Functional dissection of Rab GTPases involved in primary cilium formation.
ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are sensory structures involved in morphogen signalling during development, liquid flow in the kidney, mechanosensation, sight, and smell (Badano, J.L., N. Mitsuma, P.L. Beales, and N. Katsanis. 2006. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 7:125-148; Singla, V., and J.F. Reiter. 2006. Science. 313:629-633.). Mutations that affect primary cilia are responsible for several diseases, including neural tube defects, polycystic kidney disease, retinal degeneration, and cancers (Badano et al., 2006; Singla and Reiter, 2006). Primary cilia formation and function requires tight integration of the microtubule cytoskeleton with membrane trafficking (Singla and Reiter, 2006), and this is poorly understood. We show that the Rab GTPase membrane trafficking regulators Rab8a, -17, and -23, and their cognate GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), XM_037557, TBC1D7, and EVI5like, are involved in primary cilia formation. However, other human Rabs and GAPs are not. Additionally, Rab8a specifically interacts with cenexin/ODF2, a basal body and microtubule binding protein required for cilium biogenesis (Ishikawa, H., A. Kubo, S. Tsukita, and S. Tsukita. 2005. Nat. Cell Biol. 7:517-524), and is the sole Rab enriched at primary cilia. These findings provide a basis for understanding how specific membrane trafficking pathways cooperate with the microtubule cytoskeleton to give rise to the primary cilia.
Project description:The Rab GTPases are the largest family of proteins regulating membrane traffic. Rab proteins form a nidus for the assembly of multiprotein complexes on distinct vesicle membranes to regulate particular membrane trafficking pathways. Recent investigations have demonstrated that Myosin Vb (Myo5B) is an effector for Rab8a, Rab10, and Rab11a, all of which are implicated in regulating different pathways for recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane. It remains unclear how specific interactions of Myo5B with individual Rab proteins can lead to specificity in the regulation of alternate trafficking pathways. We examined the relative contributions of Rab/Myo5B interactions with specific pathways using Myo5B mutants lacking binding to either Rab11a or Rab8a. Myo5B Q1300L and Y1307C mutations abolished Rab8a association, whereas Myo5B Y1714E and Q1748R mutations uncoupled association with Rab11a. Expression of Myo5B tails containing these mutants demonstrated that Rab11a, but not Rab8a, was required for recycling of transferrin in nonpolarized cells. In contrast, in polarized epithelial cyst cultures, Myo5B was required for apical membrane trafficking and de novo lumen formation, dependent on association with both Rab8a and Rab11a. These data demonstrate that different combinations of Rab GTPase association with Myo5B control distinct membrane trafficking pathways.
Project description:We previously reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases on a conserved residue in their switch-II domains (Steger et al., 2016) (PMID: 26824392). Here, we systematically analyzed the Rab protein family and found 14 of them (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab5A/B/C, Rab8A/B, Rab10, Rab12, Rab29, Rab35 and Rab43) to be specifically phosphorylated by LRRK2, with evidence for endogenous phosphorylation for ten of them (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab8A/B, Rab10, Rab12, Rab35 and Rab43). Affinity enrichment mass spectrometry revealed that the primary ciliogenesis regulator, RILPL1 specifically interacts with the LRRK2-phosphorylated forms of Rab8A and Rab10, whereas RILPL2 binds to phosphorylated Rab8A, Rab10, and Rab12. Induction of primary cilia formation by serum starvation led to a two-fold reduction in ciliogenesis in fibroblasts derived from pathogenic LRRK2-R1441G knock-in mice. These results implicate LRRK2 in primary ciliogenesis and suggest that Rab-mediated protein transport and/or signaling defects at cilia may contribute to LRRK2-dependent pathologies.
