Subcellular distribution of human RDM1 protein isoforms and their nucleolar accumulation in response to heat shock and proteotoxic stress.
ABSTRACT: The RDM1 gene encodes a RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein involved in the cellular response to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin in vertebrates. We previously reported a cDNA encoding the full-length human RDM1 protein. Here, we describe the identification of 11 human cDNAs encoding RDM1 protein isoforms. This repertoire is generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing and differential usage of two translational start sites, resulting in proteins with long or short N-terminus and a great diversity in the exonic composition of their C-terminus. By using tagged proteins and fluorescent microscopy, we examined the subcellular distribution of full-length RDM1 (renamed RDM1alpha), and other RDM1 isoforms. We show that RDM1alpha undergoes subcellular redistribution and nucleolar accumulation in response to proteotoxic stress and mild heat shock. In unstressed cells, the long N-terminal isoforms displayed distinct subcellular distribution patterns, ranging from a predominantly cytoplasmic to almost exclusive nuclear localization, suggesting functional differences among the RDM1 proteins. However, all isoforms underwent stress-induced nucleolar accumulation. We identified nuclear and nucleolar localization determinants as well as domains conferring cytoplasmic retention to the RDM1 proteins. Finally, RDM1 null chicken DT40 cells displayed an increased sensitivity to heat shock, compared to wild-type (wt) cells, suggesting a function for RDM1 in the heat-shock response.
Project description:Heat-shock response is an adaptive response to proteotoxic stresses including heat shock, and is regulated by heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) in mammals. Proteotoxic stresses challenge all subcellular compartments including the mitochondria. Therefore, there must be close connections between mitochondrial signals and the activity of HSF1. Here, we show that heat shock triggers nuclear translocation of mitochondrial SSBP1, which is involved in replication of mitochondrial DNA, in a manner dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore ANT-VDAC1 complex and direct interaction with HSF1. HSF1 recruits SSBP1 to the promoters of genes encoding cytoplasmic/nuclear and mitochondrial chaperones. HSF1-SSBP1 complex then enhances their induction by facilitating the recruitment of a chromatin-remodelling factor BRG1, and supports cell survival and the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential against proteotoxic stresses. These results suggest that the nuclear translocation of mitochondrial SSBP1 is required for the regulation of cytoplasmic/nuclear and mitochondrial proteostasis against proteotoxic stresses.
Project description:Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3)/Machado Joseph disease results from expansion of the polyglutamine domain in ataxin-3 (Atx3). Atx3 is a transcriptional co-repressor, as well as a deubiquitinating enzyme that appears to function in cellular pathways involved in protein homeostasis. In this study, we show that interactions of Atx3 with valosin-containing protein and hHR23B are dynamic and modulated by proteotoxic stresses. Heat shock, a general proteotoxic stress, also induced wild-type and pathogenic Atx3 to accumulate in the nucleus. Mapping studies showed that two regions of Atx3, the Josephin domain and the C-terminus, regulated heat shock-induced nuclear localization. Heat shock-induced nuclear localization of Atx3 was not affected by a casein kinase-2 inhibitor or by mutating a predicted nuclear localization signal. However, serine-111 of Atx3 was required for nuclear localization of the Josephin domain and regulated nuclear localization of full-length Atx3. Atx3 null cells were more sensitive to toxic effects of heat shock suggesting that Atx3 had a protective function in the cellular response to heat shock. Importantly, we found that oxidative stress also induced nuclear localization of Atx3; both wild-type and pathogenic Atx3 accumulated in the nucleus of SCA3 patient fibroblasts following oxidative stress. Heat shock and oxidative stress are the first processes identified that increase nuclear localization of Atx3. Observations in this study provide new and important insights for understanding SCA3 pathology as the nucleus is likely a key site for early pathogenesis.
Project description:Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) plays an important role in regulating heat shock, which can activate heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs can protect organisms from thermal stress. Oysters in the intertidal zone can tolerate thermal stress. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas gigas) and Fujian oyster (C. gigas angulata)-allopatric subspecies with distinct thermal tolerances-make good study specimens for analyzing and comparing thermal stress regulation. We cloned and compared HSF1 isoforms, which is highly expressed under heat shock conditions in the two subspecies. The results revealed that two isoforms (HSF1a and HSF1d) respond to heat shock in both Pacific and Fujian oysters, and different heat shock conditions led to various combinations of isoforms. Subcellular localization showed that isoforms gathered in the nucleus when exposed to heat shock. The co-immunoprecipitation revealed that HSF1d can be a dimer. In addition, we selected HSPs that are expressed under the heat shock response, according to the RNA-seq and proteomic analyses. For the HSPs, we analyzed the coding part and the promoter sequences. The result showed that the domains of HSPs are conserved in two subspecies, but the promoters are significantly different. The Dual-Luciferase assay showed that the induced expression isoform HSF1d had the highest activity in C. gigas gigas, while the constitutively-expressed HSF1a was most active in C. gigas angulata. In addition, variation in the level of HSP promoters appeared to be correlated with gene expression. We argue that this gene is regulated based on the different expression levels between the two subspecies' responses to heat shock. In summary, various stress conditions can yield different HSF1 isoforms and respond to heat shock in both oyster subspecies. Differences in how the isoforms and promoter are activated may contribute to their differential expressions. Overall, the results comparing C. gigas gigas and C. gigas angulata suggest that these isoforms have a regulatory relationship under heat shock, providing valuable information on the thermal tolerance mechanism in these commercially important oyster species.
