ETR2 is an ETR1-like gene involved in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: The plant hormone ethylene regulates a variety of processes of growth and development. To identify components in the ethylene signal transduction pathway, we screened for ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana and isolated a dominant etr2-1 mutant. The etr2-1 mutation confers ethylene insensitivity in several processes, including etiolated seedling elongation, leaf expansion, and leaf senescence. Double mutant analysis indicates that ETR2 acts upstream of CTR1, which codes for a Raf-related protein kinase. We cloned the ETR2 gene on the basis of its map position, and we found that it exhibits sequence homology to the ethylene receptor gene ETR1 and the ETR1-like ERS gene. ETR2 may thus encode a third ethylene receptor in Arabidopsis, transducing the hormonal signal through its "two-component" structure. Expression studies show that ETR2 is ubiquitously expressed and has a higher expression in some tissues, including inflorescence and floral meristems, petals, and ovules.
Project description:Ethylene signaling in plants is mediated by a family of receptors related to bacterial two-component histidine kinases. Of the five members of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor family, members of subfamily I (ETR1 and ERS1) contain completely conserved histidine kinase domains, whereas members of subfamily II (ETR2, EIN4, and ERS2) lack conserved residues thought to be necessary for kinase activity. To examine the role of the conserved histidine kinase domain in receptor signaling, ers1;etr1 loss-of-function double mutants were generated. The double mutants exhibited a severe constitutive ethylene response phenotype consistent with the negative regulator model for receptor function. The adult ers1-2;etr1-6 and ers1-2;etr1-7 phenotypes included miniature rosette size, delayed flowering, and both male and female sterility, whereas etiolated-seedling responses were less affected. Chimeric transgene constructs in which the ETR1 promoter was used to drive expression of cDNAs for each of the five receptor isoforms were transferred into the ers1-2;etr1-7 double-mutant plants. Subfamily I constructs restored normal growth, whereas subfamily II constructs failed to rescue the double mutant, providing evidence for a unique role for subfamily I in receptor signaling. However, transformation of either the ers1-2;etr1-6 or ers1-2;etr1-7 mutant with a kinase-inactivated ETR1 genomic clone also resulted in complete restoration of normal growth and ethylene responsiveness in the double-mutant background, leading to the conclusion that canonical histidine kinase activity by receptors is not required for ethylene receptor signaling.
Project description:The plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a five-member family of receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The receptors function in conjunction with the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to negatively regulate ethylene signal transduction. CTR1 interacts with multiple members of the receptor family based on co-purification analysis, interacting more strongly with receptors containing a receiver domain. Levels of membrane-associated CTR1 vary in response to ethylene, doing so in a post-transcriptional manner that correlates with ethylene-mediated changes in levels of the ethylene receptors ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, and ETR2. Interactions between CTR1 and the receptor ETR1 protect ETR1 from ethylene-induced turnover. Kinetic and dose-response analyses support a model in which two opposing factors control levels of the ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes. Ethylene stimulates the production of new complexes largely through transcriptional induction of the receptors. However, ethylene also induces turnover of receptors, such that levels of ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes decrease at higher ethylene concentrations. Implications of this model for ethylene signaling are discussed.
Project description:Signal perception and transmission of the plant hormone ethylene are mediated by a family of receptor histidine kinases located at the Golgi-ER network. Similar to bacterial and other plant receptor kinases, these receptors work as dimers or higher molecular weight oligomers at the membrane. Sequence analysis and functional studies of different isoforms suggest that the ethylene receptor family is classified into two subfamilies. In Arabidopsis, the type-I subfamily has two members (ETR1 and ERS1) and the type-II subfamily has three members (ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4). Whereas subfamily-I of the Arabidopsis receptors and their interactions with downstream elements in the ethylene pathway has been extensively studied in the past; related information on subfamily-II is sparse. In order to dissect the role of type-II receptors in the ethylene pathway and to decode processes associated with this receptor subfamily on a quantitative molecular level, we have applied biochemical and spectroscopic studies on purified recombinant receptors and downstream elements of the ethylene pathway. To this end, we have expressed purified ETR2 as a prototype of the type-II subfamily, ETR1 for the type-I subfamily and downstream ethylene pathway proteins CTR1 and EIN2. Functional folding of the purified receptors was demonstrated by CD spectroscopy and autokinase assays. Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) by microscale thermophoresis (MST) revealed that ETR2 has similar affinities for CTR1 and EIN2 as previously reported for the subfamily-I prototype ETR1 suggesting similar roles in PPI-mediated signal transfer for both subfamilies. We also used in planta fluorescence studies on transiently expressed proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells to analyze homo- and heteromer formation of receptors. These studies show that type-II receptors as well as the type-I receptors form homo- and heteromeric complexes at these conditions. Notably, type-II receptor homomers and type-II:type-I heteromers are more stable than type-I homomers as indicated by their lower dissociation constants obtained in microscale thermophoresis studies. The enhanced stability of type-II complexes emphasizes the important role of type-II receptors in the ethylene pathway.
