LMP4 regulates Tbx5 protein subcellular localization and activity.
ABSTRACT: The limb- and heart-specific Tbx5 transcription factor coexpresses with and directly binds to the novel PDZ-LIM domain protein, LMP4. LMP4 is distributed in the cytoplasm associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In the presence of LMP4, Tbx5 shuttles dynamically between the nucleus and cytoplasm and, in a complex with LMP4, localizes to actin filaments. Nuclear and cytoplasmic Tbx5 distribution in developing chicken wings suggests the functional significance of the LMP4-Tbx5 interaction. In primary epicardial cells, we demonstrate that Tbx5 protein subcellular relocalization can be stimulated by external signals that induce cell differentiation. To test whether the relocalization from nuclear to cytoplasmic sites interferes with downstream gene expression, we used limb-specific Fgf10 and heart-specific Anf promoter-luciferase reporters and demonstrate that LMP4 acts as a repressor of Tbx5 activity. These studies reveal a previously unknown mechanism for Tbx transcription factor regulation in vertebrate limb and heart development and provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of hand/heart birth defects associated with Tbx5 mutations.
Project description:The T-box transcription factor Tbx5 can interact with Nkx2.5 and Gata4 transcription factors to synergistically regulate heart-specific genes in the nucleus. While a nuclear role for Tbx5 is clearly defined, we have previously shown that Tbx5 shuttles from nuclear to cytoplasmic sites, forming a complex with the PDZ-LIM protein LMP4 on the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, using a developmental series of chicken hearts, we provide the first evidence for differential Tbx5 protein expression and sub-cellular localization during cardiogenesis. At the tissue level, we show temporally and spatially restricted Tbx5 co-expression with LMP4. In cells co-expressing LMP4 and Tbx5 we demonstrate dynamic Tbx5 re-localization from exclusively nuclear to nuclear and cytoplasmic expression in the atrio-ventricular cushion. Furthermore, in coronary vessel development we show exclusive cytoplasmic localization of Tbx5, indicating a function for Tbx5 in the cytoplasm. In addition, we discover unknown regulation of Tbx5 and LMP4 expression in epicardial tissue, suggesting a specific role for Tbx5 in epicardial formation. These studies provide in vivo significance of the LMP4/Tbx5 protein interaction, suggesting both nuclear and cytoplasmic roles for Tbx5. The shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic sites reveals a novel mechanism for Tbx transcription factor regulation in chicken heart development allowing new insights for a better understanding of the molecular basis of hand/heart birth defects associated with TBX5 mutations.
Project description:The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric. The mechanisms that ensure symmetric limb formation are unknown but they can be disrupted in disease. In Holt-Oram Syndrome (HOS), caused by mutations in TBX5, affected individuals have left-biased upper/forelimb defects. We demonstrate a role for the transcription factor Tbx5 in ensuring the symmetric formation of the left and right forelimb. In our mouse model, bilateral hypomorphic levels of Tbx5 produces asymmetric forelimb defects that are consistently more severe in the left limb than the right, phenocopying the left-biased limb defects seen in HOS patients. In Tbx hypomorphic mutants maintained on an INV mutant background, with situs inversus, the laterality of defects is reversed. Our data demonstrate an early, inherent asymmetry in the left and right limb-forming regions and that threshold levels of Tbx5 are required to overcome this asymmetry to ensure symmetric forelimb formation.
Project description:TBX5 is a T-box family transcription factor that regulates heart and forelimb development in vertebrates and functional deficiencies in this protein result in Holt-Oram syndrome. Recently, we have shown that acetylation of TBX5 potentiates its activity and is important for heart and limb development. Here we report that class II histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 associate with TBX5 and repress its role in cardiac gene transcription. Both HDAC4 and HDAC5 deacetylate TBX5, which promotes its relocation to the cytoplasm and HDAC4 antagonizes the physical association and functional cooperation between TBX5 and MEF2C. We also show that protein kinase D1 (PRKD1) relieves the HDAC4/5-mediated repression of TBX5. Thus, this study reveals a novel interaction of HDAC4/5 and PRKD1 in the regulation of TBX5 transcriptional activity.
