Regulation of VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion by TGF-beta2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: VEGF secretion by the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) plays an important role in retinal and choroidal neovascularization. In this study, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression was investigated in hRPE cells. Treatment of hRPE cells with TGF-beta2 for 24 and 48h as compared to 8h resulted in markedly increased VEGF secretion by fivefold and nine-fold, respectively. Induced VEGF mRNA peaked within 3h of stimulation and remained above the basal at 36h. Stimulation of VEGF expression by TGF-beta2 was blocked by cycloheximide, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis is required. Induced VEGF production was strongly inhibited by anti-inflammatory agents, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A. Despite of the weak stimulation of VEGF expression by TNF-alpha or bFGF alone, co-administration of either of these two cytokines synergized the effect of TGF-beta2 on VEGF mRNA expression and protein production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the synergy was predominantly at the level of VEGF transcription. Moreover, TGF-beta2-induced RPE VEGF secretion was significantly reduced by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MEK) (U0126), p38 (SB202190), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), Sp600125, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) (Genistein), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (Ly294002). Induced VEGF expression was completely abrogated by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) (Ro318220), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) [caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)], and reactive oxygen species (ROS) [N-acetyl-cysteine (Nac) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)]. These results suggest that MEK, p38, JNK, PI3K, and NF-kappaB as well as multiple essential signaling intermediates, including PKC, PTK and ROS, are involved in hRPE VEGF up regulation by TGF-beta2.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a sight threating retinal eye disease that affects millions of aging individuals world-wide. Choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-neuroretina axis in the posterior compartment of the eye is the primary site of AMD pathology. There are compelling evidence to indicate association of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) to AMD. Here, we report the inhibitory actions of resveratrol (RSV) on inflammatory cytokine, TGF-? and hypoxia induced VEGF secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPE). HRPE cultures prepared from aged human donor eyes were used for the studies in this report. HRPE secreted both VEGF-A and VEGF-C in small quantities constitutively. Stimulation with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?), significantly increased the secretion of both VEGF-A and VEGF-C. RSV, in a dose dependent (10-50 uM) manner, suppressed VEGF-A and VEGF-C secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines significantly. RT-PCR analysis indicated that effects of RSV on VEGF secretion were possibly due to decreased mRNA levels. TGF-? and cobalt chloride (hypoxia mimic) also upregulated HRPE cell production of VEGF-A, and this was inhibited by RSV. In contrast, RSV had no effect on anti-angiogenic molecules, endostatin and pigment epithelial derived factor secretion. Studies using an in vitro scratch assay revealed that wound closure was also inhibited by RSV. These results demonstrate that RSV can suppress VEGF secretion induced by inflammatory cytokines, TGF-? and hypoxia. Under pathological conditions, over expression of VEGF is known to worsen AMD. Therefore, RSV may be useful as nutraceutical in controlling pathological choroidal neovascularization processes in AMD.
Project description:A distinct structural change in the trabecular meshwork (TM) of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the increase in fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) in the juxtacanalicular region of the TM. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 signaling may be involved, as TGF-beta2 is significantly increased in the aqueous humor of patients with POAG. In cultured human TM cells, TGF-beta2 causes an increase in ECM deposition, an effect that is blunted or prevented, if BMP7 is added in combination with TGF-beta2. In order to know more about the signaling network that is induced in HTM cells treated with BMP7, TGF-beta2 or the combination of both factors, we identified differentially regulated genes by microarray analysis, and confirmed selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, or immunohistochemistry. We observed multiple effects of both TGF-beta2 and BMP7 on the expression of a considerable number of genes involved in growth factor signaling, ECM structure and turnover, and modification of the cytoskeleton. Among the genes that were found to be regulated were CAPZA1, CDC42BPB, EFEMP1, FGF5, FSTL3, HBEGF, LTBP1, LTBP2, MATN2, NRP1, SERPINE1, SH3MD1, SMTN, SMAD7, TFPI2, TNFAIP6, and VEGF. Since SMAD7 encodes for Smad7, an inhibitory Smad that acts in a negative-feedback loop to inhibit TGF-beta activity, we silenced Smad7 mRNA in cultured human TM cells by a specific small interfering RNA. Silencing of its mRNA caused a substantial knock down of Smad7 in TM cells. Following combined BMP7/TGF-beta2 treatment, the antagonizing effect of BMP7 on TGF-beta2-induced CTGF expression was abolished. We conclude that Smad7 is the key molecular switch that inhibits TGF-beta2 signaling, and mediates the blunting effects of BMP7 on TGF-beta2 in TM cells. A therapeutic modulation of Smad7 might be a promising approach to influence ECM turnover in the TM and to treat POAG.
