Tyrosine-sulfated glycopeptide involved in cellular proliferation and expansion in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Posttranslational modification can confer special functions to peptides. Based on exhaustive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis targeting tyrosine-sulfated peptides, we identified an 18-aa tyrosine-sulfated glycopeptide in Arabidopsis cell suspension culture medium. This peptide, which we named PSY1, significantly promotes cellular proliferation and expansion at nanomolar concentrations. PSY1 is widely expressed in various Arabidopsis tissues, including shoot apical meristem, and is highly up-regulated by wounding. Perception of PSY1 depends on At1g72300, which is a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) whose two paralogs are involved in the perception of phytosulfokine (PSK), which is a 5-aa tyrosine-sulfated peptide that primarily promotes cellular proliferation. Multiple loss-of-function mutations in these three paralogous LRR-RKs significantly enhanced phenotypes, compared with single disruptants, suggesting that these LRR-RKs have overlapping functions. Triple mutations in these LRR-RKs resulted in dwarfism because of decreases in cell number and cell size and caused insufficiency in tissue repair after wounding. The present results suggest that this paralogous LRR-RK family integrates growth-promoting signals mediated by two structurally distinct sulfated peptides: PSY1 and PSK.
Project description:Plants use leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) to sense sequence diverse peptide hormones at the cell surface. A 3.0-Å crystal structure of the LRR-RK GSO1/SGN3 regulating Casparian strip formation in the endodermis reveals a large spiral-shaped ectodomain. The domain provides a binding platform for 21 amino acid CIF peptide ligands, which are tyrosine sulfated by the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase TPST/SGN2. GSO1/SGN3 harbors a binding pocket for sulfotyrosine and makes extended backbone interactions with CIF2. Quantitative biochemical comparisons reveal that GSO1/SGN3-CIF2 represents one of the strongest receptor-ligand pairs known in plants. Multiple missense mutations are required to block CIF2 binding in vitro and GSO1/SGN3 function in vivo. Using structure-guided sequence analysis we uncover previously uncharacterized CIF peptides conserved among higher plants. Quantitative binding assays with known and novel CIFs suggest that the homologous LRR-RKs GSO1/SGN3 and GSO2 have evolved unique peptide binding properties to control different developmental processes. A quantitative biochemical interaction screen, a CIF peptide antagonist and genetic analyses together implicate SERK proteins as essential coreceptor kinases required for GSO1/SGN3 and GSO2 receptor activation. Our work provides a mechanistic framework for the recognition of sequence-divergent peptide hormones in plants.
Project description:In recent years, secreted peptides have been recognized as essential mediators of intercellular communication which governs plant growth, development, environmental interactions, and other mediated biological responses, such as stem cell homeostasis, cell proliferation, wound healing, hormone sensation, immune defense, and symbiosis, among others. Many of the known secreted peptide ligand receptors belong to the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) family of membrane integral receptors, which contain more than 200 members within Arabidopsis making it the largest family of plant receptor kinases (RKs). Genetic and biochemical studies have provided valuable data regarding peptide ligands and LRR-RKs, however, visualization of ligand/LRR-RK complex structures at the atomic level is vital to understand the functions of LRR-RKs and their mediated biological processes. The structures of many plant LRR-RK receptors in complex with corresponding ligands have been solved by X-ray crystallography, revealing new mechanisms of ligand-induced receptor kinase activation. In this review, we briefly elaborate the peptide ligands, and aim to detail the structures and mechanisms of LRR-RK activation as induced by secreted peptide ligands within plants.
Project description:In plants, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RKs) perceive ligands, including peptides and small molecules, to regulate various physiological processes. TDIF, a member of the CLE peptide family, specifically interacts with the LRR-RK TDR to inhibit meristem differentiation into tracheary elements, and promotes cell proliferation. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of TDR in complex with the TDIF peptide. The extracellular domain of TDR adopts a superhelical structure comprising 22 LRRs, and specifically recognizes TDIF by its inner concave surface. Together with our biochemical and sequence analyses, our structure reveals a conserved TDIF-recognition mechanism of TDR among plant species. Furthermore, a structural comparison of TDR with other plant LRR-RKs suggested the activation mechanism of TDR by TDIF. The structure of this CLE peptide receptor provides insights into the recognition mechanism of the CLE family peptides.
Project description:In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.
Project description:The endogenous peptides AtPep1-8 in Arabidopsis mature from the conserved C-terminal portions of their precursor proteins PROPEP1-8, respectively. The two homologous leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) PEPR1 and PEPR2 act as receptors of AtPeps. AtPep binding leads to stable association of PEPR1,2 with the shared receptor LRR-RK BAK1, eliciting immune responses similar to those induced by pathogens. Here we report a crystal structure of the extracellular LRR domain of PEPR1 (PEPR1LRR) in complex with AtPep1. The structure reveals that AtPep1 adopts a fully extended conformation and binds to the inner surface of the superhelical PEPR1LRR. Biochemical assays showed that AtPep1 is capable of inducing PEPR1LRR-BAK1LRR heterodimerization. The conserved C-terminal portion of AtPep1 dominates AtPep1 binding to PEPR1LRR, with the last amino acid of AtPep1 Asn23 forming extensive interactions with PEPR1LRR. Deletion of the last residue of AtPep1 significantly compromised AtPep1 interaction with PEPR1LRR. Together, our data reveal a conserved structural mechanism of AtPep1 recognition by PEPR1, providing significant insight into prediction of recognition of other peptides by their cognate LRR-RKs.
