Ubiquitination of the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p is required for its recycling.
ABSTRACT: Pex5p, which is the import receptor for peroxisomal matrix proteins harboring a type I signal sequence (PTS1), is mono- and polyubiquitinated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified Pex5p as a molecular target for Pex4p-dependent monoubiquitination and demonstrated that either poly- or monoubiquitination of the receptor is required for the ATP-dependent release of the protein from the peroxisomal membrane to the cytosol as part of the receptor cycle. Therefore, the energy requirement of the peroxisomal import pathway has to be extended by a second ATP-dependent step, namely receptor monoubiquitination.
Project description:The peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) receptor, Pex5p, of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif family is located mostly in the cytosol and mediates the translocation of PTS1 proteins to peroxisomes. As a step towards understanding the mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in PTS1 recognition by Pex5p with regard to requirement of energy and cytosolic factors, using cell-free synthesized acyl-CoA oxidase (AOx) as a PTS1 cargo protein, together with Pex5p and heat-shock protein (Hsp)70 from rat liver. Pex5p was partly associated with peroxisomes of rat liver, was resistant to washing with a high concentration of salt and to alkaline extraction and was inaccessible to protease added externally. Pex5p bound to AOx in an ATP-dependent manner. AOx synthesized in a cell-free translating system from rabbit reticulocyte lysate was imported into peroxisomes without being supplemented with Pex5p and Hsp70, implying that peroxisome-associated Pex5p was released from the membranes and functional in this in vitro import assay. Antibodies against Pex5p and Hsp70 inhibited AOx import. In contrast, AOx synthesized in a wheat-germ lysate required the external addition of Pex5p for import, in which Hsp70 augmented the AOx import. The TPR domain of Pex5p was revealed to bind to the N-terminal part in an Hsp70-independent manner, whereas mutual interaction of the TPR region was noted in the presence of Hsp70. Hsp70 interacted with the TPR domain of Pex5p. Moreover, Hsp70 and ATP synergistically enhanced the binding of Pex5p to the C-terminal PTS1-containing part of AOx, implying that Pex5p recognizes its cargo PTS1 protein by chaperone-assisted as well as energy-dependent mechanisms in vivo.
Project description:We identified a Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomal membrane protein, Pex13p, that is essential for protein import. A point mutation in the COOH-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Pex13p inactivated the protein but did not affect its membrane targeting. A two-hybrid screen with the SH3 domain of Pex13p identified Pex5p, a receptor for proteins with a type I peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1), as its ligand. Pex13p SH3 interacted specifically with Pex5p in vitro. We determined, furthermore, that Pex5p was mainly present in the cytosol and only a small fraction was associated with peroxisomes. We therefore propose that Pex13p is a component of the peroxisomal protein import machinery onto which the mobile Pex5p receptor docks for the delivery of the selected PTS1 protein.
Project description:Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3-4 orders of magnitude) reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.
Project description:Import of peroxisomal matrix proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is facilitated by cytosolic import receptors Pex5p and Pex9p. While Pex5p has a broad specificity for all PTS1 proteins independent of the growth conditions, Pex9p is only expressed in fatty-acid containing media to mediate peroxisomal import of the two malate synthases, Mls1p and Mls2p, as well as the glutathione transferase Gto1p. Pex5p-cargo complexes dock at the peroxisomal membrane, translocate their cargo-protein via a transient pore and are recycled into the cytosol for a further round of import. The processing of Pex5p has been shown to require a complex network of interactions with other membrane-bound peroxins, as well as decoration with ubiquitin as signal for its ATP-dependent release and recycling. Here, we show that the alternative receptor Pex9p requires the same set of interacting peroxins to mediate peroxisomal import of Mls1p. However, while Pex5p is rather stable, Pex9p is rapidly degraded during its normal life cycle. The steady-state regulation of Pex9p, combining oleate-induced expression with high turnover rates resembles that of Pex18p, one of the two co-receptors of the PTS2-dependent targeting pathway into peroxisomes. Both Pex9p- and Pex18p-dependent import routes serve the fast metabolic adaptation to changes of carbon sources in baker's yeast. By sequence similarities, we identified another Pex9p homolog in the human pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, in which similar metabolic reprogramming strategies are crucial for survival of the pathogen.
