Beta4 integrin activates a Shp2-Src signaling pathway that sustains HGF-induced anchorage-independent growth.
ABSTRACT: Despite being a cell-matrix adhesion molecule, beta4 integrin can prompt the multiplication of neoplastic cells dislodged from their substrates (anchorage-independent growth). However, the molecular events underlying this atypical behavior remain partly unexplored. We found that activation of the Met receptor for hepatocyte growth factor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4, which is instrumental for integrin-mediated recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. Shp2 binding to beta4 enhances the activation of Src, which, in turn, phosphorylates the multiadaptor Gab1 predominantly on consensus sites for Grb2 association, leading to privileged stimulation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. This signaling axis can be inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated beta4 depletion, by a beta4 mutant unable to bind Shp2, and by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Shp2 or Src. Preservation of the beta4 docking sites for Shp2 as well as the integrity of Shp2, Src, or ERK activity are required for the beta4-mediated induction of anchorage-independent growth. These results unravel a novel pathway whereby beta4 directs tyrosine kinase-based signals toward adhesion-unrelated outcomes.
Project description:Neuronal differentiation involves the formation and extension of neuronal processes. We have identified a novel regulator of neurite formation and extension, the neurite outgrowth multiadaptor, NOMA-GAP, which belongs to a new family of multiadaptor proteins with RhoGAP activity. We show that NOMA-GAP is essential for NGF-stimulated neuronal differentiation and for the regulation of the ERK5 MAP kinase and the Cdc42 signaling pathways downstream of NGF. NOMA-GAP binds directly to the NGF receptor, TrkA, and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon receptor activation, thus enabling recruitment and activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Recruitment of SHP2 is required for the stimulation of neuronal process extension and for sustained activation of ERK5 downstream of NOMA-GAP. In addition, we show that NOMA-GAP promotes neurite outgrowth by tempering activation of the Cdc42/PAK signaling pathway in response to NGF. NOMA-GAP, through its dual function as a multiadaptor and RhoGAP protein, thus plays an essential role downstream of NGF in promoting neurite outgrowth and extension.
Project description:The nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 (PTPN11) has been implicated in tyrosine kinase, cytokine, and integrin receptor signaling. We show here that conditional mutation of Shp2 in neural crest cells and in myelinating Schwann cells resulted in deficits in glial development that are remarkably similar to those observed in mice mutant for Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) or the Nrg1 receptors, ErbB2 and ErbB3. In cultured Shp2 mutant Schwann cells, Nrg1-evoked cellular responses like proliferation and migration were virtually abolished, and Nrg1-dependent intracellular signaling was altered. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases mimicked all cellular and biochemical effects of the Shp2 mutation, implicating Src as a primary Shp2 target during Nrg1 signaling. Together, our genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that Shp2 is an essential component in the transduction of Nrg1/ErbB signals.
Project description:Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Project description:We have examined the mechanism and functional significance of hemidesmosome disassembly during normal epithelial cell migration and squamous carcinoma invasion. Our findings indicate that a fraction of EGF receptor (EGF-R) combines with the hemidesmosomal integrin alpha6beta4 in both normal and neoplastic keratinocytes. Activation of the EGF-R causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta4 cytoplasmic domain and disruption of hemidesmosomes. The Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 prevent tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4 and disassembly of hemidesmosomes without interfering with the activation of EGF-R. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Fyn and, to a lesser extent, Yes combine with alpha6beta4. By contrast, Src and Lck do not associate with alpha6beta4 to a significant extent. A dominant negative form of Fyn, but not Src, prevents tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4 and disassembly of hemidesmosomes. These observations suggest that the EGF-R causes disassembly of hemidesmosomes by activating Fyn, which in turn phosphorylates the beta4 cytoplasmic domain. Neoplastic cells expressing dominant negative Fyn display increased hemidesmosomes and migrate poorly in vitro in response to EGF. Furthermore, dominant negative Fyn decreases the ability of squamous carcinoma cells to invade through Matrigel in vitro and to form lung metastases following intravenous injection in nude mice. These results suggest that disruption of hemidesmosomes mediated by Fyn is a prerequisite for normal keratinocyte migration and squamous carcinoma invasion.