Project description:A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development.
Project description:The cells of multicellular organisms receive extracellular signals using surface receptors. The extracellular domains (ECDs) of cell surface receptors function as interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of receptor activation. Understanding how interactions between ECDs produce signal-competent receptor complexes is challenging because of their low biochemical tractability. In plants, the discovery of ECD interactions is complicated by the massive expansion of receptor families, which creates tremendous potential for changeover in receptor interactions. The largest of these families in Arabidopsis thaliana consists of 225 evolutionarily related leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs), which function in the sensing of microorganisms, cell expansion, stomata development and stem-cell maintenance. Although the principles that govern LRR-RK signalling activation are emerging, the systems-level organization of this family of proteins is unknown. Here, to address this, we investigated 40,000 potential ECD interactions using a sensitized high-throughput interaction assay, and produced an LRR-based cell surface interaction network (CSILRR) that consists of 567 interactions. To demonstrate the power of CSILRR for detecting biologically relevant interactions, we predicted and validated the functions of uncharacterized LRR-RKs in plant growth and immunity. In addition, we show that CSILRR operates as a unified regulatory network in which the LRR-RKs most crucial for its overall structure are required to prevent the aberrant signalling of receptors that are several network-steps away. Thus, plants have evolved LRR-RK networks to process extracellular signals into carefully balanced responses.
Project description:Transportation of the immobile sperms directed by pollen tubes to the ovule-enclosed female gametophytes is important for plant sexual reproduction. The defensin-like (DEFL) cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) LUREs play an essential role in pollen tube attraction to the ovule, though their receptors still remain controversial. Here we provide several lines of biochemical evidence showing that the extracellular domain of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) PRK6 from Arabidopsis thaliana directly interacts with AtLURE1 peptides. Structural study reveals that a C-terminal loop of the LRR domain (AtPRK6LRR) is responsible for recognition of AtLURE1.2, mediated by a set of residues largely conserved among PRK6 homologs from Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella, supported by in vitro mutagenesis and semi-in-vivo pollen tube growth assays. Our study provides evidence showing that PRK6 functions as a receptor of the LURE peptides in A. thaliana and reveals a unique ligand recognition mechanism of LRR-RKs.
Project description:Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification common in peptides and proteins synthesized by the secretory pathway in most eukaryotes. In plants, this modification is critical for the biological activities of a subset of peptide hormones such as PSK and PSY1. In animals, tyrosine sulfation is catalyzed by Golgi-localized type II transmembrane proteins called tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPSTs). However, no orthologs of animal TPST genes have been found in plants, suggesting that plants have evolved plant-specific TPSTs structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. To investigate the mechanisms of tyrosine sulfation in plants, we purified TPST activity from microsomal fractions of Arabidopsis MM2d cells, and identified a 62-kDa protein that specifically interacts with the sulfation motif of PSY1 precursor peptide. This protein is a 500-aa type I transmembrane protein that shows no sequence similarity to animal TPSTs. A recombinant version of this protein expressed in yeast catalyzed tyrosine sulfation of both PSY1 and PSK precursor polypeptide in vitro, indicating that the newly identified protein is indeed an Arabidopsis (At)TPST. AtTPST is expressed throughout the plant body, and the highest levels of expression are in the root apical meristem. A loss-of-function mutant of AtTPST displayed a marked dwarf phenotype accompanied by stunted roots, pale green leaves, reduction in higher order veins, early senescence, and a reduced number of flowers and siliques. Our results indicate that plants and animals independently acquired tyrosine sulfation enzymes through convergent evolution.
Project description:Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat ectodomains (LRR-RKs) can sense small molecule, peptide, and protein ligands. Many LRR-RKs require SERK-family coreceptor kinases for high-affinity ligand binding and receptor activation. How one coreceptor can contribute to the specific binding of distinct ligands and activation of different LRR-RKs is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyze the contribution of SERK3 to ligand binding and activation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the peptide hormone receptor HAESA. We show that while the isolated receptors sense their respective ligands with drastically different binding affinities, the SERK3 ectodomain binds the ligand-associated receptors with very similar binding kinetics. We identify residues in the SERK3 N-terminal capping domain, which allow for selective steroid and peptide hormone recognition. In contrast, residues in the SERK3 LRR core form a second, constitutive receptor-coreceptor interface. Genetic analyses of protein chimera between BRI1 and SERK3 define that signaling-competent complexes are formed by receptor-coreceptor heteromerization in planta. A functional BRI1-HAESA chimera suggests that the receptor activation mechanism is conserved among different LRR-RKs, and that their signaling specificity is encoded in the kinase domain of the receptor. Our work pinpoints the relative contributions of receptor, ligand, and coreceptor to the formation and activation of SERK-dependent LRR-RK signaling complexes regulating plant growth and development.