Verifying 4D gated radiotherapy using time-integrated electronic portal imaging: a phantom and clinical study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT) can decrease treatment toxicity by allowing for smaller treatment volumes for mobile tumors. RGRT is commonly performed using external surrogates of tumor motion. We describe the use of time-integrated electronic portal imaging (TI-EPI) to verify the position of internal structures during RGRT delivery METHODS: TI-EPI portals were generated by continuously collecting exit dose data (aSi500 EPID, Portal vision, Varian Medical Systems) when a respiratory motion phantom was irradiated during expiration, inspiration and free breathing phases. RGRT was delivered using the Varian RPM system, and grey value profile plots over a fixed trajectory were used to study object positions. Time-related positional information was derived by subtracting grey values from TI-EPI portals sharing the pixel matrix. TI-EPI portals were also collected in 2 patients undergoing RPM-triggered RGRT for a lung and hepatic tumor (with fiducial markers), and corresponding planning 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans were analyzed for motion amplitude. RESULTS: Integral grey values of phantom TI-EPI portals correlated well with mean object position in all respiratory phases. Cranio-caudal motion of internal structures ranged from 17.5-20.0 mm on planning 4DCT scans. TI-EPI of bronchial images reproduced with a mean value of 5.3 mm (1 SD 3.0 mm) located cranial to planned position. Mean hepatic fiducial markers reproduced with 3.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm) caudal to planned position. After bony alignment to exclude set-up errors, mean displacement in the two structures was 2.8 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively, and corresponding reproducibility in anatomy improved to 1.6 mm (1 SD). CONCLUSION: TI-EPI appears to be a promising method for verifying delivery of RGRT. The RPM system was a good indirect surrogate of internal anatomy, but use of TI-EPI allowed for a direct link between anatomy and breathing patterns.
Project description:Respiratory motion may significantly affect the outcome in a number of medical imaging techniques and some radiation therapy applications. 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and respiratory gating technology, which account for the dynamics of respiration, are expensive and often unavailable in smaller radiation treatment centers. Here we evaluate the ability of an inexpensive, technology comprised of two capacitors placed next to the skin to provide real-time respiratory phase information. Three subjects were simultaneously monitored by the new capacitor-based device (CBD) and a commercially available Real time Position Management (RPM) system by Varian. All respiratory phases detected by the RPM system were also detected by the CBD. Automatically detected peaks were not significantly different in timing when comparing RPM and CBD-derived respiratory amplitudes. The anatomic locations of the CBD were varied to evaluate the change in signal quality across the abdomen and thorax. CBD signals were reliable on the abdomen and lower thorax but degraded when recorded from the upper thorax. We also used computed tomography (CT) to assess the imaging characteristics of CBD and found that there were minimal artifacts. We therefore conclude that CBD respiratory amplitude measurements may be useful for tracking respiratory movements as part of a number of advanced radiation therapy technologies including 4DCT image resorting, adaptive radiation therapy and gated radiation therapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:To develop a physical, adaptive motion perturbation model to predict tumor motion using feedback from dynamic measurement of breathing conditions to compensate for breathing irregularities. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model was developed to predict tumor motion variations caused by breathing irregularities. This model contained 2 terms: the initial tumor motion trajectory, measured from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, and motion perturbation, calculated from breathing variations in tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP). The motion perturbation was derived from the patient-specific anatomy, tumor-specific location, and time-dependent breathing variations. Ten patients were studied, and 2 amplitude-binned 4DCT images for each patient were acquired within 2 weeks. The motion trajectories of 40 corresponding bifurcation points in both 4DCT images of each patient were obtained using deformable image registration. An in-house 4D data processing toolbox was developed to calculate the TV and BP as functions of the breathing phase. The motion was predicted from the simulation 4DCT scan to the treatment 4DCT scan, and vice versa, resulting in 800 predictions. For comparison, noncorrected motion differences and the predictions from a published 5-dimensional model were used. RESULTS:The average motion range in the superoinferior direction was 9.4 ± 4.4 mm, the average ?TV ranged from 10 to 248 mm3 (-26% to 61%), and the ?BP ranged from 0 to 0.2 (-71% to 333%) between the 2 4DCT scans. The mean noncorrected motion difference was 2.0 ± 2.8 mm between 2 4DCT motion trajectories. After applying the RMP model, the mean motion difference was reduced significantly to 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.0018), a 40% improvement, similar to the 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.72) predicted with the 5-dimensional model. CONCLUSIONS:A novel physical RMP model was developed with an average accuracy of 1.2 ± 1.8 mm for interfraction motion prediction, similar to that of a published lung motion model. This physical RMP was analytically derived and is able to adapt to breathing irregularities. Further improvement of this RMP model is under investigation.