Project description:Peroxins are proteins required for peroxisome assembly and are encoded by the PEX genes. The Yarrowia lipolytica pex5-1 mutant fails to import a subset of peroxisomal matrix proteins, including those with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). Pex5p family members interact with a PTS1 through their characteristic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. We used binding assays in vitro to investigate the nature of the association of Y. lipolytica Pex5p (YlPex5p) with the PTS1 signal. A purified recombinant YlPex5p fusion protein interacted specifically, directly and autonomously with a protein terminating in a PTS1. Wild-type YlPex5p translated in vitro recognized functional PTS1s specifically. This activity is abrogated by the substitution of an aspartic residue for a conserved glycine residue in the TPR domain (G455D) of YlPex5p encoded by the pex5-1 allele. Deletion analysis demonstrated that an intact TPR domain of YlPex5p is necessary but not sufficient for both interaction with a PTS1 and functional complementation of a strain lacking YlPex5p.
Project description:To identify members of the translocation machinery for peroxisomal proteins, we made use of the two-hybrid system to establish a protein linkage map centered around Pex5p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the receptor for the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). Among the five interaction partners identified, Pex14p was found to be induced under conditions allowing peroxisome proliferation. Deletion of the corresponding gene resulted in the inability of yeast cells to grow on oleate as well as the absence of peroxisomal structures. The PEX14 gene product of approximately 38 kDa was biochemically and ultrastructurally demonstrated to be a peroxisomal membrane protein, despite the lack of a membrane-spanning domain. This protein was shown to interact with itself, with Pex13p and with both PTS receptors, Pex5p and Pex7p, indicating a central function for the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, either as a docking protein or as a releasing factor at the organellar membrane.
Project description:The peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling import receptors that shuttle between the cytosol and the peroxisomal membrane. The import receptor Pex5p mediates the import of proteins harboring a peroxisomal targeting signal of type I (PTS1). Purified recombinant Pex5p forms a dimeric complex with the PTS1-protein Pcs60p in vitro with a KD of 0.19 ?m. To analyze the structural basis for receptor-cargo recognition, the PTS1 and adjacent amino acids of Pcs60p were systematically scanned for Pex5p binding by an in vitro site-directed photo-cross-linking approach. The cross-linked binding regions of the receptor were subsequently identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Most cross-links were found with TPR6, TPR7, as well as the 7C-loop of Pex5p. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a bivalent interaction mode for Pex5p and Pcs60p. Interestingly, Pcs60p lacking its C-terminal tripeptide sequence was efficiently cross-linked to the same regions of Pex5p. The KD value of the interaction of truncated Pcs60p and Pex5p was in the range of 7.7 ?m. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed a monovalent binding mode for the interaction of Pex5p and Pcs60p lacking the PTS1. Our data indicate that Pcs60p contains a second contact site for its receptor Pex5p, beyond the C-terminal tripeptide. The physiological relevance of the ancillary binding region was supported by in vivo import studies. The bivalent binding mode might be explained by a two-step concept as follows: first, cargo recognition and initial tethering by the PTS1-receptor Pex5p; second, lock-in of receptor and cargo.
Project description:Import of newly synthesized PTS1 proteins into the peroxisome requires the PTS1 receptor (Pex5p), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein that cycles between the cytoplasm and peroxisome. We have identified Pex13p, a novel integral peroxisomal membrane from both yeast and humans that binds the PTS1 receptor via a cytoplasmically oriented SH3 domain. Although only a small amount of Pex5p is bound to peroxisomes at steady state (< 5%), loss of Pex13p further reduces the amount of peroxisome-associated Pex5p by approximately 40-fold. Furthermore, loss of Pex13p eliminates import of peroxisomal matrix proteins that contain either the type-1 or type-2 peroxisomal targeting signal but does not affect targeting and insertion of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins. We conclude that Pex13p functions as a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTS1 receptor.
