)T imperatively increased mouse hemorrhaging severity. The relationship between amino acid mutations acquired during Vero cell passage and enhanced DEN-induced hemorrhages in mice may be important for understanding DHF pathogenesis, as well as for the development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines. Taken together, the genetic stability, virus yield, and DEN-induced hemorrhaging all require further investigation in the context of live-attenuated DEN vaccine development.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-viral activity of compounds present in the leaves of Carica papaya against dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We analysed the anti-dengue activities of the extracts from Carica papaya by using bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, we find the flavonoid quercetin with highest binding energy against NS2B-NS3 protease which is evident by the formation of six hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results suggest that the flavonoids from Carica papaya have significant anti-dengue activities. ABBREVIATIONS: ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, BBB - Blood brain barrier, CYP - Cytochrome P450, DENV - - Dengue virus, DHF - Dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - Dengue shock syndrome, GCMS - - Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry, MOLCAD - Molecular Computer Aided Design, NS - Non structural, PDB - Protein data bank, PMF - Potential Mean Force.
Project description:This report is the first to characterise the complete coding sequence of a dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) genotype I that was isolated from field-caught mosquitoes from an endemic area in Thailand in June 2013. The sequence was assembled from high-throughput sequencing reads generated by Illumina HiSeq. Three out of four observed intra-sample variants caused an amino acid variation in C, NS2B, and NS5 genes. The C4279T variant located in the NS2B gene can indirectly affect the proteolytic activity of the NS3 protein. The sequence provided in this study might be useful for the epidemiological study of DENV-4.
Project description:Emergence of Dengue as one of the deadliest viral diseases prompts the need for development of effective therapeutic agents. Dengue virus (DV) exists in four different serotypes and infection caused by one serotype predisposes its host to another DV serotype heterotypic re-infection. We undertook virtual ligand screening (VLS) to filter compounds against DV that may inhibit inclusively all of its serotypes. Conserved non-structural DV protein targets such as NS1, NS3/NS2B and NS5, which play crucial role in viral replication, infection cycle and host interaction, were selected for screening of vital antiviral drug leads. A dataset of plant based natural antiviral derivatives was developed. Molecular docking was performed to estimate the spatial affinity of target compounds for the active sites of DV's NS1, NS3/NS2B and NS5 proteins. The drug likeliness of the screened compounds was followed by ADMET analysis whereas the binding behaviors were further elucidated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation experiments. VLS screened three potential compounds including Canthin-6-one 9-O-beta-glucopyranoside, Kushenol W and Kushenol K which exhibited optimal binding with all the three conserved DV proteins. This study brings forth novel scaffolds against DV serotypes to serve as lead molecules for further optimization and drug development against all DV serotypes with equal effect against multiple disease causing DV proteins. We therefore anticipate that the insights given in the current study could be regarded valuable towards exploration and development of a broad-spectrum natural anti-dengue therapy.
Project description:The exact mechanisms of interplay between host and viral factors leading to severe dengue are yet to be fully understood. Even though previous studies have implicated specific genetic differences of Dengue virus (DENV) in clinical severity and virus attenuation, similar studies with large-scale, whole genome screening of monophyletic virus populations are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 89 whole genomes of DENV-2 cosmopolitan clade III isolates obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF, n = 58), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n = 30) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, n = 1) in Singapore between July 2010 and January 2013, in order to determine the correlation of observed viral genetic differences with clinical outcomes. Our findings showed no significant difference between the number of primary and secondary infections that progressed to DHF and DSS (p>0.05) in our study cohort. Despite being highly homogenous, study isolates possessed 39 amino acid substitutions of which 10 substitutions were fixed in three main groups of virus isolates. None of those substitutions were specifically associated with DHF and DSS. Notably, two evolutionarily unique virus groups possessing C-P43T+NS1-S103T+NS2A-V83I+NS3-R337K+ NS3-I600T+ NS5-P136S and NS2A-T119N mutations were exclusively found in patients with DF, the benign form of DENV infections. Those mutants were significantly associated with mild disease outcome. These observations indicated that disease progression into DHF and DSS within our patient population was more likely to be due to host than virus factors. We hypothesize that selection for potentially less virulent groups of DENV-2 in our study cohort may be an evolutionary adaptation of viral strains to extend their survival in the human-mosquito transmission cycle.
Project description:The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins. The envelope, membrane and capsid proteins form the viral particle while NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B and NS5 assemble inside a cellular replication complex, which is embedded in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles. In addition to their roles in RNA replication within the infected cell, NS proteins help the virus escape the host innate immunity and reshape the host-cell inner structure. This review focuses on recent progress in characterizing the structure and functions of NS5, a protein responsible for the replication and capping of viral RNA that represents a promising drug target.
Project description:Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection caused by four distinct serotypes of dengue virus, each appearing cyclically in the tropics and subtropics along the equator. Although vaccines are currently under development, none are available to the general population. One of the main impediments to the successful advancement of these vaccines is the lack of well-defined immune correlates of protection. Here, we describe a protein microarray approach for measuring antibody responses to the complete viral proteome comprised of the structural (capsid, membrane, and envelope) and nonstructural (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5) components of all four dengue virus serotypes (1 to 4). We examined rhesus macaques vaccinated with tetravalent vaccines consisting of live-attenuated virus (LAV) or purified inactivated virus (PIV), followed by boosting with LAV and challenging with wild-type dengue virus. We detected temporal increases in antibodies against envelope proteins in response to either vaccine, while only the PIV/LAV vaccination strategy resulted in anticapsid antibodies. In contrast to results from vaccination, naïve macaques challenged with wild-type viruses of each serotype demonstrated a balanced response to nonstructural and structural components, including responses against the membrane protein. Our results demonstrate discriminating details concerning the nature of antibody responses to dengue virus at the proteomic level and suggest the usefulness of this information for vaccine development.