A major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent subset of memory phenotype CD8+ cells.
ABSTRACT: Most memory phenotype (MP) CD44(hi) CD8(+) cells are resting interleukin (IL)-15-dependent cells characterized by high expression of the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta (CD122). However, some MP CD8(+) cells have a CD122(lo) phenotype and are IL-15 independent. Here, evidence is presented that the CD122(lo) subset of MP CD8(+) cells is controlled largely by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Many of these cells display surface markers typical of recently activated T cells (CD62L(lo), CD69(hi), CD43(hi), and CD127(lo)) and show a high rate of background proliferation. Cells with this phenotype are highly enriched in common gamma chain-deficient mice and absent from MHC-I(-/-) mice. Unlike CD122(hi) CD8(+) cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells survive poorly after transfer to MHC-I(-/-) hosts and cease to proliferate. Although distinctly different from typical antigen-specific memory cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells closely resemble the antigen-dependent memory CD8(+) cells found in chronic viral infections.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells are commonly divided into naïve CD44(lo)CD122(lo) and "memory phenotype" CD44(hi)CD122(hi) cells. Here we show data suggesting that these two cell populations represent independent CD8(+) T cell subsets. Whereas IL-15(-/-) mice lack CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells, mice deficient in the kinase ITK lack CD44(lo)CD122(lo) cells among CD8(+) T cells. The same defects were observed during thymus development. CD44(hi)CD122(hi) cells were found among double-positive thymocytes and increased in frequency during CD8 development in wild-type mice. At the mature stage, IL-15(-/-) mice harbored virtually no CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) thymocytes. In contrast, ITK(-/-) mice lacked CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) cells at this stage. We generated mice with genetic deletions in both IL-15 and ITK and observed a severe reduction of all CD8(+) T cells. The two CD44(lo)CD122(lo) and CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cell subsets differed in the periphery in that natural killer (NK) receptor expression was found only on CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells. This expression was paralleled by their ability to respond to both T cell receptor and NK receptor engagements. In contrast, CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) T cells mounted stronger responses to T cell receptor stimulation but failed to recognize NK receptor ligands. Thus, whereas ITK-dependent CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) T cells appear to represent conventional CD8(+) T cells, IL-15-dependent CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells may have functions in both adaptive and innate immunity.
Project description:Transcriptional pathways controlling the development of CD44(hi) memory phenotype (MP) T cells with "innate-like" functions are not well understood. Here we show that the BTB (bric-a-brac, tramtrack, broad complex) domain-containing protein promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is expressed in CD44(hi), but not in CD44(lo), CD4(+) T cells. Transgenic expression of PLZF during T cell development and in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells induced a T cell intrinsic program leading to an increase in peripheral CD44(hi) MP CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and a corresponding decrease of naïve CD44(lo) T cells. The MP CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells produced IFNgamma upon PMA/ionomycin stimulation, thus showing innate-like function. Changes in the naïve versus memory-like subset distribution were already evident in single-positive thymocytes, indicating PLZF-induced T cell developmental alterations. In addition, CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells in PLZF transgenic mice showed impaired development and were severely reduced in the periphery. Finally, after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation, CD4(+) transgenic T cells showed reduced IL-2 and IFNgamma production but increased IL-4 secretion as a result of enhanced IL-4 production of the CD44(hi)CD62L(+) subset. Our data indicate that PLZF is a novel regulator of the development of CD44(hi) MP T cells with a characteristic partial innate-like phenotype.
Project description:Ag-specific memory T cell responses elicited by infections or vaccinations are inextricably linked to long-lasting protective immunity. Studies of protective immunity among residents of malaria endemic areas indicate that memory responses to Plasmodium Ags are not adequately developed or maintained, as people who survive episodes of childhood malaria are still vulnerable to either persistent or intermittent malaria infections. In contrast, multiple exposures to radiation-attenuated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (Pb ?-spz) induce long-lasting protective immunity to experimental sporozoite challenge. We previously demonstrated that sterile protection induced by Pb ?-spz is MHC class I-dependent and CD8 T cells are the key effectors. IFN-?(+) CD8 T cells that arise in Pb ?-spz-immunized B6 mice are found predominantly in the liver and are sensitive to levels of liver-stage Ag depot and they express CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) markers indicative of effector/effector memory phenotype. The developmentally related central memory CD8 T (TCM) cells express elevated levels of CD122 (IL-15R?), which suggests that CD8 TCM cells depend on IL-15 for maintenance. Using IL-15-deficient mice, we demonstrate in this study that although protective immunity is inducible in these mice, protection is short-lived, mainly owing to the inability of CD8 TCM cells to survive in the IL-15-deficient milieu. We present a hypothesis consistent with a model whereby intrahepatic CD8 TCM cells, being maintained by IL-15-mediated survival and basal proliferation, are conscripted into the CD8 effector/effector memory T cell pool during subsequent infections.