Project description:In higher plants, copper ions, hydrogen peroxide, and cycloheximide have been recognized as very effective inducers of the transcriptional activity of genes encoding the enzymes of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In this report, the transcriptional patterns of genes encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACSs), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidases (ACOs), ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1 ethylene receptors, phospholipase D (PLD)-alpha1, -alpha2, -gamma1, and -delta, and respiratory burst oxidase homologue (Rboh)-NADPH oxidase-D and -F in response to these inducers in Brassica oleracea etiolated seedlings are shown. ACS1, ACO1, ETR2, PLD-gamma1, and RbohD represent genes whose expression was considerably affected by all of the inducers used. The investigations were performed on the seedlings with (i) ethylene insensitivity and (ii) a reduced level of the PLD-derived phosphatidic acid (PA). The general conclusion is that the expression of ACS1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, ACO1, ETR1, ERS1, and ETR2, PLD-gamma 1, and RbohD and F genes is undoubtedly under the reciprocal cross-talk of the ethylene and PA(PLD) signalling routes; both signals affect it in concerted or opposite ways depending on the gene or the type of stimuli. The results of these studies on broccoli seedlings are in agreement with the hypothesis that PA may directly affect the ethylene signal transduction pathway via an inhibitory effect on CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) activity.
Project description:Ethylene influences many processes in Arabidopsis thaliana through the action of five receptor isoforms. All five isoforms use copper as a cofactor for binding ethylene. Previous research showed that silver can substitute for copper as a cofactor for ethylene binding activity in the ETR1 ethylene receptor yet also inhibit ethylene responses in plants. End-point and rapid kinetic analyses of dark-grown seedling growth revealed that the effects of silver are mostly dependent upon ETR1, and ETR1 alone is sufficient for the effects of silver. Ethylene responses in etr1-6 etr2-3 ein4-4 triple mutants were not blocked by silver. Transformation of these triple mutants with cDNA for each receptor isoform under the promoter control of ETR1 revealed that the cETR1 transgene completely rescued responses to silver while the cETR2 transgene failed to rescue these responses. The other three isoforms partially rescued responses to silver. Ethylene binding assays on the binding domains of the five receptor isoforms expressed in yeast showed that silver supports ethylene binding to ETR1 and ERS1 but not the other isoforms. Thus, silver may have an effect on ethylene signaling outside of the ethylene binding pocket of the receptors. Ethylene binding to ETR1 with silver was ?30% of binding with copper. However, alterations in the K(d) for ethylene binding to ETR1 and the half-time of ethylene dissociation from ETR1 do not underlie this lower binding. Thus, it is likely that the lower ethylene binding activity of ETR1 with silver is due to fewer ethylene binding sites generated with silver versus copper.