Project description:NF-kappaB activation is an important mechanism of mammalian UV response to protect cells. UV-induced NF-kappaB activation depends on the casein kinase II (CK2) phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at a cluster of C-terminal sites, but how it is regulated remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that beta-arrestin2 can function as an effective suppressor of UV-induced NF-kappaB activation through its direct interaction with IkappaBalpha. CK2 phosphorylation of beta-arrestin2 blocks its interaction with IkappaBalpha and abolishes its suppression of NF-kappaB activation, indicating that the beta-arrestin2 phosphorylation is critical. Moreover, stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors, a representative of G-protein-coupled receptors in epidermal cells, promotes dephosphorylation of beta-arrestin2 and its suppression of NF-kappaB activation. Consequently, the beta-arrestin2 suppression leads to promotion of UV-induced cell death, which is also under regulation of beta-arrestin2 phosphorylation. Thus, beta-arrestin2 is identified as a phosphorylation-regulated suppressor of UV response and this may play a functional role in the response of epidermal cells to UV.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important proangiogenic protein. We have demonstrated that ATL-1, a synthetic analogue of aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4), inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ATL-1 in several other actions stimulated by VEGF. METHODS: Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with ATL-1 for 30 min before stimulation with VEGF. Cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation. Adherent cells were determined by fluorescence intensity using a Multilabel counter. Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were analysed by western blot and zymography. KEY RESULTS: ATL-1 inhibited EC adhesion to fibronectin via interaction with its specific receptor. Furthermore, VEGF-induced MMP-9 activity and expression were reduced by pretreatment with ATL-1. Because the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been implicated in VEGF-mediated MMP expression and EC proliferation, we postulated that ATL-1 might modulate the NF-kappaB pathway and, indeed, ATL-1 inhibited NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Pretreatment of EC with ATL-1 strongly decreased VEGF-dependent phosphorylation of phosphainositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), two signalling kinases involved in EC proliferation. Inhibition of VEGF-induced EC proliferation by ATL-1 was antagonized by sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that this inhibitory activity was mediated by a protein tyrosine phosphatase. This was confirmed by showing that ATL-1 inhibition of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) phosphorylation correlates with SHP-1 association with VEGFR-2. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The synthetic 15-epi-lipoxin analogue, ATL-1, is a highly potent molecule exerting its effects on multiple steps of the VEGF-induced angiogenesis.
Project description:Nod1 and Nod2 are intracellular proteins that are involved in host recognition of specific bacterial molecules and are genetically associated with several inflammatory diseases. Nod1 and Nod2 stimulation activates NF-kappaB through RICK, a caspase-recruitment domain-containing kinase. However, the mechanism by which RICK activates NF-kappaB in response to Nod1 and Nod2 stimulation is unknown. Here we show that RICK is conjugated with lysine-63-linked polyubiquitin chains at lysine 209 (K209) located in its kinase domain upon Nod1 or Nod2 stimulation and by induced oligomerization of RICK. Polyubiquitination of RICK at K209 was essential for RICK-mediated IKK activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion. However, RICK polyubiquitination did not require the kinase activity of RICK or alter the interaction of RICK with NEMO, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase (IKK). Instead, polyubiquitination of RICK was found to mediate the recruitment of TAK1, a kinase that was found to be essential for Nod1-induced signaling. Thus, RICK polyubiquitination links TAK1 to IKK complexes, a critical step in Nod1/Nod2-mediated NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a homodimeric member of the cystine knot family of growth factors, with limited sequence homology to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta). We have determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.5 A, and identified its kinase domain receptor (KDR) binding site using mutational analysis. Overall, the VEGF monomer resembles that of PDGF, but its N-terminal segment is helical rather than extended. The dimerization mode of VEGF is similar to that of PDGF and very different from that of TGF-beta. Mutational analysis of VEGF reveals that symmetrical binding sites for KDR are located at each pole of the VEGF homodimer. Each site contains two functional "hot spots" composed of binding determinants presented across the subunit interface. The two most important determinants are located within the largest hot spot on a short, three-stranded sheet that is conserved in PDGF and TGF-beta. Functional analysis of the binding epitopes for two receptor-blocking antibodies reveal different binding determinants near each of the KDR binding hot spots.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the therapeutic effects of fursultiamine on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) through its modulation of inflammation and metabolic reprogramming in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Methods:The anti-angiogenic effects of fursultiamine were assessed by measuring vascular leakage and CNV lesion size in the laser-induced CNV mouse model. Inflammatory responses were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and ELISA in both CNV eye tissues and in vitro cell cultures using ARPE-19 cells or primary human RPE (hRPE) cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment or hypoxia. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by measuring oxygen consumption in ARPE-19 cells treated with LPS with or without fursultiamine, and lactate production was measured in ARPE-19 cells subjected to hypoxia with or without fursultiamine. Results:In laser-induced CNV, fursultiamine significantly decreased vascular leakage and lesion size, as well as the numbers of both choroidal and retinal inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?. In LPS-treated ARPE-19 cells, fursultiamine decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation. Furthermore, fursultiamine suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in primary hRPE cells. Interestingly, fursultiamine significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration in the LPS-treated ARPE-19 cells. Additionally, fursultiamine attenuated hypoxia-induced aberrations, including lactate production and inhibitory phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, fursultiamine attenuated hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion and mitochondrial fission in primary hRPE cells that were replicated in ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions:Our findings show that fursultiamine is a viable putative therapeutic for neovascular age-related macular degeneration by modulating the inflammatory response and metabolic reprogramming by enhancing mitochondrial respiration in the RPE.