Project description:Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous microtubule-based organelles involved in signal transduction. Cilia are anchored inside the cell through basal bodies (BBs), modified centrioles also acting as microtubule-organization centers. Photoreceptors (PRs) are sensory neurons, whose primary cilium forms a highly specialized compartment called the outer segment (OS) responsible for sensing incoming light. Thus, ciliopathies often present with retinal degeneration. Mutations in KIAA0586/TALPID3 (TA3) cause Joubert syndrome, in which 30% of affected individuals develop retinal involvement. To elucidate the function of TALPID3 in PRs, we studied talpid3 zebrafish mutants and identified a progressive retinal degeneration phenotype. The majority of PRs lack OS development due to defects in BB positioning and docking at the apical cell surface. Intracellular accumulation of the photopigment opsin leads to PR cell death of moderate severity. Electroretinograms demonstrate severe visual impairement. A small subset of PRs display normally docked BBs and extended OSs through rescue by maternally-deposited Talpid3. While localization of the small GTPase Rab8a, which plays an important role in BB docking, appears unaffected in talpid3-/- PRs, overexpression of constitutively active Rab8a rescues OS formation, indicating that the role of Ta3 in early ciliogenesis lies upstream of Rab8a activation in PRs.
Project description:We have identified Talpid3/KIAA0586 as a component of a CP110-containing protein complex important for centrosome and cilia function. Talpid3 assembles a ring-like structure at the extreme distal end of centrioles. Ablation of Talpid3 resulted in an aberrant distribution of centriolar satellites involved in protein trafficking to centrosomes as well as cilia assembly defects, reminiscent of loss of Cep290, another CP110-associated protein. Talpid3 depletion also led to mislocalization of Rab8a, a small GTPase thought to be essential for ciliary vesicle formation. Expression of activated Rab8a suppressed cilia assembly defects provoked by Talpid3 depletion, suggesting that Talpid3 affects cilia formation through Rab8a recruitment and/or activation. Remarkably, ultrastructural analyses showed that Talpid3 is required for centriolar satellite dispersal, which precedes the formation of mature ciliary vesicles, a process requiring Cep290. These studies suggest that Talpid3 and Cep290 play overlapping and distinct roles in ciliary vesicle formation through regulation of centriolar satellite accretion and Rab8a.
Project description:Primary cilia are nonmotile organelles implicated in signaling and sensory functions. Understanding how primary cilia assemble could shed light on the many human diseases caused by mutations in ciliary proteins. The centrosomal protein CP110 is known to suppress ciliogenesis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that CP110 interacts with CEP290--a protein whose deficiency is implicated in human ciliary disease--in a discrete complex separable from other CP110 complexes involved in regulating the centrosome cycle. Ablation of CEP290 prevents ciliogenesis without affecting centrosome function or cell-cycle progression. Interaction with CEP290 is absolutely required for the ability of CP110 to suppress primary cilia formation. Furthermore, CEP290 and CP110 interact with Rab8a, a small GTPase required for cilia assembly. Depletion of CEP290 interferes with localization of Rab8a to centrosomes and cilia. Our results suggest that CEP290 cooperates with Rab8a to promote ciliogenesis and that this function is antagonized by CP110.
Project description:Rab family small GTPases are master regulators of distinct steps of intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. GDP-bound cytoplasmic forms of Rab proteins are prone to aggregation due to the exposure of hydrophobic groups but the machinery that determines the fate of Rab species in the cytosol has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we find that BAG6 (BAT3/ Scythe) predominantly recognizes a cryptic portion of GDP-associated Rab8a, while its major GTP-bound active form is not recognized. The hydrophobic residues of the Switch I region of Rab8a are essential for its interaction with BAG6 and the degradation of GDP-Rab8a via the ubiquitin-proteasome system . BAG6 prevents the excess accumulation of inactive Rab8a, whose accumulation impairs intracellular membrane trafficking. BAG6 binds not only Rab8a but also a functionally distinct set of Rab family proteins, and is also required for the correct distribution of Golgi and endosomal markers. From these observations, we suggest that Rab proteins represent a novel set of substrates for BAG6, and the BAG6-mediated pathway is associated with the regulation of membrane vesicle trafficking events in mammalian cells.
