Light chain editing generates polyreactive antibodies in chronic graft-versus-host reaction.
ABSTRACT: The chronic graft-versus-host (cGvH) reaction is a model of induced lupus caused by alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from a Bm-12 mouse in a C57BL/6 recipient. We used this cGvH reaction in C57BL/6 anti-DNA H chain transgenic mice, 56R/B6, to understand the structure, specificity, and origin of the induced autoantibodies (auto-Abs). We found anti-DNA Abs that reacted to several different antigens, such as phosphatidylserine, myelin basic protein, thyroglobulin, histone, insulin, cytochrome C, and beta-galactosidase. This polyreactivity was found for Abs from B cells that expressed the 56R H chain transgene with "editor" L chains that did not completely veto autoreactivity. We suggest that such incomplete editing results in polyreactivity and that incompletely edited polyreactive B cells influence the subsequent expression of pathogenic auto-Abs in disease. We also found B cells that coexpress kappa and lambda L chain. These B cells contributed to the autoimmune response and are possibly in the marginal zone of the spleen.
Project description:Polyreactivity is the ability of a single antibody to bind to multiple molecularly distinct antigens and is a common feature of antibodies induced upon pathogen exposure. However, little is known about the role of polyreactivity during anti-influenza virus antibody responses. By analyzing more than 500 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells induced by numerous influenza virus vaccines and infections, we found mAbs targeting conserved neutralizing influenza virus hemagglutinin epitopes were polyreactive. Polyreactive mAbs were preferentially induced by novel viral exposures due to their broad viral binding breadth. Polyreactivity augmented mAb viral binding strength by increasing antibody flexibility, allowing for adaption to imperfectly conserved epitopes. Lastly, we found affinity-matured polyreactive B cells were typically derived from germline polyreactive B cells that were preferentially selected to participate in B cell responses over time. Together, our data reveal that polyreactivity is a beneficial feature of antibodies targeting conserved epitopes.
Project description:The vast majority of IgA production occurs in mucosal tissue following T cell-dependent and T cell-independent Ag responses. To study the nature of each of these responses, we analyzed the gene-expression and Ig-reactivity profiles of T cell-dependent CD27(+)IgA(+) and T cell-independent CD27(-)IgA(+) circulating memory B cells. Gene-expression profiles of IgA(+) subsets were highly similar to each other and to IgG(+) memory B cell subsets, with typical upregulation of activation markers and downregulation of inhibitory receptors. However, we identified the mucosa-associated CCR9 and RUNX2 genes to be specifically upregulated in CD27(-)IgA(+) B cells. We also found that CD27(-)IgA(+) B cells expressed Abs with distinct Ig repertoire and reactivity compared with those from CD27(+)IgA(+) B cells. Indeed, Abs from CD27(-)IgA(+) B cells were weakly mutated, often used Ig? chain, and were enriched in polyreactive clones recognizing various bacterial species. Hence, T cell-independent IgA responses are likely involved in the maintenance of gut homeostasis through the production of polyreactive mutated IgA Abs with cross-reactive anti-commensal reactivity.
Project description:Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) is associated with a variety of graft-reactive antibodies following kidney transplant. To characterize these antibodies, we immortalized 107 B cell clones from a patient with AMR. In a previous study, we showed that six clones were reacting to multiple self-antigens as well as to HLA and MICA for two of them, thus displaying a pattern of polyreactivity. We show here that all six polyreactive clones also reacted to apoptotic but not viable cells. More generally we observed a nearly perfect overlap between polyreactivity and reactivity to apoptotic cells. Functionally, polyreactive antibodies can activate complement, resulting in the deposition of C3d and C4d at the surface of target cells. Testing the serum of 88 kidney transplant recipients revealed a significantly higher IgG reactivity to apoptotic cells in AMR patients than in patients with stable graft function. Moreover, total IgG purified from AMR patients had increased complement activating properties compared to IgG from non-AMR patients. Overall, our studies show the development of polyreactive antibodies cross-reactive to apoptotic cells during AMR. Further studies are now warranted to determine their contribution to the detection of C4d in graft biopsies as well as their role in the pathophysiology of AMR.