Project description:The retinoic acid (RA)- and ?-catenin-signaling pathways regulate limb bud induction and initiation; however, their mechanisms of action are not understood and have been disputed. We demonstrate that both pathways are essential and that RA and ?-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling act cooperatively with Hox gene inputs to directly regulate Tbx5 expression. Furthermore, in contrast to previous models, we show that Tbx5 and Tbx4 expression in forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, are not sufficient for limb outgrowth and that input from RA is required. Collectively, our data indicate that RA signaling and Tbx genes act in a coherent feed-forward loop to regulate Fgf10 expression and, as a result, establish a positive feedback loop of FGF signaling between the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm. Our results incorporate RA-, ?-catenin/TCF/LEF-, and FGF-signaling pathways into a regulatory network acting to recruit cells of the embryo flank to become limb precursors.
Project description:Mutations in TBX5, a T-box-containing transcription factor, cause cardiac and limb malformations in individuals with Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS). Mutations that result in haploinsufficiency of TBX5 are purported to cause cardiac and limb defects of similar severity, whereas missense mutations, depending on their location in the T box, are thought to cause either more severe heart or more severe limb abnormalities. These inferences are, however, based on the analysis of a relatively small number of independent cases of HOS. To better understand the relationship between mutations in TBX5 and the variable expressivity of HOS, we screened the coding and noncoding regions of TBX5 and SALL4 for mutations in 55 probands with HOS. Seventeen mutations, including six missense mutations in TBX5 and two mutations in SALL4, were found in 19 kindreds with HOS. Fewer than 50% of individuals with nonsense or frameshift mutations in TBX5 had heart and limb defects of similar severity, and only 2 of 20 individuals had heart or limb malformations of the severity predicted by the location of their mutations in the T box. These results suggest that neither the type of mutation in TBX5 nor the location of a mutation in the T box is predictive of the expressivity of malformations in individuals with HOS.
Project description:The Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper limb and cardiac malformations. Mutations in the TBX5 gene cause HOS and have also been associated with isolated heart and arm defects. Interactions between the TBX5, GATA4 and NKX2.5 proteins have been reported in humans. We screened the TBX5, GATA4, and NKX2.5 genes for mutations, by direct sequencing, in 32 unrelated patients presenting classical (8) or atypical HOS (1), isolated congenital heart defects (16) or isolated upper-limb malformations (7). Pathogenic mutations in the TBX5 gene were found in four HOS patients, including two new mutations (c.374delG; c.678G > T) in typical patients, and the hotspot mutation c.835C > T in two patients, one of them with an atypical HOS phenotype involving lower-limb malformations. Two new mutations in the GATA4 gene were found in association with isolated upper-limb malformations, but their clinical significance remains to be established. A previously described possibly pathogenic mutation in the NKX2.5 gene (c.73C > 7) was detected in a patient with isolated heart malformations and also in his clinically normal father.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) express many endogenous cardiogenic transcription factors including members of the Gata, Hand, Mef2, and T-box family. Unlike its DNA-binding targets, Myocardin (Myocd)-a co-activator not only for serum response factor, but also for Gata4 and Tbx5-is not expressed in CSCs. We hypothesised that its absence was a limiting factor for reprogramming. Here, we sought to investigate the susceptibility of adult mouse Sca1+ side population CSCs to reprogramming by supplementing the triad of GATA4, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GMT), and more specifically by testing the effect of the missing co-activator, Myocd. Exogenous factors were expressed via doxycycline-inducible lentiviral vectors in various combinations. High throughput quantitative RT-PCR was used to test expression of 29 cardiac lineage markers two weeks post-induction. GMT induced more than half the analysed cardiac transcripts. However, no protein was detected for the induced sarcomeric genes Actc1, Myh6, and Myl2. Adding MYOCD to GMT affected only slightly the breadth and level of gene induction, but, importantly, triggered expression of all three proteins examined (?