Commensal bacteria modulate cullin-dependent signaling via generation of reactive oxygen species.
ABSTRACT: The resident prokaryotic microflora of the mammalian intestine influences diverse homeostatic functions of the gut, including regulation of cellular growth and immune responses; however, it is unknown how commensal prokaryotic organisms mechanistically influence eukaryotic signaling networks. We have shown that bacterial coculture with intestinal epithelial cells modulates ubiquitin-mediated degradation of important signaling intermediates, including beta-catenin and the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB-alpha. Ubiquitination of these proteins as well as others is catalyzed by the SCF(betaTrCP) ubiquitin ligase, which itself requires regulated modification of the cullin-1 subunit by the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. Here we show that epithelia contacted by enteric commensal bacteria in vitro and in vivo rapidly generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bacterially induced ROS causes oxidative inactivation of the catalytic cysteine residue of Ubc12, the NEDD8-conjugating enzyme, resulting in complete but transient loss of cullin-1 neddylation and consequent effects on NF-kappaB and beta-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrate that commensal bacteria directly modulate a critical control point of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and suggest how enteric commensal bacterial flora influences the regulatory pathways of the mammalian intestinal epithelia.
Project description:The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an essential multisubunit complex that regulates the activity of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases by removing the ubiquitin-like peptide NEDD8 from cullins. Here, we demonstrate that the CSN can affect other components of the ubiquitination cascade. Down-regulation of human CSN4 or CSN5 induced proteasome-mediated degradation of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC3/Cdc34. UBC3 was targeted for ubiquitination by the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase SCF(betaTrCP). This interaction required the acidic C-terminal extension of UBC3, which is absent in ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes of the UBCH5 family. Conversely, the UBC3 acidic domain was sufficient to impart sensitivity to SCF(betaTrCP)-mediated ubiquitination to UBCH5 enzymes. Our work indicates that the CSN is necessary to ensure the stability of selected ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and uncovers a novel pathway of regulation of ubiquitination processes.
Project description:Regulation of NF-kappaB occurs through phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha, which is degraded by the 26S proteasome. Recent studies have shown that ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha is carried out by a ubiquitin-ligase enzyme complex called SCF(beta(TrCP)). Here we show that Nedd8 modification of the Cul-1 component of SCF(beta(TrCP)) is important for function of SCF(beta(TrCP)) in ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha. In cells, Nedd8-conjugated Cul-1 was complexed with two substrates of SCF(beta(TrCP)), phosphorylated IkappaBalpha and beta-catenin, indicating that Nedd8-Cul-1 conjugates are part of SCF(beta(TrCP)) in vivo. Although only a minute fraction of total cellular Cul-1 is modified by Nedd8, the Cul-1 associated with ectopically expressed betaTrCP was highly enriched for the Nedd8-conjugated form. Moreover, optimal ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha required Nedd8 and the Nedd8-conjugating enzyme, Ubc12. The site of Nedd8 ligation to Cul-1 is essential, as SCF(beta(TrCP)) containing a K720R mutant of Cul-1 only weakly supported IkappaBalpha ubiquitination compared to SCF(beta(TrCP)) containing WT Cul-1, suggesting that the Nedd8 ligation of Cul-1 affects the ubiquitination activity of SCF(beta(TrCP)). These observations provide a functional link between the highly related ubiquitin and Nedd8 pathways of protein modification and show how they operate together to selectively target the signal-dependent degradation of IkappaBalpha.
Project description:Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is an effector of the innate immune system that limits the proliferation and spread of medically relevant Gram-negative, -positive, and acid fast bacteria. We show here that a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex containing cullin-1 and βTrCP monoubiquitylates Perforin-2 in response to pathogen associated molecular patterns such as LPS. Ubiquitylation triggers a rapid redistribution of Perforin-2 and is essential for its bactericidal activity. Enteric pathogens such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli disarm host cells by injecting cell cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) into mammalian cells to deamidate the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. Because CRL activity is dependent upon NEDD8, Cif blocks ubiquitin dependent trafficking of Perforin-2 and thus, its bactericidal activity. Collectively, these studies further underscore the biological significance of Perforin-2 and elucidate critical molecular events that culminate in Perforin-2-dependent killing of both intracellular and extracellular, cell-adherent bacteria.
Project description:The bacterial effector protein cycle inhibiting factor (CIF) converts glutamine 40 of NEDD8 to glutamate (Q40E), causing cytopathic effects and inhibiting cell proliferation. Although these have been attributed to blocking the functions of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases, how CIF modulates NEDD8-dependent signaling is unclear. Here we use conditional NEDD8-dependent yeast to explore the effects of CIF on cullin neddylation. Although CIF causes cullin deneddylation and the generation of free NEDD8 Q40E, inhibiting the COP9 signalosome (CSN) allows Q40E to form only on NEDD8 attached to cullins. In the presence of the CSN, NEDD8 Q40E is removed from cullins more rapidly than NEDD8, leading to a decrease in steady-state cullin neddylation. As NEDD8 Q40E is competent for cullin conjugation in the absence of functional CSN and with overexpression of the NEDD8 ligase Dcn1, our data are consistent with NEDD8 deamidation causing enhanced deneddylation of cullins by the CSN. This leads to a dramatic change in the extent of activated cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases.