Project description:EphA2 is an important oncogenic protein and emerging drug target, but the oncogenic role and mechanism of ligand-independent phosphorylation of EphA2 at tyrosine 772 (pY772-EphA2) is unclear. In this study, we established nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines with stable expression of exogenous EphA2 and EphA2-Y772A (phosphorylation inactivation) using endogenous EphA2-knockdown cells, and observed that pY772A EphA2 was responsible for EphA2-promoting NPC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent and in vivo growth in mice. Mechanistically, EphA2-Y772A mediated EphA2-activating Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling pathway in the NPC cells, and Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder 1) and Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) were involved in pY772-EphA2 activating this signaling pathway. Our results further showed that Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling mediated pY772-EphA2-promoting NPC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Moreover, we observed that EphA2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 inhibited pY772-EphA2 and EphA2-Y772A decreased the inhibitory effect of ALW-II-41-27 on NPC cell proliferation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that pY772-EphA2 is responsible for EphA2-dependent NPC cell growth in vitro and in vivo by activating Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling pathway, and is a pharmacologic target of ALW-II-41-27, suggesting that pY772-EphA2 can serve as a therapeutic target in NPC and perhaps in other cancers.
Project description:The papillomavirus life cycle parallels keratinocyte differentiation in stratifying epithelia. We have previously shown that the human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8) E2 protein downregulates beta4-integrin expression in normal human keratinocytes, which may trigger subsequent differentiation steps. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA binding domain of HPV8 E2 is sufficient to displace a cellular factor from the beta4-integrin promoter. We identified the E2-displaceable factor as activator protein 1 (AP-1), a heteromeric transcription factor with differentiation-specific expression in the epithelium. beta4-Integrin-positive epithelial cells displayed strong AP-1 binding activity. Both AP-1 binding activity and beta4-integrin expression were coregulated during keratinocyte differentiation suggesting the involvement of AP-1 in beta4-integrin expression. In normal human keratinocytes the AP-1 complex was composed of JunB and Fra-1 subunits. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that JunB/Fra-1 proteins interact in vivo with the beta4-integrin promoter and that JunB/Fra-1 promoter occupancy is reduced during keratinocyte differentiation as well as in HPV8 E2 positive keratinocytes. Ectopic expression of the tethered JunB/Fra-1 heterodimer in normal human keratinocytes activated the beta4-integrin promoter, while coexpression of HPV8 E2 reverted the JunB/Fra-1 effect. In summary, we identified a novel mechanism of human beta4-integrin regulation that is specifically targeted by the HPV8 E2 protein mimicking transcriptional conditions of differentiation. This may explain the early steps of how HPV8 commits its host cells to the differentiation process required for the viral life cycle.
Project description:Activation of the RAS/ERK and its downstream signaling components is essential for growth factor-induced cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 ( Ptpn11), is a positive mediator required for most, if not all, receptor tyrosine kinase-evoked RAS/ERK activation, but differentially regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade in various cellular contexts. The precise mechanisms underlying the differential effects of SHP2 deficiency on the PI3K pathway remain unclear. We found that mice with myelomonocytic cell-specific [ Tg(LysM-Cre); Ptpn11fl/fl mice] Ptpn11 deficiency exhibit mild osteopetrosis. SHP2-deficient bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) showed decreased proliferation in response to M-CSF and decreased osteoclast generation. M-CSF-evoked ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas AKT activation was enhanced in SHP2-deficient BMMs. ERK1/2, via its downstream target RSK2, mediates this negative feedback by negatively regulating phosphorylation of M-CSF receptor at Tyr721 and, consequently, its binding to p85 subunit of PI3K and PI3K activation. Pharmacologic inhibition of RSK or ERK phenotypically mimics the signaling defects observed in SHP2-deficient BMMs. Furthermore, this increase in PI3K/AKT activation enables BMM survival in the setting of SHP2 deficiency.-Wang, L., Iorio, C., Yan, K., Yang, H., Takeshita, S., Kang, S., Neel, B.G., Yang, W. An ERK/RSK-mediated negative feedback loop regulates M-CSF-evoked PI3K/AKT activation in macrophages.