Project description:Ilf3 and NF90, two proteins containing double-stranded RNA-binding domains, are generated by alternative splicing and involved in several functions. Their heterogeneity results from posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications. Alternative splicing of exon 3, coding for a 13 aa N-terminal motif, generates for each protein a long and short isoforms. Subcellular fractionation and localization of recombinant proteins showed that this motif acts as a nucleolar localization signal. Deletion and substitution mutants identified four arginines, essential for nucleolar targeting, and three histidines to stabilize the proteins within the nucleolus. The short isoforms are never found in the nucleoli, whereas the long isoforms are present in the nucleoplasm and the nucleoli. For Ilf3, only the posttranslationally-unmodified long isoform is nucleolar, suggesting that this nucleolar targeting is abrogated by posttranslational modifications. Confocal microscopy and FRAP experiments have shown that the long Ilf3 isoform localizes to the granular component of the nucleolus, and that L-Ilf3 and L-NF90 exchange rapidly between nucleoli. The presence of this 13 aminoacid motif, combined with posttranslational modifications, is responsible for the differences in Ilf3 and NF90 isoforms subcellular localizations. The protein polymorphism of Ilf3/NF90 and the various subcellular localizations of their isoforms may partially explain the various functions previously reported for these proteins.
Project description:The small ubiquitin-like modifier 2 (SUMO-2) is required for survival when cells are exposed to treatments that induce proteotoxic stress by causing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. Exposure of cells to heat shock or other forms of proteotoxic stress induces the conjugation of SUMO-2 to proteins in the nucleus. We investigated the chromatin landscape of SUMO-2 modifications in response to heat stress. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation assays coupled to high-throughput DNA sequencing and mRNA sequencing, we showed that in response to heat shock, SUMO-2 accumulated at nucleosome-depleted, active DNA regulatory elements, which represented binding sites for large protein complexes and were predominantly associated with active genes. However, SUMO did not act as a direct transcriptional repressor or activator of these genes during heat shock. Instead, integration of our results with published proteomics data on heat shock-induced SUMO-2 substrates supports a model in which the conjugation of SUMO-2 to proteins acts as an acute stress response that is required for the stability of protein complexes involved in gene expression and posttranscriptional modification of mRNA. We showed that the conjugation of SUMO-2 to chromatin-associated proteins is an integral component of the proteotoxic stress response, and propose that SUMO-2 fulfills its essential role in cell survival by contributing to the maintenance of protein complex homeostasis.
Project description:Although bystin has been identified as a protein potentially involved in embryo implantation (a process unique to mammals) in humans, the bystin gene is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. DNA microarray data indicates that bystin is overexpressed in human cancers, suggesting that it promotes cell growth. We undertook RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and immunoblotting, and confirmed that bystin mRNA and protein respectively are expressed in human cancer cell lines, including HeLa. Subcellular fractionation identified bystin protein as nuclear and cytoplasmic, and immunofluorescence showed that nuclear bystin localizes mainly in the nucleolus. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of total cytoplasmic ribosomes revealed preferential association of bystin with the 40S subunit fractions. To analyse its function, bystin expression in cells was suppressed by RNAi (RNA interference). Pulse-chase analysis of ribosomal RNA processing suggested that bystin knockdown delays processing of 18S ribosomal RNA, a component of the 40S subunit. Furthermore, this knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that bystin may promote cell proliferation by facilitating ribosome biogenesis, specifically in the production of the 40S subunit. Localization of bystin to the nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis, was blocked by low concentrations of actinomycin D, a reagent that causes nucleolar stress. When bystin was transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells subjected to nucleolar stress, nuclear bystin was included in particles different from the nuclear stress granules induced by heat shock. In contrast, cytoplasmic bystin was barely affected by nucleolar stress. These results suggest that, while bystin may play multiple roles in mammalian cells, a conserved function is to facilitate ribosome biogenesis required for cell growth.