Project description:The plant hormone ethylene plays various functions in plant growth, development and response to environmental stress. Ethylene is perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors, and among the homologous receptors in Arabidopsis, the ETR1 ethylene receptor plays a major role. The present study provides evidence demonstrating that Arabidopsis CPR5 functions as a novel ETR1 receptor-interacting protein in regulating ethylene response and signaling. Yeast split ubiquitin assays and bi-fluorescence complementation studies in plant cells indicated that CPR5 directly interacts with the ETR1 receptor. Genetic analyses indicated that mutant alleles of cpr5 can suppress ethylene insensitivity in both etr1-1 and etr1-2, but not in other dominant ethylene receptor mutants. Overexpression of Arabidopsis CPR5 either in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, or ectopically in tobacco, significantly enhanced ethylene sensitivity. These findings indicate that CPR5 plays a critical role in regulating ethylene signaling. CPR5 is localized to endomembrane structures and the nucleus, and is involved in various regulatory pathways, including pathogenesis, leaf senescence, and spontaneous cell death. This study provides evidence for a novel regulatory function played by CPR5 in the ethylene receptor signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Cytokinins and ethylene control plant development via sensors from the histidine kinase (HK) family. However, downstream signaling pathways for the key phytohormones are distinct. Here we report that not only cytokinin but also ethylene is able to control root apical meristem (RAM) size through activation of the multistep phosphorelay (MSP) pathway. We found that both cytokinin and ethylene-dependent RAM shortening requires ethylene binding to ETR1 and the HK activity of ETR1. The receiver domain of ETR1 interacts with MSP signaling intermediates acting downstream of cytokinin receptors, further substantiating the role of ETR1 in MSP signaling. We revealed that both cytokinin and ethylene induce the MSP in similar and distinct cell types with ETR1-mediated ethylene signaling controlling MSP output specifically in the root transition zone. We identified members of the MSP pathway specific and common to both hormones and showed that ETR1-regulated ARR3 controls RAM size. ETR1-mediated MSP spatially differs from canonical CTR1/EIN2/EIN3 ethylene signaling and is independent of EIN2, indicating that both pathways can be spatially and functionally separated. Furthermore, we demonstrated that canonical ethylene signaling controls MSP responsiveness to cytokinin specifically in the root transition zone, presumably via regulation of ARR10, one of the positive regulators of MSP signaling in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The gaseous hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis by a five member receptor family that consists of the subfamily 1 receptors ETR1 and ERS1 and the subfamily 2 receptors ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Previous work has demonstrated that the basic functional unit for the ethylene receptor, ETR1, is a disulfide-linked homodimer. We demonstrate here that ethylene receptors isolated from Arabidopsis also interact with each other through noncovalent interactions. Evidence that ETR1 associates with other ethylene receptors was obtained by co-purification of ETR1 with tagged versions of ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4 from Arabidopsis membrane extracts. ETR1 preferentially associated with the subfamily 2 receptors compared with the subfamily 1 receptor ERS1, but ethylene treatment affected the interactions and relative composition of the receptor complexes. When transgenically expressed in yeast, ETR1 and ERS2 can form disulfide-linked heterodimers. In plant extracts, however, the association of ETR1 and ERS2 can be largely disrupted by treatment with SDS, supporting a higher order noncovalent interaction between the receptors. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the receptor GAF domains are capable of mediating heteromeric receptor interactions. Kinetic analysis of ethylene-insensitive mutants of ETR1 is consistent with their dominance being due in part to an ability to associate with other ethylene receptors. These data suggest that the ethylene receptors exist in plants as clusters in a manner potentially analogous to that found with the histidine kinase-linked chemoreceptors of bacteria and that interactions among receptors contribute to ethylene signal output.
Project description:The plant hormone ethylene plays important roles in growth and development. Ethylene is perceived by a family of membrane-bound receptors that actively repress ethylene responses. When the receptors bind ethylene, their signaling is shut off, activating responses. REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY (RTE1) encodes a novel membrane protein conserved in plants and metazoans. Genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that RTE1 promotes the signaling state of the ethylene receptor ETR1 through the ETR1 N-terminal domain. RTE1 and ETR1 have been shown to co-localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate a physical association of RTE1 and ETR1 using in vivo and in vitro methods. Interaction of RTE1 and ETR1 was revealed in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in a tobacco cell transient assay and in stably transformed Arabidopsis. The association was also observed using a truncated version of ETR1 comprising the N terminus (amino acids 1-349). Interaction of RTE1 and ETR1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from Arabidopsis. The interaction occurs with high affinity (K(d), 117 nM) based on tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy using purified recombinant RTE1 and a tryptophan-less version of purified recombinant ETR1. An amino acid substitution (C161Y) in RTE1 that is known to confer an ETR1 loss-of-function phenotype correspondingly gives a nearly 12-fold increase in the dissociation constant (K(d), 1.38 ?M). These findings indicate that a high affinity association of RTE1 and ETR1 is important in the regulation of ETR1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino acids of the receptor. A role for disulfide bonds in stabilizing the ETR1 protein complex was demonstrated by use of reducing agents and mutation of Cys4 and Cys6 of ETR1. Expression and analysis of ETR1 in a transgenic yeast system demonstrates the importance of Cys4 and Cys6 of ETR1 in stabilizing the receptor for ethylene binding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data support the participation of ethylene receptors in obligate as well as ligand-dependent non-obligate protein interactions. These data also suggest that different protein complexes may allow for tailoring of the ethylene signal to specific cellular environments and responses.