Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.
ABSTRACT: A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.
Project description:A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment rather than the type or batch of flour largely determines the development of a stable LAB population in sourdoughs.
Project description:Teff and teff sourdoughs are promising ingredients for bread production. Therefore, this study aimed at the characterization of spontaneous and flour-native starter culture-initiated teff sourdough productions under bakery and laboratory conditions. Backslopped laboratory and bakery teff sourdough productions were characterized by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, but were both characterized by a pH below 4.0 after five backslopping steps. The sourdough-associated Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was isolated for the first time from backslopped spontaneous teff sourdoughs. The autochthonous strain L. sanfranciscensis IMDO 150101 was tested as starter culture during laboratory teff sourdough fermentations. Its prevalence could be related to the process conditions applied, in particular the ambient temperature (below 30°C). Breads made with 20% teff sourdough (on flour basis) displayed interesting features compared with all-wheat-based reference breads. Teff sourdoughs were characterized as to their pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and microbial species composition. Representative strains of the LAB species isolated from these sourdoughs, in particular L. sanfranciscensis, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable teff sourdoughs and flavorful breads, provided they are adapted to the environmental conditions applied.
Project description:Hundreds of sourdoughs have been investigated in the last decades. However, many studies used a culture-dependent and/or culture-independent microbiological approach [mainly based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons], seldomly combined with a metabolite target analysis, to characterize the microbial species communities of the sourdoughs examined. Moreover, attention was mainly paid on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species. In the present study, distinct household-scale (including an artisan lambic brewery) and artisan bakery-scale backslopped sourdoughs (17 in total), obtained from different regions (Belgium, France, United Kingdom, and USA), were examined through a multiphasic approach, encompassing a culture-dependent analysis [targeting LAB, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and yeasts], different culture-independent techniques [rRNA-PCR-DGGE, metagenetics, and metagenomics (four bakery sourdoughs)], and metabolite target analysis. It turned out that the microbial species diversity of the sourdoughs was influenced by the house microbiota of the producer. Further, when the producer made use of different flours, the sourdoughs harbored similar microbial communities, independent of the flour used. AAB were only present in the Belgian sourdoughs, which might again be related to the processing environment. Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly known as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) was the prevalent LAB species of the eight sourdoughs produced by two of the three bakeries of different countries analyzed. These sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Kazachstania humilis. Moreover, the presence of Fl. sanfranciscensis was positively correlated with the production of mannitol and negatively correlated with the presence of other LAB or AAB species. Sourdoughs produced in an artisan lambic brewery were characterized by the presence of the yeast species Dekkera anomala and Pichia membranifaciens. One household sourdough was characterized by the presence of uncommon species, such as Pediococcus parvulus and Pichia fermentans. Metagenomic sequencing allowed the detection of many more LAB and AAB species than the other methods applied, which opened new frontiers for the understanding of the microbial communities involved during sourdough production processes.
Project description:The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads.
Project description:This study aimed at assessing the effect of tap water on the: (i) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population of a traditional and mature sourdough; and (ii) establishment of LAB community during sourdough preparation. Ten tap water, collected from Italian regions characterized by cultural heritage in leavened baked goods, were used as ingredient for propagating or preparing firm (type I) sourdoughs. The same type and batch of flour, recipe, fermentation temperature and time were used for propagation/preparation, being water the only variable parameter. During nine days of propagation of a traditional and mature Apulian sourdough, LAB cell density did not differ, and the LAB species/strain composition hardly changed, regardless of the water. When the different tap water were used for preparing the corresponding sourdoughs, the values of pH became lower than 4.5 after two to four fermentations. The type of water affected the assembly of the LAB biome. As shown by Principal Components Analysis, LAB population in the sourdoughs and chemical and microbiological features of water used for their preparation partly overlapped. Several correlations were found between sourdough microbiota and water features. These data open the way to future researches about the use of various types of water in bakery industry.