Project description:Two monoclonal IgM natural autoantibodies (E7 and D23) obtained from the fusion of normal, nonimmunized, BALB/c mouse spleen cells and nonsecreting myeloma cells were selected on the basis of their polyreactivity with auto- and xenoantigens and chemical haptens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the variable and constant regions of the heavy and light chains showed the following. (i) The antibodies arise from different genetic elements with very low or no homology--E7 from a heavy-chain variable region (VH) of family 36-60 and kappa light-chain variable region (V kappa) from a group 19--whereas D23 derives from a VH of family Q52 and V kappa derives from group 8. (ii) E7 and D23 are probably of germ-line origin, as suggested by high homology with VH genes from the unrearranged genome. Compared with the germ-line VH 1210.7 gene, E7 has a single nucleotide difference leading to a silent mutation at position 15, whereas D23 seems to be encoded by germ-line VH 101 with one nucleotide difference causing replacement of Ser-84 by Ala. (iii) The genetic V kappa and VH elements for E7 and D23 also give rise to different responses to phenyloxazolone, dinitrophenyl, 5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl, arsonate, phosphocholine, and influenza virus hemagglutinin. Antibodies from normal and autoimmune mice with rheumatoid factor-like activity are also homologous to E7 and D23. These results indicate that polyreactive autoantibodies are encoded by germ-line genes and that, starting with the preimmune poly- and autoreactive repertoire, mutated forms of antibodies recognizing exogenous antigens can be obtained and selected.
Project description:Polyreactive (natural) antibodies are primarily IgM and account for a major proportion of circulating Ig in humans. They use various V gene segments, in general, in germ line (unmutated) configuration. To analyze the VH regions of polyreactive antibodies, with particular attention at their somatically mutated status, we generated five IgG (three IgG1 and two IgG3) mAb (using B cells from a healthy subject, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and a patient with SLE), which bound with various efficiencies a number of different self and foreign Ag. Gene cloning experiments showed that the VH region sequences were unique to each IgG mAb. The H chain complementary determining region (CDR3) of two IgG (mAb10 and mAb426.4.2F20) displayed an identical stretch of five amino acids (RFLEW), but the other three IgG mAb CDR3 were divergent in both length and composition. The VH gene sequences of two IgG, mAb426.4.2F20 and mAb410.7.F91, were 99% identical to those of the germ line VH4.11 and VH4.21 genes, respectively. Those of the remaining three IgG mAb displayed a number of differences (93.6 to 95.9% identity) when compared with the germ line VH4.18, VH4.11, and hv1263 gene sequences. These and the VH4.21 gene have been found to encode polyreactive IgM and IgA and, in mutated configuration, monoreactive high affinity autoantibodies and antibodies induced by foreign Ag. When compared with the respective framework region, the CDR of three IgG mAb VH segment sequences displayed a significantly higher: 1) frequency of total nucleotide differences (6.1 x 10(-2) vs 4.5 x 10(-2) difference/base); 2) frequency of putative nucleotide changes yielding amino acid replacements (5.6 x 10(-2) vs 1.4 x 10(-2) replacement change/base); and 3) ratio of overall putative replacement to silent (R:S) mutations (11.0 vs 0.4). Thus, the distribution and nature of the nucleotide differences were consistent with a process of somatic mutation and Ag-dependent clonal selection. This was formally proved in IgG mAb426.12.3F1.4 and IgG mAb10 by differentially targeted polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning and sequencing of the germ line genes that gave rise to the expressed VH segments, using DNA from polymorphonuclear cells of the same subjects whose B cells were used for the generation of these IgG mAb. Somatic mutations might have been responsible for bringing about polyreactivity in originally monoreactive antibodies or, more likely, they accumulated in originally polyreactive antibodies, which after undergoing a process of Ag selection, retained polyreactivity and may have or may have not acquired a higher affinity for the selecting Ag.
Project description:Understanding the B-cell response during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential for eliciting broad and potent neutralizing antibodies (Abs). In this study, we analyzed the plasmablast repertoire of chronically HIV-infected individuals in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among the obtained 72 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 27.8% weakly bound to HIV gp140 and were non-neutralizing. Remarkably, 56.9% were polyreactive and 55.6% were autoreactive. The prominent feature of being polyreactive/autoreactive is not limited to anti-gp140 Abs. Furthermore, these polyreactive/autoreactive Abs displayed striking cross-reactivity with DWEYS in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and this binding induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. We also found higher frequencies of VH4-34 utilization and VH replacement in the plasmablast repertoire of chronically HIV-infected individuals, which may contribute to the generation of poly/autoreactive Abs. Taken together, these data demonstrate that circulating plasmablasts in chronically HIV-infected individuals experienced with ART predominantly produce poly/autoreactive Abs with minimal anti-HIV neutralizing capacity and potential cross-reactivity with autoantigens. This may represent another dysfunction of B cells during chronic HIV infection.