Project description:NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8) is a ubiquitin-like protein that activates the largest ubiquitin E3 ligase family, the cullin-RING ligases. Many non-cullin neddylation targets have been proposed in recent years. However, overexpression of exogenous NEDD8 can trigger NEDD8 conjugation through the ubiquitylation machinery, which makes validating potential NEDD8 targets challenging. Here, we re-evaluate studies of non-cullin targets of NEDD8 in light of the current understanding of the neddylation pathway, and suggest criteria for identifying genuine neddylation substrates under homeostatic conditions. We describe the biological processes that might be regulated by non-cullin neddylation, and the utility of neddylation inhibitors for research and as potential therapies. Understanding the biological significance of non-cullin neddylation is an exciting research prospect primed to reveal fundamental insights.
Project description:Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is controlled by proteolysis of its inhibitory subunit (IkappaB) via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Signal-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha by a large multisubunit complex containing IkappaB kinases is a prerequisite for ubiquitination. Here, we show that FWD1 (a mouse homologue of Slimb/betaTrCP), a member of the F-box/WD40-repeat proteins, is associated specifically with IkappaBalpha only when IkappaBalpha is phosphorylated. The introduction of FWD1 into cells significantly promotes ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBalpha in concert with IkappaB kinases, resulting in nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. In addition, FWD1 strikingly evoked the ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha in the in vitro system. In contrast, a dominant-negative form of FWD1 inhibits the ubiquitination, leading to stabilization of IkappaBalpha. These results suggest that the substrate-specific degradation of IkappaBalpha is mediated by a Skp1/Cull 1/F-box protein (SCF) FWD1 ubiquitin-ligase complex and that FWD1 serves as an intracellular receptor for phosphorylated IkappaBalpha. Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein FWD1 might play a critical role in transcriptional regulation of NF-kappaB through control of IkappaB protein stability.
Project description:In ubiquitination, cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) assist in ubiquitin transfer from ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 to the substrate. Neddylation, which involves NEDD8 transfer from E2 to E3-cullin, stimulates ubiquitination by inducing conformational change in CRLs. However, deneddylation, which removes NEDD8 from cullin, does not suppress ubiquitination in vivo, raising the question of how neddylation/deneddylation exerts its effects. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that before neddylation occurs, the linker flexibility of Rbx1, a CRL component, leads to conformational changes in CRLs that allow neddylation and initiation of ubiquitination. These large NEDD8-induced conformational changes are retained after deneddylation, allowing both initiation of the ubiquitination process and ubiquitin chain elongation after deneddylation. Furthermore, mutation of lysine, the cullin residue to which NEDD8 covalently attaches, dramatically reduces CRL conformational changes, suggesting that the acceptor lysine allosterically regulates CRLs. Thus, our results imply that neddylation stimulates ubiquitination by CRL conformational control via lysine modification.
Project description:Eukaryotic cell biology depends on cullin-RING E3 ligase (CRL)-catalysed protein ubiquitylation1, which is tightly controlled by the modification of cullin with the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD82-6. However, how CRLs catalyse ubiquitylation, and the basis of NEDD8 activation, remain unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a chemically trapped complex that represents the ubiquitylation intermediate, in which the neddylated CRL1?-TRCP promotes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2D to its recruited substrate, phosphorylated I?B?. NEDD8 acts as a nexus that binds disparate cullin elements and the RING-activated ubiquitin-linked UBE2D. Local structural remodelling of NEDD8 and large-scale movements of CRL domains converge to juxtapose the substrate and the ubiquitylation active site. These findings explain how a distinctive ubiquitin-like protein alters the functions of its targets, and show how numerous NEDD8-dependent interprotein interactions and conformational changes synergistically configure a catalytic CRL architecture that is both robust, to enable rapid ubiquitylation of the substrate, and fragile, to enable the subsequent functions of cullin-RING proteins.
Project description:A ubiquitin-like modifier, NEDD8, is covalently attached to cullin-family proteins, but its physiological role is poorly understood. Here we report that the NEDD8-modifying pathway is essential for cell viability and function of Pcu1 (cullin-1 orthologue) in fission yeast. Pcu1 assembled on SCF ubiquitin-ligase was completely modified by NEDD8. Pcu1(K713R) defective for NEDD8 conjugation lost the ability to complement lethality due to pcu1 deletion. Forced expression of Pcu1(K713R) or depletion of NEDD8 in cells resulted in impaired cell proliferation and marked stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Rum1, which is a substrate of the SCF complex. Based on these findings, we propose that covalent modification of cullin-1 by the NEDD8 system plays an essential role in the function of SCF in fission yeast.
Project description:NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like modifier most well-studied for its role in activating the largest family of ubiquitin E3 ligases, the cullin-RING ligases (CRLs). While many non-cullin neddylation substrates have been proposed over the years, validation of true NEDD8 targets has been challenging, as overexpression of exogenous NEDD8 can trigger NEDD8 conjugation through the ubiquitylation machinery. Here, we developed a deconjugation-resistant form of NEDD8 to stabilize the neddylated form of cullins and other non-cullin substrates. Using this strategy, we identified Ubc12, a NEDD8-specific E2 conjugating enzyme, as a substrate for auto-neddylation. Furthermore, we characterized SENP8/DEN1 as the protease that counteracts Ubc12 auto-neddylation, and observed aberrant neddylation of Ubc12 and other NEDD8 conjugation pathway components in SENP8-deficient cells. Importantly, loss of SENP8 function contributes to accumulation of CRL substrates and defective cell cycle progression. Thus, our study highlights the importance of SENP8 in maintaining proper neddylation levels for CRL-dependent proteostasis.