Project description:The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein participates in a number of cellular processes, including transcription regulation, apoptosis, differentiation, virus defense and genome maintenance. This protein is structurally organized into a tripartite motif (TRIM) at its N-terminus, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) at its central region and a C-terminus that varies between alternatively spliced isoforms. Most PML splice variants target the nucleus where they define sub-nuclear compartments termed PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs). However, PML variants that lack the NLS are also expressed, suggesting the existence of PML isoforms with cytoplasmic functions. In the present study we expressed PML isoforms with a mutated NLS in U2OS cells to identify potential cytoplasmic compartments targeted by this protein.Expression of NLS mutated PML isoforms in U2OS cells revealed that PML I targets early endosomes, PML II targets the inner nuclear membrane (partially due to an extra NLS at its C-terminus), and PML III, IV and V target late endosomes/lysosomes. Clustering of PML at all of these subcellular locations depended on a functional TRIM domain.This study demonstrates the capacity of PML to form macromolecular protein assemblies at several different subcellular sites. Further, it emphasizes a role of the variable C-terminus in subcellular target selection and a general role of the N-terminal TRIM domain in promoting protein clustering.
Project description:Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) belongs to a family of proteins that contain the Zalpha domain, which binds specifically to left-handed Z-DNA and Z-RNA. Like all vertebrate proteins in the Zalpha family, it contains two Zalpha-like domains and is highly inducible by immunostimulation. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic mobility shift assays we show that both Zalpha domains can bind Z-DNA independently and that substrate binding is greatly enhanced when both domains are linked. Full length ZBP1 and a prominent splice variant lacking the first Zalpha domain (DeltaZalpha) showed strikingly different subcellular localizations. While the full length protein showed a finely punctate cytoplasmatic distribution, ZBP1DeltaZalpha accumulated in large cytoplasmic granules. Mutation of residues important for Z-DNA binding in the first Zalpha domain resulted in a distribution comparable to that of ZBP1DeltaZalpha. The ZBP1DeltaZalpha granules are distinct from stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies but dynamically interacted with these. Polysome stabilization led to the disassembly of ZBP1DeltaZalpha granules, indicating that mRNA are integral components. Heat shock and arsenite exposure had opposing effects on ZBP1 isoforms: while ZBP1DeltaZalpha granules disassembled, full length ZBP1 accumulated in SGs. Our data link ZBP1 to mRNA sorting and metabolism and indicate distinct roles for ZBP1 isoforms.
Project description:G2E3 was originally described as a G2/M-specific gene with DNA damage responsive expression. The presence of a conserved HECT domain within the carboxy-terminus of the protein indicated that it likely functions as a ubiquitin ligase or E3. Although HECT domains are known to function in this capacity for many proteins, we demonstrate that a portion of the HECT domain from G2E3 plays an important role in the dynamic subcellular localization of the protein. We have shown that G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with nuclear export mediated by a novel nuclear export domain that functions independently of CRM1. In full-length G2E3, a separate region of the HECT domain suppresses the function of the NES. Additionally, G2E3 contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in its amino terminus. Localization of G2E3 to the nucleolus is a dynamic process, and the protein delocalizes from the nucleolus rapidly after DNA damage. Cell cycle phase-specific expression and highly regulated subcellular localization of G2E3 suggest a possible role in cell cycle regulation and the cellular response to DNA damage.
Project description:The heat shock response, resulting in the production of heat shock proteins or molecular chaperones, is triggered by elevated temperature and a variety of other stressors. Its master regulator is heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factors generally exist in multiple isoforms. The two known isoforms of HSF1 differ in the inclusion (HSF1?) or exclusion (HSF1?) of exon 11. Although there are some data concerning the differential expression patterns and transcriptional activities of HSF2 isoforms during development, little is known about the distinct properties of the HSF1 isoforms. Here we present evidence for two novel HSF1 isoforms termed HSF1?? and HSF1??, and we show that the HSF1 isoform ratio differentially regulates heat shock protein gene transcription. Hsf1? isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and are translated into protein. Furthermore, after heat shock, HSF1? isoforms are exported from the nucleus more rapidly or degraded more quickly than HSF1? or HSF1?. We also show that each individual HSF1 isoform is sufficient to induce the heat shock response and that expression of combinations of HSF1 isoforms, in particular HSF1? and HSF1?, results in a synergistic enhancement of the transcriptional response. In addition, HSF1? isoforms potentially suppress the synergistic effect of HSF1? and HSF1? co-expression. Collectively, our observations suggest that the expression of HSF1 isoforms in a specific ratio provides an additional layer in the regulation of heat shock protein gene transcription.