Project description:Rab family small GTPases are master regulators of distinct steps of intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. GDP-bound cytoplasmic forms of Rab proteins are prone to aggregation due to the exposure of hydrophobic groups but the machinery that determines the fate of Rab species in the cytosol has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we find that BAG6 (BAT3/Scythe) predominantly recognizes a cryptic portion of GDP-associated Rab8a, while its major GTP-bound active form is not recognized. The hydrophobic residues of the Switch I region of Rab8a are essential for its interaction with BAG6 and the degradation of GDP-Rab8a via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. BAG6 prevents the excess accumulation of inactive Rab8a, whose accumulation impairs intracellular membrane trafficking. BAG6 binds not only Rab8a but also a functionally distinct set of Rab family proteins, and is also required for the correct distribution of Golgi and endosomal markers. From these observations, we suggest that Rab proteins represent a novel set of substrates for BAG6, and the BAG6-mediated pathway is associated with the regulation of membrane vesicle trafficking events in mammalian cells.
Project description:Primary cilia regulate polarized protein trafficking in photoreceptors, which are dynamic and highly compartmentalized sensory neurons of retina. The ciliary protein Cep290 modulates cilia formation and is frequently mutated in syndromic and non-syndromic photoreceptor degeneration. However, the underlying mechanism of associated retinopathy is unclear. Using the Cep290 mutant mouse rd16 (retinal degeneration 16), we show that Cep290-mediated photoreceptor degeneration is associated with aberrant accumulation of its novel interacting partner Rkip (Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein). This effect is phenocopied by morpholino-mediated depletion of cep290 in zebrafish. We further demonstrate that ectopic accumulation of Rkip leads to defective cilia formation in zebrafish and cultured cells, an effect mediated by its interaction with the ciliary GTPase Rab8A. Our data suggest that Rkip prevents cilia formation and is associated with Cep290-mediated photoreceptor degeneration. Furthermore, our results indicate that preventing accumulation of Rkip could potentially ameliorate such degeneration.
Project description:The primary non-motile cilium, a membrane-ensheathed, microtubule-bundled organelle, extends from virtually all cells and is important for development. Normal functioning of the cilium requires proper axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis and ciliary protein localization, in tight coordination with the intraflagellar transport system and vesicular trafficking. Disruptions at any level can induce severe alterations in cell function, giving rise to a myriad of human genetic diseases known as ciliopathies. Here we show that the Abelson helper integration site 1 (Ahi1) gene, whose human ortholog is mutated in Joubert syndrome, regulates cilium formation via its interaction with Rab8a, a small GTPase critical for polarized membrane trafficking. We find that the Ahi1 protein localizes to a single centriole, the mother centriole, which becomes the basal body of the primary cilium. In order to determine whether Ahi1 functions in ciliogenesis, loss of function analysis of Ahi1 was performed in cell culture models of ciliogenesis. Knockdown of Ahi1 expression by shRNAi in cells or targeted deletion of Ahi1 (Ahi1 knockout mouse) leads to impairments in ciliogenesis. In Ahi1-knockdown cells, Rab8a is destabilized and does not properly localize to the basal body. Since Rab8a is implicated in vesicular trafficking, we next examined this process in Ahi1-knockdown cells. Defects in the trafficking of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and back to the plasma membrane were observed in Ahi1-knockdown cells. Overall, our data indicate that the distribution and functioning of Rab8a is regulated by Ahi1, not only affecting cilium formation, but also vesicle transport.
Project description:Primary cilia are microtubule-based membrane projections located at the surface of many cells. Defects in primary cilia formation have been implicated in a number of genetic disorders, such as Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and Polycystic Kidney Disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that polarized vesicular transport involving Rab8 and its guanine nucleotide-exchange factor Rabin8 is essential for primary ciliogenesis. Here we report that Rabin8 is a direct downstream effector of Rab11, which functions in membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes. Rab11, in its GTP-bound form, interacts with Rabin8 and kinetically stimulates the guanine nucleotide-exchange activity of Rabin8 toward Rab8. Rab11 is enriched at the base of the primary cilia and inhibition of Rab11 function by a dominant-negative mutant or RNA interference blocks primary ciliogenesis. Our results suggest that Rab GTPases coordinate with each other in the regulation of vesicular trafficking during primary ciliogenesis.