Project description:Integrin-mediated signals play an important but poorly understood role in regulating many leucocyte functions. In monocytes and macrophages, integrins of the beta2 subfamily are involved in cell-cell interactions that are important for migration of the cells through the endothelium and also for phagocytosis. On the other hand, in the same cells, beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins results in a strong induction of immediate early genes that are important in inflammation. To investigate the signalling pathways from these two types of integrin in monocytic cells, THP-1 cells were selectively stimulated via beta1 or beta2 integrins by cross-linking each type of receptor with specific monoclonal antibodies or their natural ligands. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Syk and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) was then analysed. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation was also detected in THP-1 cells transiently transfected with an NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter gene. We found that binding of both types of integrin to their natural ligands activated ERK in a Syk- and PI-3K-dependent manner. Yet, cross-linking of integrins by anti-beta1 antibodies caused activation of ERK while that by anti-beta2 antibodies did not. Also both types of integrin activated NF-kappaB. However, PI-3K was required for beta1 integrin-, but not beta2 integrin-, mediated NF-kappaB activation. In addition, inhibition of PI-3K with wortmannin and LY294002 blocked beta1 integrin-mediated NF-kappaB activation, but did not affect that mediated by beta2 integrin. These data suggest that distinct integrins activate different signalling pathways in monocytic cells.
Project description:The conversion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter occurs frequently during mammary tumorigenesis, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain undefined. We show herein that TGF-beta repressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in normal NMuMG cells, but activated this transcription factor in their malignant counterparts, 4T1 cells, by inducing assembly of TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 1 (TAB1):I kappaB kinase beta (IKK beta) complexes, which led to the stimulation of a TAK1:IKK beta:p65 pathway. TAB1:IKK beta complexes could only be detected in NMuMG cells following their induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which, on TGF-beta treatment, activated NF-kappaB. Expression of a truncated TAB1 mutant [i.e., TAB1(411)] reduced basal and TGF-beta-mediated NF-kappaB activation in NMuMG cells driven to undergo EMT by TGF-beta and in 4T1 cells stimulated by TGF-beta. TAB1(411) expression also inhibited TGF-beta-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in 4T1 cells. Additionally, the ability of human MCF10A-CA1a breast cancer cells to undergo invasion in response to TGF-beta absolutely required the activities of TAK1 and NF-kappaB. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated TAK1 deficiency restored the cytostatic activity of TGF-beta in MCF10A-CA1a cells. Finally, expression of truncated TAB1(411) dramatically reduced the growth of 4T1 breast cancers in syngeneic BALB/c, as well as in nude mice, suggesting a potentially important role of NF-kappaB in regulating innate immunity by TGF-beta. Collectively, our findings have defined a novel TAB1:TAK1:IKK beta:NF-kappaB signaling axis that forms aberrantly in breast cancer cells and, consequently, enables oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta.
Project description:We have previously shown that in the presence of elevated Smad3, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) transforms from an inhibitor to a stimulant of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and intimal hyperplasia (IH). Here we identify a novel mechanism through which TGF-?/Smad3 also exacerbates IH by inhibiting SMC apoptosis. We found that TGF-? treatment led to inhibition of apoptosis in rat SMCs following viral expression of Smad3. Conditioned media from these cells when applied to naive SMCs recapitulated this effect, suggesting an autocrine pathway through a secreted factor. Gene array of TGF-?/Smad3-treated cells revealed enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a known inhibitor of endothelial cell apoptosis. We then evaluated whether VEGF is the secreted mediator responsible for TGF-?/Smad3 inhibition of SMC apoptosis. In TGF-?/Smad3-treated cells, VEGF mRNA and protein as well as VEGF secretion were increased. Moreover, recombinant VEGF-A inhibited SMC apoptosis and a VEGF-A-neutralizing antibody reversed the inhibitory effect of conditioned media on SMC apoptosis. Stimulation of SMCs with TGF-? led to the formation of a complex of Smad3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) that in turn activated the VEGF-A promoter and transcription. In rat carotid arteries following arterial injury, Smad3 and VEGF-A expression were upregulated. Moreover, Smad3 gene transfer further enhanced VEGF expression as well as inhibited SMC apoptosis. Finally, blocking either the VEGF receptor or Smad3 signaling in injured carotid arteries abrogated the inhibitory effect of Smad3 on vascular SMC apoptosis. Taken together, our study reveals that following angioplasty, elevation of both TGF-? and Smad3 leads to SMC secretion of VEGF-A that functions as an autocrine inhibitor of SMC apoptosis. This novel pathway provides further insights into the role of TGF-? in the development of IH.