-cardiac actin, atrial natriuretic peptide, sarcomeric myosin heavy chains). MYOCD + TBX was the most effective pairwise combination in this system. In clonal derivatives homogenously expressing MYOCD + TBX at high levels, 93% of cardiac transcripts were up-regulated and all five proteins tested were visualized. IN SUMMARY:(1) GMT induced cardiac genes in CSCs, but not cardiac proteins under the conditions used. (2) Complementing GMT with MYOCD induced cardiac protein expression, indicating a more complete cardiac differentiation program. (3) Homogeneous transduction with MYOCD + TBX5 facilitated the identification of differentiating cells and the validation of this combinatorial reprogramming strategy. Together, these results highlight the pivotal importance of MYOCD in driving CSCs toward a cardiac muscle fate.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene and is characterized by congenital heart and preaxial radial ray upper limb defects. Most of the TBX5 mutations found in patients with HOS cause premature truncation of the primary TBX5 transcript. TBX5 missense mutations alter the three-dimensional structure of the protein and result in failed nuclear localization or reduced binding to target DNA. In this study we present our functional analyses of the novel and unusual c.1333delC mutation found in a patient with classical HOS. METHODS: The functional impact of this novel mutation was assessed by investigating the intracellular localization of the resulting TBX5 protein and its ability to activate the expression of its downstream target ANF. RESULTS: The deletion of the cytosine is the first TBX5 frameshift mutation predicted to result in an elongated TBX5 protein with 74 miscoding amino acids and 62 supernumerary C-terminal amino acids. The c.1333delC mutation affects neither the nuclear localization, nor its colocalization with SALL4, but severely affects the activation of the ANF promoter. CONCLUSION: The mutation c.1333delC does not locate within functional domains, but impairs the activation of the downstream target. This suggests that misfolding of the protein prevents its biological function.
Project description:TBX5 is essential for limb and heart development. Mutations in TBX5 are associated with Holt-Oram syndrome in humans. Due to the teleost specific genome duplication, zebrafish have two copies of TBX5: tbx5a and tbx5b. Both of these genes are expressed in regions of the lateral plate mesoderm and retina. In this study, we perform comparative RNA sequencing analysis on zebrafish embryos during the stages of lateral plate mesoderm migration. This work shows that knockdown of the Tbx5 paralogues results in altered gene expression in many tissues outside of the lateral plate mesoderm, especially in the somitic mesoderm and the intermediate mesoderm. Specifically, knockdown of tbx5b results in changes in somite size, in the differentiation of vasculature progenitors and in later patterning of trunk blood vessels.
Project description:The transcription factor Tbx5 is expressed in the developing heart, eyes and anterior appendages. Mutations in human TBX5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome, a condition characterized by heart and upper limb malformations. Tbx5-knockout mouse embryos have severely impaired forelimb and heart morphogenesis from the earliest stages of their development. However, zebrafish embryos with compromised tbx5 function show a complete absence of pectoral fins, while heart development is disturbed at significantly later developmental stages and eye development remains to be thoroughly analysed. We identified a novel tbx5 gene in zebrafish--tbx5b--that is co-expressed with its paralogue, tbx5a, in the developing eye and heart and hypothesized that functional redundancy could be occurring in these organs in embryos with impaired tbx5a function. We have now investigated the consequences of tbx5a and/or tbx5b downregulation in zebrafish to reveal that tbx5 genes have essential roles in the establishment of cardiac laterality, dorsoventral retina axis organization and pectoral fin development. Our data show that distinct relationships between tbx5 paralogues are required in a tissue-specific manner to ensure the proper morphogenesis of the three organs in which they are expressed. Furthermore, we uncover a novel role for tbx5 genes in the establishment of correct heart asymmetry in zebrafish embryos.