Project description:Antibody rejection is often accompanied by nondonor HLA specific antibodies (NDSA) and self-reactive antibodies that develop alongside donor-specific antibodies (DSA). To determine the source of these antibodies, we immortalized 107 B-cell clones from a kidney transplant recipient with humoral rejection. Two of these clones reacted to HLA class I or MICA. Both clones were also reactive to self-antigens and a lysate of a kidney cell line, hence revealing a pattern of polyreactivity. Monoclonality was verified by the identification of a single rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) sequence for each clone. By tracking their unique CDR3 sequence, we found that one such polyreactive clone was highly expanded in the patient blood, representing ~0.2% of circulating B cells. The VH sequence of this clone showed evidence of somatic mutations that were consistent with its memory phenotype and its expansion. Lastly, the reactivity of the expanded polyreactive B-cell clone was found in the patient serum at time of rejection. In conclusion, we provide here proof of principle at the clonal level that human antibodies can cross-react to HLA and self. Our findings strongly suggest that polyreactive antibodies contribute to DSA, NDSA as well as autoantibodies, in transplant recipients.
Project description:Mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 involve the recognition of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp)160 by tissue-resident B cells and subsequent secretion of antibodies. To characterize the B cells "sensing" HIV-1 in the gut of infected individuals, we probed monoclonal antibodies produced from single intestinal B cells binding to recombinant gp140 trimers. A large fraction of mucosal B cell antibodies were polyreactive and showed only low affinity to HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, particularly the gp41 moiety. A few high-affinity gp140 antibodies were isolated but lacked neutralizing, potent ADCC, and transcytosis-blocking capacities. Instead, they displayed cross-reactivity with defined self-antigens. Specifically, intestinal HIV-1 gp41 antibodies targeting the heptad repeat 2 region (HR2) cluster II cross-reacted with the p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14). Hence, physiologic polyreactivity of intestinal B cells and molecular mimicry-based self-reactivity of HIV-1 antibodies are two independent phenomena, possibly diverting and/or impairing mucosal humoral immunity to HIV-1.
Project description:Nephrophilic autoantibodies dominate the seroprofile in lupus, but their fine specificities remain ill defined. We constructed a multiplexed proteome microarray bearing about 30 antigens known to be expressed in the glomerular milieu and used it to study serum autoantibodies in lupus. Compared with normal serum, serum from B6.Sle1.lpr lupus mice (C57BL/6 mice homozygous for the NZM2410/NZW allele of Sle1 as well as the FAS defect) exhibited high levels of IgG and IgM antiglomerular as well as anti-double-stranded DNA/chromatin Abs and variable levels of Abs to alpha-actinin, aggrecan, collagen, entactin, fibrinogen, hemocyanin, heparan sulphate, laminin, myosin, proteoglycans, and histones. The use of these glomerular proteome arrays also revealed 5 distinct clusters of IgG autoreactivity in the sera of lupus patients. Whereas 2 of these IgG reactivity clusters (DNA/chromatin/glomeruli and laminin/myosin/Matrigel/vimentin/heparan sulphate) showed association with disease activity, the other 3 reactivity clusters (histones, vitronectin/collagen/chondroitin sulphate, and entactin/fibrinogen/hyaluronic acid) did not. Human lupus sera also displayed 2 distinct IgM autoantibody clusters, one reactive to DNA and the other apparently polyreactive. Interestingly, the presence of IgM polyreactivity in patient sera was associated with reduced disease severity. Hence, the glomerular proteome array promises to be a powerful analytical tool for uncovering novel autoantibody disease associations and for distinguishing patients at high risk for end-organ disease.
Project description:Human high-affinity antibodies to pathogens often recognize unrelated ligands. The molecular origin and the role of this polyreactivity are largely unknown. Here, we report that HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are frequently polyreactive, cross-reacting with non-HIV-1 molecules, including self-antigens. Mutating bNAb genes to increase HIV-1 binding and neutralization also results in de novo polyreactivity. Unliganded paratopes of polyreactive bNAbs with improved HIV-1 neutralization exhibit a conformational flexibility, which contributes to enhanced affinity of bNAbs to various HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and non-HIV antigens. Binding adaptation of polyreactive bNAbs to the divergent ligands mainly involves hydrophophic interactions. Plasticity of bNAbs' paratopes may, therefore, facilitate accommodating divergent viral variants, but it simultaneously triggers promiscuous binding to non-HIV-1 antigens. Thus, a certain level of polyreactivity can be a mark of adaptable antibodies displaying optimal pathogens' recognition.