Project description:Unlike most organellar proteins, some peroxisomal proteins are often found in significant amounts in the cytosol. Such apparent import inefficiency is very marked in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) hepatocytes in which the cytosolic levels of two peroxisomal proteins, catalase and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), are much higher than those found in human (Homo sapiens) hepatocytes, for example. In an attempt to provide an explanation for this phenomenon, we have cloned the guinea pig CpPEX5 gene, which encodes the peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1 (PTS1) import receptor Pex5p, and functionally compared it with its human homologue, HsPex5p. Our results showed the following: (1) CpPEX5, like its human homologue, encodes two splice variants differing by the presence or absence of an internal region of 37 amino acids; (2) both variants were expressed in all guinea pig tissues studied; (3) both variants were equally able to complement peroxisomal import of PTS1 proteins in microinjected Deltapex5 human fibroblasts; (4) CpPex5p was as efficient as HsPex5p in mediating the peroxisomal import of proteins possessing the consensus PTS1, Ser-Lys-Leu, but much less efficient in mediating the import of proteins possessing non-consensus PTS1s (i.e. Lys-Lys-Leu of human AGT and Ala-Asn-Leu of human catalase); (5) reporter proteins with the consensus PTS1, Ser-Lys-Leu, inhibited the peroxisomal import of endogenous catalase, whereas AGT with the non-consensus Lys-Lys-Leu did not; (6) high concentrations of HsPex5p, but not CpPex5p, markedly inhibited the import of AGT, but not catalase or proteins ending in Ser-Lys-Leu; and (7) in the yeast two-hybrid system, AGT-Ser-Lys-Leu interacted with the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of HsPex5p, but AGT-Lys-Lys-Leu did not. In addition, AGT-Ser-Lys-Leu was targeted to peroxisomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas AGT-Lys-Lys-Leu was not. These data suggest that the inefficient peroxisomal import of AGT and catalase in guinea pig cells is due to the inefficiency with which CpPex5p mediates the peroxisomal import of proteins containing non-consensus PTS1s. They also suggest that the non-consensus PTS1 of human AGT might interact with HsPex5p very differently compared with the consensus PTS1, Ser-Lys-Leu.
Project description:Peroxisomes are independent organelles found in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Genetic studies have identified more than 20 PEX genes that are required for peroxisome biogenesis. The role of most PEX gene products, peroxins, remains to be determined, but a variety of studies have established that Pex5p binds the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal and is the import receptor for most newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins. The steady-state abundance of Pex5p is unaffected in most pex mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris but is severely reduced in pex4 and pex22 mutants and moderately reduced in pex1 and pex6 mutants. We used these subphenotypes to determine the epistatic relationships among several groups of pex mutants. Our results demonstrate that Pex4p acts after the peroxisome membrane synthesis factor Pex3p, the Pex5p docking factors Pex13p and Pex14p, the matrix protein import factors Pex8p, Pex10p, and Pex12p, and two other peroxins, Pex2p and Pex17p. Pex22p and the interacting AAA ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p were also found to act after Pex10p. Furthermore, Pex1p and Pex6p were found to act upstream of Pex4p and Pex22p. These results suggest that Pex1p, Pex4p, Pex6p, and Pex22p act late in peroxisomal matrix protein import, after matrix protein translocation. This hypothesis is supported by the phenotypes of the corresponding mutant strains. As has been shown previously for P. pastoris pex1, pex6, and pex22 mutant cells, we show here that pex4Delta mutant cells contain peroxisomal membrane protein-containing peroxisomes that import residual amounts of peroxisomal matrix proteins.