Nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments are ankyrin G-dependent domains that assemble by distinct mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: Axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier are sites of action potential generation and propagation, respectively. Both domains are enriched in sodium channels complexed with adhesion molecules (neurofascin [NF] 186 and NrCAM) and cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrin G and betaIV spectrin). We show that the AIS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) nodes both require ankyrin G but assemble by distinct mechanisms. The AIS is intrinsically specified; it forms independent of NF186, which is targeted to this site via intracellular interactions that require ankyrin G. In contrast, NF186 is targeted to the node, and independently cleared from the internode, by interactions of its ectodomain with myelinating Schwann cells. NF186 is critical for and initiates PNS node assembly by recruiting ankyrin G, which is required for the localization of sodium channels and the entire nodal complex. Thus, initial segments assemble from the inside out driven by the intrinsic accumulation of ankyrin G, whereas PNS nodes assemble from the outside in, specified by Schwann cells, which direct the NF186-dependent recruitment of ankyrin G.
Project description:beta-Spectrin and ankyrin are major components of the membrane cytoskeleton. We have generated mice carrying a null mutation in the betaIV-spectrin gene using gene trapping in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutation exhibit tremors and contraction of hindlimbs. betaIV-spectrin expression is mostly restricted to neurons, where it colocalizes with and binds to ankyrin-G at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier (NR). In betaIV-spectrin-null neurons, neither ankyrin-G nor voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are correctly clustered at these sites, suggesting that impaired action potential caused by mislocalization of VGSC leads to the phenotype. Conversely, in ankyrin-G-null neurons, betaIV-spectrin is not localized to these sites. These results indicate that betaIV-spectrin and ankyrin-G mutually stabilize the membrane protein cluster and the linked membrane cytoskeleton at AIS and NR.
Project description:We have investigated the source(s) and targeting of components to PNS nodes of Ranvier. We show adhesion molecules are freely diffusible within the axon membrane and accumulate at forming nodes from local sources, whereas ion channels and cytoskeletal components are largely immobile and require transport to the node. We further characterize targeting of NF186, an adhesion molecule that pioneers node formation. NF186 redistributes to nascent nodes from a mobile, surface pool. Its initial accumulation and clearance from the internode require extracellular interactions, whereas targeting to mature nodes, i.e., those flanked by paranodal junctions, requires intracellular interactions. After incorporation into the node, NF186 is immobile, stable, and promotes node integrity. Thus, nodes assemble from two sources: adhesion molecules, which initiate assembly, accumulate by diffusion trapping via interactions with Schwann cells, whereas ion channels and cytoskeletal components accumulate via subsequent transport. In mature nodes, components turnover slowly and are replenished via transport.
Project description:Action potential initiation and propagation requires clustered Na(+) (voltage-gated Na(+) [Nav]) channels at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. In addition to ion channels, these domains are characterized by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs; neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM]), cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrinG and betaIV spectrin), and the extracellular chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan brevican. Schwann cells initiate peripheral nervous system node formation by clustering NF-186, which then recruits ankyrinG and Nav channels. However, AIS assembly of this protein complex does not require glial contact. To determine the AIS assembly mechanism, we silenced expression of AIS proteins by RNA interference. AnkyrinG knockdown prevented AIS localization of all other AIS proteins. Loss of NF-186, NrCAM, Nav channels, or betaIV spectrin did not affect other neuronal AIS proteins. However, loss of NF-186 blocked assembly of the brevican-based AIS extracellular matrix, and NF-186 overexpression caused somatodendritic brevican clustering. Thus, NF-186 assembles and links the specialized brevican-containing AIS extracellular matrix to the intracellular cytoskeleton.
Project description:High densities of ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier are required for initiation, propagation, and modulation of action potentials in axons. The organization of these membrane domains depends on a specialized cytoskeleton consisting of two submembranous cytoskeletal and scaffolding proteins, ankyrinG (ankG) and betaIV spectrin. However, it is not known which of these proteins is the principal organizer, or if the mechanisms governing formation of the cytoskeleton at the AIS also apply to nodes. We identify a distinct protein domain in betaIV spectrin required for its localization to the AIS, and show that this domain mediates betaIV spectrin's interaction with ankG. Dominant-negative ankG disrupts betaIV spectrin localization, but does not alter endogenous ankG or Na(+) channel clustering at the AIS. Finally, using adenovirus for transgene delivery into myelinated neurons, we demonstrate that betaIV spectrin recruitment to nodes of Ranvier also depends on binding to ankG.
Project description:Axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier (NRs) are essential regions for saltatory conduction of the action potential along the axon. These two domains are enriched in similar multimolecular complexes, which include voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)), NF186 (neurofascin 186), NrCAM (neuron glia-related cell adhesion molecule), and cytoskeleton linkers ankyrin G (AnkG) and betaIV-spectrin. Identification of novel members of these complexes is critical to better understand their formation, function, and maintenance. Here we report that IQCJ-SCHIP-1, a recently identified isoform of schwannomin-interacting protein-1 (SCHIP-1), is a novel component of both AISs and NRs in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP-1 binds calmodulin in the absence of Ca(2+) and is highly enriched at AISs and NRs. IQCJ-SCHIP-1 accumulation at AISs and NRs is a late event, suggesting that IQCJ-SCHIP-1 is likely to play a role in mature AISs and NRs rather than during their formation. IQCJ-SCHIP-1 was not detected at AISs in the absence of AnkG and interacted in vitro with this protein. IQCJ-SCHIP-1 was also absent from central NRs and AISs of quivering mice, which have a mutation of betaIV-spectrin. We suggest that IQCJ-SCHIP-1 might participate, along with AnkG and betaIV-spectrin, in the stabilization or function of the multimolecular complexes of AISs and NRs, possibly by participating in Ca(2+)-mediated responses.