Project description:As a counterpart of 4DCT in the treatment planning stage of radiotherapy treatment, 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) method has been proposed to verify tumor motion trajectories before radiation therapy treatment delivery. Besides 4DCBCT acquisition using slower gantry rotation speed or multiple rotations, a new method using the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) image reconstruction method and the standard 1-min data acquisition were proposed. In this paper, the PICCS-4DCBCT method was combined with deformable registration to validate its capability in motion trajectory extraction using physical phantom data, simulated human subject data from 4DCT and in vivo human subject data.Two methods were used to validate PICCS-4DCBCT for the purpose of respiratory motion delineation. The standard 1-min gantry rotation Cone Beam CT acquisition was used for both methods. In the first method, 4DCBCT projection data of a physical motion phantom were acquired using an on-board CBCT acquisition system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Using a deformable registration method, the object motion trajectories were extracted from both FBP and PICCS reconstructed 4DCBCT images, and compared against the programmed motion trajectories. In the second method, using a clinical 4DCT dataset, Cone Beam CT projections were simulated by forward projection. Using a deformable registration method, the tumor motion trajectories were extracted from the reconstructed 4DCT and PICCS-4DCBCT images. The performance of PICCS-4DCBCT is assessed against the 4DCT ground truth. The breathing period was varied in the simulation to study its effect on motion extraction. For both validation methods, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the maximum of the errors (MaxE) were used to quantify the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories. After the validation, a clinical dataset was used to demonstrate the motion delineation capability of PICCS-4DCBCT for human subjects.In both validation studies, the RMSEs of the extracted motion trajectories from PICCS-4DCBCT images are less than 0.7 mm, and their MaxEs are less than 1 mm, for all three directions. In comparison, FBP-4DCBCT shows considerably larger RMSEs in the physical phantom based validation. PICCS-4DCBCT also shows insensitivity to the breathing period in the 4DCT based validation. For the in vivo human subject study, high quality 3D motion trajectory of the tumor was obtained from PICCS-4DCBCT images and showed consistency with visual observation.These results demonstrate accurate delineation of tumor motion trajectory can be achieved using PICCS-4DCBCT and the standard 1-min data acquisition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is extensively used in adults, reluctance remains to use 4DCT in children. Day-to-day (interfractional) variability and irregular respiration (intrafractional variability) have shown to be limiting factors of 4DCT effectiveness in adults. In order to evaluate 4DCT applicability in children, the purpose of this study is to quantify inter- and intrafractional variability of respiratory motion in children and adults. The pooled analysis enables a solid comparison to reveal if 4DCT application for planning purposes in children could be valid. METHODS/MATERIALS:We retrospectively included 90 patients (45 children and 45 adults), for whom the diaphragm was visible on abdominal/thoracic free-breathing cone beam CTs (480 pediatric, 524 adult CBCTs). For each CBCT, the cranial-caudal position of end-exhale and end-inhale positions of the right diaphragm dome were manually selected in the projection images. The difference in position between both phases defines the amplitude. Cycle time equaled inspiratory plus expiratory time. We analyzed the variability of the inter- and intrafractional respiratory-induced diaphragm motion. RESULTS:Ranges of respiratory motion characteristics were large in both children and adults (amplitude: 4-17 vs 5-24 mm, cycle time 2.1-3.9 vs 2.7-6.5 s). The mean amplitude was slightly smaller in children than in adults (10.7 vs 12.3 mm; P = 0.06). Interfractional amplitude variability was statistically significantly smaller in children than in adults (1.4 vs 2.2 mm; P = 0.00). Mean cycle time was statistically significantly shorter in children (2.9 vs 3.6 s; P = 0.00). Additionally, intrafractional cycle time variability was statistically significantly smaller in children (0.5 vs 0.7 s; P = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS:Overall variability is smaller in children than in adults, indicating that respiratory motion is more regular in children than in adults. This implies that a single pretreatment 4DCT could be a good representation of daily respiratory motion in children and will be at least equally beneficial for planning purposes as it is in adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In adults, a single pre-treatment four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) acquisition is often used to account for respiratory-induced target motion during radiotherapy. However, studies have indicated that a 4D-CT is not always representative for respiratory motion. Our aim was to investigate whether respiratory-induced diaphragm motion in children on a single pre-treatment 4DCT can accurately predict respiratory-induced diaphragm motion as observed on cone beam CTs (CBCTs). METHODS:Twelve patients (mean age 14.5 yrs.; range 8.6-17.9 yrs) were retrospectively included based on visibility of the diaphragm on abdominal or thoracic imaging data acquired during free breathing. A 4DCT for planning purposes and daily/weekly CBCTs (total 125; range 4-29 per patient) acquired prior to dose delivery were available. The amplitude, corresponding to the difference in position of the diaphragm in cranial-caudal direction in end-inspiration and end-expiration phases, was extracted from the 4DCT (A4DCT). The amplitude in CBCTs (ACBCT) was defined as displacement between averaged in- and expiration diaphragm positions on corresponding projection images, and the distribution of ACBCT was compared to A4DCT (one-sample t-test, significance level p?< 0.05). RESULTS:Over all patients, the mean A4DCT was 10.4 mm and the mean ACBCT 11.6 mm. For 9/12 patients, A4DCT differed significantly (p <?0.05) from ACBCT. Differences >?3 mm were found in 69/125 CBCTs (55%), with A4DCT mostly underestimating ACBCT. For 7/12 patients, diaphragm positions differed significantly from the baseline position. CONCLUSION:Respiratory-induced diaphragm motion determined on 4DCT does not accurately predict the daily respiratory-induced diaphragm motion observed on CBCTs, as the amplitude and baseline position differed statistically significantly in the majority of patients. Regular monitoring of respiratory motion during the treatment course using CBCTs could yield a higher accuracy when a daily adaptation to the actual breathing amplitude takes place.
