Adaptation and response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to bile: a proteomic and physiological approach.
ABSTRACT: Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology.
Project description:The growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its derivative with acquired resistance to bile, B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx, was evaluated in batch cultures with glucose or the glucose disaccharide maltose as the main carbon source. The acquisition of bile salt resistance caused a change in growth pattern for both sugars, which mainly resulted in a preferential use of maltose compared to glucose, whereas the mother strain used both carbohydrates in a similar way. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to determine the amounts of glucose consumption and organic acid and ethanol formation from glucose by buffered resting cells taken at different points during growth. Resting cells of the bile-adapted strain generally consumed less glucose than those of the nonadapted one but showed an enhanced production of ethanol and higher acetic acid-to-lactic acid as well as formic acid-to-lactic acid ratios. These findings suggest a shift in the catabolism of carbohydrates promoted by the acquisition of bile resistance that may cause changes in the redox potential and improvements in the cellular ATP yield.
Project description:Bifidobacteria are normal inhabitants of the human gut. Some strains of this genus are considered health promoting or probiotic, being included in numerous food products. In order to exert their health benefits, these bacteria must overcome biological barriers, including bile salts, to colonize and survive in specific parts of the intestinal tract. The role of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters in bile resistance of probiotic bacteria and the effect of bile on probiotic gene expression are not fully understood. In the present study, the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of bile on the expression levels of predicted MDR genes from three different bifidobacterial strains, belonging to Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, was tested. In this way, two putative MDR genes whose expression was induced by bile, BL0920 from B. longum and its homolog, Bbr0838, from B. breve, were identified. The expression of the BL0920 gene in Escherichia coli was shown to confer resistance to bile, likely to be mediated by active efflux from the cells. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first identified bifidobacterial bile efflux pump whose expression is induced by bile.
Project description:By using cryo-scanning electron microscopy and quantification with lectin-conjugated probes, we have detected the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in the presence of bile. In addition, the expression of gtf01207, which codifies a putative priming glycosyltransferase involved in EPS synthesis, was induced by bile.
Project description:The proteolytic system of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was analyzed, and an intracellular endopeptidase (PepO) was identified and characterized. This work reports the first complete cloning, purification, and characterization of a proteolytic enzyme in Bifidobacterium spp. Aminopeptidase activities (general aminopeptidases, proline iminopeptidase, X-prolyl dipeptidylaminopeptidase) found in cell extracts of B. animalis subsp. lactis were higher for cells that had been grown in a milk-based medium than for those grown in MRS. A high specific proline iminopeptidase activity was observed in B. animalis subsp. lactis. Whole cells and cell wall-bound protein fractions showed no caseinolytic activity; however, the combined action of intracellular proteolytic enzymes could hydrolyze casein fractions rapidly. The endopeptidase activity of B. animalis subsp. lactis was examined in more detail, and the gene encoding an endopeptidase O in B. animalis subsp. lactis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequence for B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO indicated that it is a member of the M13 peptidase family of zinc metallopeptidases and displays 67.4% sequence homology with the predicted PepO protein from Bifidobacterium longum. The recombinant enzyme was shown to be a 74-kDa monomer. Activity of B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO was found with oligopeptide substrates of at least 5 amino acid residues, such as met-enkephalin, and with larger substrates, such as the 23-amino-acid peptide alpha s1-casein(f1-23). The predominant peptide bond cleaved by B. animalis subsp. lactis PepO was on the N-terminal side of phenylalanine residues. The enzyme also showed a post-proline secondary cleavage site.
Project description:Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group.
Project description:Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 is a probiotic bacterium that is widely exploited by food industries as the active ingredient of various functional foods. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis BLC1, which is expected to provide insights into the biology of this health-promoting microorganism and improve our understanding of its phylogenetic relatedness with other members of the B. animalis subsp. lactis taxon.
Project description:Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gut flora, especially in infants. Comparative genomic analysis of two Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains revealed evolution by internal deletion of consecutive spacer-repeat units within a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus, which represented the largest differential content between the two genomes. Additionally, 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, consisting primarily of nonsynonymous mutations, indicating positive selection and/or recent divergence. A particular nonsynonymous mutation in a putative glucose transporter was linked to a negative phenotypic effect on the ability of the variant to catabolize glucose, consistent with a modification in the predicted protein transmembrane topology. Comparative genome sequence analysis of three Bifidobacterium species provided a core genome set of 1,117 orthologs complemented by a pan-genome of 2,445 genes. The genome sequences of the intestinal bacterium B. animalis subsp. lactis provide insights into rapid genome evolution and the genetic basis for adaptation to the human gut environment, notably with regard to catabolism of dietary carbohydrates, resistance to bile and acid, and interaction with the intestinal epithelium. The high degree of genome conservation observed between the two strains in terms of size, organization, and sequence is indicative of a genomically monomorphic subspecies and explains the inability to differentiate the strains by standard techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Project description:Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains.
Project description:The relationship between Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium animalis was examined by comparative analysis of tuf and recA gene sequences and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their internal 16S-23S transcribed spacer region sequences. The bifidobacterial strains investigated could be divided into two distinct groups within a single species based on the tuf, recA, and 16S-23S spacer region sequence analysis. Therefore, all strains of B. lactis and B. animalis could be unified as the species B. animalis and divided into two subspecies, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis.
Project description:Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain V9 is a Chinese commercial bifidobacteria with several probiotic functions. It was isolated from a healthy Mongolian child in China. We present here the complete genome sequence of V9 and compare it to 3 other published genome sequences of B. animalis subsp. lactis strains. The result indicates the lack of polymorphism among strains of this subspecies from different continents.