Project description:We report the identification of betaIV spectrin, a novel spectrin isolated as an interactor of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase-like protein ICA512. The betaIV spectrin gene is located on human and mouse chromosomes 19q13.13 and 7b2, respectively. Alternative splicing of betaIV spectrin generates at least four distinct isoforms, numbered betaIVSigma1-betaIVSigma4 spectrin. The longest isoform (betaIVSigma1 spectrin) includes an actin-binding domain, followed by 17 spectrin repeats, a specific domain in which the amino acid sequence ERQES is repeated four times, several putative SH3-binding sites and a pleckstrin homology domain. betaIVSigma2 and betaIVSigma3 spectrin encompass the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal halves of betaIVSigma1 spectrin, respectively, while betaIVSigma4 spectrin lacks the ERQES and the pleckstrin homology domain. Northern blots revealed an abundant expression of betaIV spectrin transcripts in brain and pancreatic islets. By immunoblotting, betaIVSigma1 spectrin is recognized as a protein of 250 kD. Anti-betaIV spectrin antibodies also react with two additional isoforms of 160 and 140 kD. These isoforms differ from betaIVSigma1 spectrin in terms of their distribution on subcellular fractionation, detergent extractability, and phosphorylation. In islets, the immunoreactivity for betaIV spectrin is more prominent in alpha than in beta cells. In brain, betaIV spectrin is enriched in myelinated neurons, where it colocalizes with ankyrin(G) 480/270-kD at axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. Likewise, betaIV spectrin is concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier in the rat sciatic nerve. In the rat hippocampus, betaIVSigma1 spectrin is detectable from embryonic day 19, concomitantly with the appearance of immunoreactivity at the initial segments. Thus, we suggest that betaIVSigma1 spectrin interacts with ankyrin(G) 480/270-kD and participates in the clustering of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and cell-adhesion molecules at initial segments and nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:The clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier is essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials in myelinated axons. Sodium channels localize to the AIS through an axon-intrinsic mechanism driven by ankyrin G, while clustering at the nodes requires cues from myelinating glia that interact with axonal neurofascin186 (Sherman et al., 2005; Dzhashiashvili et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2007). Here, we report that in zebrafish mutants lacking Schwann cells in peripheral nerves (erbb2, erbb3, and sox10/colorless), axons form numerous aberrant sodium channel clusters throughout their length. Morpholino knockdown of ankyrin G, but not neurofascin, reduces the number of sodium channel clusters in Schwann cell-deficient mutants, suggesting that these aberrant clusters form by an axon-intrinsic mechanism. We also find that gpr126 mutants, in which Schwann cells are arrested at the promyelinating stage (Monk et al., 2009), are deficient in the clustering of neurofascin at the nodes of Ranvier. When Schwann cell migration in gpr126 mutants is blocked, there is an increase in the number of neurofascin clusters in peripheral axons. Our results suggest that Schwann cells inhibit the ability of ankyrin G to cluster sodium channels at ectopic locations, restricting its activity to the AIS and nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:Saltatory conduction requires high-density accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Nodal Na(+) channel clustering in the peripheral nervous system is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through unknown mechanisms. During development, Na(+) channels are first clustered at heminodes that border each myelin segment, and later in the mature nodes that are formed by the fusion of two heminodes. Here, we show that initial clustering of Na(+) channels at heminodes requires glial NrCAM and gliomedin, as well as their axonal receptor neurofascin 186 (NF186). We further demonstrate that heminodal clustering coincides with a second, paranodal junction (PNJ)-dependent mechanism that allows Na(+) channels to accumulate at mature nodes by restricting their distribution between two growing myelin internodes. We propose that Schwann cells assemble the nodes of Ranvier by capturing Na(+) channels at heminodes and by constraining their distribution to the nodal gap. Together, these two cooperating mechanisms ensure fast and efficient conduction in myelinated nerves.
Project description:Mutations in the gene encoding the K+ channel KCNQ2 cause neonatal epilepsy and myokymia, indicating that KCNQ2 regulates the excitability of CNS neurons and motor axons, respectively. We show here that KCNQ2 channels are functional components of axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, colocalizing with ankyrin-G and voltage-dependent Na+ channels throughout the CNS and PNS. Retigabine, which opens KCNQ channels, diminishes axonal excitability. Linopirdine, which blocks KCNQ channels, prolongs the repolarization of the action potential in neonatal nerves. The clustering of KCNQ2 at nodes and initial segments lags that of ankyrin-G during development, and both ankyrin-G and KCNQ2 can be coimmunoprecipitated in the brain. KCNQ3 is also a component of some initial segments and nodes in the brain. The diminished activity of mutant KCNQ2 channels accounts for neonatal epilepsy and myokymia; the cellular locus of these effects may be axonal initial segments and nodes.
Project description:Axon initial segments (AISs) generate action potentials and regulate the polarized distribution of proteins, lipids, and organelles in neurons. While the mechanisms of AIS Na+ and K+ channel clustering are understood, the molecular mechanisms that stabilize the AIS and control neuronal polarity remain obscure. Here, we use proximity biotinylation and mass spectrometry to identify the AIS proteome. We target the biotin-ligase BirA* to the AIS by generating fusion proteins of BirA* with NF186, Ndel1, and Trim46; these chimeras map the molecular organization of AIS intracellular membrane, cytosolic, and microtubule compartments. Our experiments reveal a diverse set of biotinylated proteins not previously reported at the AIS. We show many are located at the AIS, interact with known AIS proteins, and their loss disrupts AIS structure and function. Our results provide conceptual insights and a resource for AIS molecular organization, the mechanisms of AIS stability, and polarized trafficking in neurons.