Project description:Surrogate-driven respiratory motion models relate the motion of the internal anatomy to easily acquired respiratory surrogate signals, such as the motion of the skin surface. They are usually built by first using image registration to determine the motion from a number of dynamic images, and then fitting a correspondence model relating the motion to the surrogate signals. In this paper we present a generalized framework that unifies the image registration and correspondence model fitting into a single optimization. This allows the use of 'partial' imaging data, such as individual slices, projections, or k-space data, where it would not be possible to determine the motion from an individual frame of data. Motion compensated image reconstruction can also be incorporated using an iterative approach, so that both the motion and a motion-free image can be estimated from the partial image data. The framework has been applied to real 4DCT, Cine CT, multi-slice CT, and multi-slice MR data, as well as simulated datasets from a computer phantom. This includes the use of a super-resolution reconstruction method for the multi-slice MR data. Good results were obtained for all datasets, including quantitative results for the 4DCT and phantom datasets where the ground truth motion was known or could be estimated.
Project description:While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery.The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion.A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in the phantom (2 mm, 2%), and 90.8% (3 mm, 3%)for the patient data.We have demonstrated a method for accurately reproducing proton dose to an irregularly moving target from a single CT image. We believe this algorithm could prove a useful tool to study the dosimetric impact of baseline shifts either before or during treatment.
Project description:The aim of this study is to develop an internal-external correlation model for internal motion estimation for lung cancer radiotherapy. Deformation vector fields that characterize the internal-external motion are obtained by respectively registering the internal organ meshes and external surface meshes from the 4DCT images via a recently developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm. A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal phasic DVFs with external phasic and directional DVFs. Principle component analysis is then applied to the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics, and generate model parameters to correlate the internal-external motion. The proposed model is evaluated on a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and 4DCT images from five lung cancer patients. For tumor tracking, the center of mass errors of the tracked tumor are 0.8(±0.5)mm/0.8(±0.4)mm for synthetic data, and 1.3(±1.0)mm/1.2(±1.2)mm for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. For lung tracking, the percent errors of the tracked contours are 0.06(±0.02)/0.07(±0.03) for synthetic data, and 0.06(±0.02)/0.06(±0.02) for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. The extensive validations have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed model in motion tracking for both the tumor and the lung in lung cancer radiotherapy.
Project description:Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom.The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam "diaphragm" that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external-internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom-(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT).The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.25 mm RMS error. The motion trajectories of internal and external radio-opaque markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R > 0.95). Using the phantom, it was demonstrated that the motion trajectories of regions-of-interest on the surface as measured by VisionRT are highly consistent with corresponding fluoroscopically acquired surface marker trajectories, with RMS errors within 0.26 mm. Furthermore, it was shown that the trajectories of external and internal marker trajectories derived from NiftyReg deformation vector fields were within 1 mm root mean square errors comparing to trajectories obtained by segmenting markers from individual fluoro frames. Finally, it was shown that while 4DCT can be used to localize internal markers for sinusoidal motion with reasonable accuracy, the localization error increases significantly (by a factor of ? 2) in the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations that are observed in patient-derived respiratory motion.The authors have developed a realistic externally and internally deformable, programmable lung phantom that will serve as a valuable tool for clinical and investigational motion management studies in thoracic and abdominal radiation therapies.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), four-dimensional CT (4DCT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP) of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume), internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 10 mm in cranial-caudal (CC) direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM) of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated.The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP not included in ITVCBCT were 57.08%, 48.89%, and 20.04%, respectively.The use of the individual ITV derived from 4DCT merely based on bony registration in radiotherapy may result in a target miss. The ITVs derived from 3DCT with isotropic margins have a good coverage of the ITV from CBCT, but the use of those would result in a high proportion of normal tissue being irradiated unnecessarily.