Project description:alpha6beta4 integrin, a component of hemidesmosomes, also plays a role in keratinocyte migration via signaling through Rac1 to the actin-severing protein cofilin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the beta4 integrin-associated plakin protein, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1e (BPAG1e) functions as a scaffold for Rac1/cofilin signal transduction. We generated keratinocyte lines exhibiting a stable knockdown in BPAG1e expression. Knockdown of BPAG1e does not affect expression levels of other hemidesmosomal proteins, nor the amount of beta4 integrin expressed at the cell surface. However, the amount of Rac1 associating with beta4 integrin and the activity of both Rac1 and cofilin are significantly lower in BPAG1e-deficient cells compared with wild-type keratinocytes. In addition, keratinocytes deficient in BPAG1e exhibit loss of front-to-rear polarity and display aberrant motility. These defects are rescued by inducing expression of constitutively active Rac1 or active cofilin. These data indicate that the BPAG1e is required for efficient regulation of keratinocyte polarity and migration by determining the activation of Rac1.
Project description:Whether alpha6beta4 integrin regulates migration remains controversial. beta4 integrin-deficient (JEB) keratinocytes display aberrant migration in that they move in circles, a behavior that mirrors the circular arrays of laminin (LM)-332 in their matrix. In contrast, wild-type keratinocytes and JEB keratinocytes, induced to express beta4 integrin, assemble laminin-332 in linear tracks over which they migrate. Moreover, laminin-332-dependent migration of JEB keratinocytes along linear tracks is restored when cells are plated on wild-type keratinocyte matrix, whereas wild-type keratinocytes show rotation over circular arrays of laminn-332 in JEB keratinocyte matrix. The activities of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton-severing protein cofilin are low in JEB keratinocytes compared with wild-type cells but are rescued following expression of wild-type beta4 integrin in JEB cells. Additionally, in wild-type keratinocytes Rac1 is complexed with alpha6beta4 integrin. Moreover, Rac1 or cofilin inactivation induces wild-type keratinocytes to move in circles over rings of laminin-332 in their matrix. Together these data indicate that laminin-332 matrix organization is determined by the alpha6beta4 integrin/actin cytoskeleton via Rac1/cofilin signaling. Furthermore, our results imply that the organizational state of laminin-332 is a key determinant of the motility behavior of keratinocytes, an essential element of skin wound healing and the successful invasion of epidermal-derived tumor cells.
Project description:p27(BBP/eIF6) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that was originally identified as p27(BBP), an interactor of the cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta4 and, independently, as the putative translation initiation factor eIF6. To establish the in vivo function of p27(BBP/eIF6), its topographical distribution was investigated in mammalian cells and the effects of disrupting the corresponding gene was studied in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In epithelial cells containing beta4 integrin, p27(BBP/eIF6) is present in the cytoplasm and enriched at hemidesmosomes with a pattern similar to that of beta4 integrin. Surprisingly, in the absence and in the presence of the beta4 integrin subunit, p27(BBP/eIF6) is in the nucleolus and associated with the nuclear matrix. Deletion of the IIH S. cerevisiae gene, encoding the yeast p27(BBP/eIF6) homologue, is lethal, and depletion of the corresponding gene product is associated with a dramatic decrease of the level of free ribosomal 60S subunit. Furthermore, human p27(BBP/eIF6) can rescue the lethal effect of the iihDelta yeast mutation. The data obtained in vivo suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of p27(BBP/eIF6) in ribosome biogenesis or assembly rather than in translation. A further function related to the beta4 integrin subunit may have evolved specifically in higher eukaryotic cells.