Project description:Food consumers make decisions primarily on the basis of a product's nutritional, functional, and sensorial aspects. In this context, this study evaluated the persistence in sourdough of a multistrain starter culture from laboratory to bakery plant production and the effect of the starter on antioxidant and rheological properties of sourdoughs and derived bread. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis B450, Leuconostoc citreum B435, and Candida milleri L999 were used as a multispecies starter culture to produce a sourdough subsequently used to modify two traditional sourdoughs to make novel bread with improved health and rheological properties. Both these novel bakery sourdoughs showed the persistence of L. sanfranciscensis B450 and C. milleri L999, and showed a significantly different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) concentration from the traditional sourdoughs. The novel sourdough PF7 M had a higher phenolic content (170% increase) and DPPH (8% increase) than the traditional bakery sourdough PF7 F. The novel sourdough PF9 M exhibited an improvement in textural parameters. Further research would be useful on the bioavailability of bio-active compounds to obtain bread with improved characteristics.
Project description:Four sourdoughs (A to D) were produced under practical conditions by using a starter mixture of three commercially available sourdough starters and a baker's yeast constitutively containing various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The sourdoughs were continuously propagated until the composition of the LAB flora remained stable. Two LAB-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems were established and used to monitor the development of the microflora. Depending on the prevailing ecological conditions in the different sourdough fermentations, only a few Lactobacillus species were found to be competitive and became dominant. In sourdough A (traditional process with rye flour), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and a new species, L. mindensis, were detected. In rye flour sourdoughs B and C, which differed in the process temperature, exclusively L. crispatus and L. pontis became the predominant species in sourdough B and L. crispatus, L. panis, and L. frumenti became the predominant species in sourdough C. On the other hand, in sourdough D (corresponding to sourdough C but produced with rye bran), L. johnsonii and L. reuteri were found. The results of PCR-DGGE were consistent with those obtained by culturing, except for sourdough B, in which L. fermentum was also detected. Isolates of the species L. sanfranciscensis and L. fermentum were shown by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to originate from the commercial starters and the baker's yeast, respectively.
Project description:Sourdough fermentation is a traditional process that is used to improve bread quality. A spontaneous sourdough ecosystem consists of a mixture of flour and water that is fermented by endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial diversity during backslopping of spontaneous sourdoughs prepared from wheat, spelt, or rye wholemeal flour. Culture-dependent analyses showed that the number of LAB (109 CFU/ml) was higher by three orders of magnitude than the number of yeasts (106 CFU/ml), irrespective of the flour type. These results were complemented by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rDNA V3 and V4 variable regions. The dominant phylum in all sourdough samples was Firmicutes, which was represented exclusively by the Lactobacillales order. The two remaining and less abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The culture-independent approach allowed us to detect changes in microbial ecology during the 72-hr fermentation period. Weissella sp. was the most abundant genus after 24 hr of fermentation of the rye sourdough, but as the process progressed, its abundance decreased in favor of the Lactobacillus genus similarly as in wheat and spelt sourdoughs. The Lactobacillus genus was dominant in all sourdoughs after 72 hr, which was consistent with our results obtained using culture-dependent analyses. This work was carried out to determine the microbial biodiversity of sourdoughs that are made from wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour and can be used as a source of strains for specific starter cultures to produce functional bread.
Project description:Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.
Project description:Sourdough fermentation presents several advantageous effects in bread making, like improved nutritional quality and increased shelf life. Three types of experiments aimed to evaluate comparatively the efficiency of two Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains, Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. casei ATCC 393, to metabolize different white wheat flour and soybeans flour combinations to compare their efficiency, together with/without Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sourdough fermentation. For this purpose, the viability, pH, organic acids, and secondary metabolites production were investigated, together with the dynamic rheological properties of the sourdough. During sourdough fermentation, LAB presented higher growth, and the pH decreased significantly from above pH 6 at 0 h to values under 4 at 24 h for each experiment. Co-cultures of LAB and yeast produced a higher quantity of lactic acid than single cultures, especially in sourdough enriched with soy-flour. In general, sourdoughs displayed a stable, elastic-like behavior, and the incorporation of soy-flour conferred higher elasticity in comparison with sourdoughs without soy-flour. The higher elasticity of sourdoughs enriched with soy-flour can be attributed to the fact that through frozen storage, soy proteins have better water holding capacity. In conclusion, sourdough supplemented with 10% soy-flour had better rheological properties, increased lactic, acetic, and citric acid production.