Project description:As acute infections resolve, effector CD8(+) T cells differentiate into interleukin-7 receptor(lo) (IL-7R(lo)) short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and IL-7R(hi) memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) capable of generating long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells. By using another SLEC marker, KLRG1, we found that KLRG1(hi) effector cells began appearing early during infection and were committed to downregulating IL-7R. Unlike IL-7R(hi) MPECs, KLRG1(hi) IL-7R(lo) SLECs relied on IL-15, but IL-15 could not sustain their long-term maintenance or homeostatic turnover. The decision between SLEC and MPEC fates was regulated by the amount of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) present during T cell priming. According to the amount of inflammation, a gradient of T-bet was created in which high T-bet expression induced SLECs and low expression promoted MPECs. These results elucidate a mechanism by which the innate immune system sets the relative amounts of a lineage-determining transcription factor in activated CD8(+) T cells and, correspondingly, regulates their memory cell potential.
Project description:T-bet is critical for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) differentiation, but it is unclear how it operates in a graded manner in the formation of both terminal effector and memory precursor cells during infection. We find that at high concentrations T-bet induced expression of Zeb2 mRNA, which then triggered CTLs to adopt terminally differentiated states. ZEB2 and T-bet cooperate to switch on a terminal CTL differentiation program, while simultaneously repressing genes necessary for central memory CTL development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed that a large proportion of these genes were bound by T-bet, and this binding was altered by ZEB2 deficiency. Furthermore, T-bet overexpression could not fully bypass ZEB2 function. Thus, the coordinated actions of T-bet and ZEB2 outline a novel genetic pathway that forces commitment of CTLs to terminal differentiation, thereby restricting their memory cell potential. Splenocyte derived CD8+ T cells from C57BL/6 mice with either a wildtype (WT) (GzmB-Cre Zeb2+/+) or GzmB-Cre Zeb2-fl/fl (Zeb2-/-) backgrounds, following 8 days post infection with LCMV-Armstrong, were subsetted into KLRG1-hi/IL-7R-lo populations (terminal effectors, TE) or KLRG1-lo/IL-7R-hi (memory precursors, MP) populations. Four experimental groups, each with 3 samples, comprised of TE+WT, MP+WT, TE+ZEB2-/-, and MP+ZEB2-/-, were profiled for gene expression utilizing a polyA RNA prep and hybridized to the Illumina microarray platform IlluminaWG-v2.0.
Project description:Survival and intermittent proliferation of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells appear to be controlled by different homeostatic mechanisms. In particular, contact with interleukin (IL)-15 has a decisive influence on memory CD8(+) cells, but not memory CD4(+) cells. Past studies of memory CD4(+) cells have relied heavily on the use of naturally occurring memory phenotype (MP) cells as a surrogate for antigen (Ag)-specific memory cells. However, we show here that MP CD4(+) cells contain a prominent subset of rapidly proliferating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent cells. In contrast, Ag-specific memory CD4 cells have a slow turnover rate and are MHC II independent. In irradiated hosts, these latter cells ignore IL-15 and expand in response to the elevated levels of IL-7 in the lymphopenic hosts. In contrast, in normal nonlymphopenic hosts where IL-7 levels are low, memory CD4 cells are heavily dependent on IL-15. Significantly, memory CD4(+) responsiveness to endogenous IL-15 reflects marked competition from other cells, especially CD8(+) and natural killer cells, and increases considerably after removal of these cells. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, homeostasis of CD8(+) and CD4(+) memory cells is quite similar and involves IL-15 and IL-7.
Project description:It is unclear where within tissues subsets of effector and memory CD8 T cells persist during viral infection and whether their localization affects function and long-term survival. Following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we found most killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)(lo)IL-7R(hi) effector and memory cells, which are long-lived and high proliferative capacity, in the T cell zone of the spleen. In contrast, KLRG1(hi)IL-7R(lo) cells, which appear terminally differentiated and have shorter life spans, were exclusively localized to the red pulp. KLRG1(lo)IL-7R(hi) T cells homed to the T cell zone using pertussis toxin-sensitive chemokine receptors and appeared to contact gp38(+) stromal cells, which produce the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. The transcription factors T-bet and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 controlled effector CD8 T cell splenic migration. Effector CD8 T cells overexpressing T-bet homed to the red pulp, whereas those lacking B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 homed to the T cell zone. Upon memory formation, CD62L(+) memory T cells were predominantly found in the T cell zone, whereas CD62L(-) cells were found in the red pulp. Thus, effector and memory CD8 T cell subset localization within tissues is linked to their differentiation states, and this may identify anatomical niches that regulate their longevity and homeostasis.
Project description:NaÃ¯ve CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells from C3H.SW mice were compared to CD44-hi/CD82L-lo/CD8+ effector memory T cells and CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ postmitotic T cells, using 3 biological replicates of each type of sample. The later two cells types were highly purified at day 14 after transplantation from GVHD B6/SJL mice receiving donor C3H.SW mouse-derived naive CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells and T cell-depleted bone marrow. Recipient mice had first been lethally irradiated at a dose of 10Gy in two fractions. This is a MHC-identical minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched mouse GVHD model of human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Naive T cell samples were from pools of 2 mice each, while effector memory and postmitotic T cell samples were purified from pools of T cells from 4 mice each. After RNA extraction and cleanup, biotin labeled cRNA was prepared from 600 ng total RNA, using two rounds of in vitro transcription, and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays using standard techniques. Keywords: Cell type comparison 9 samples were analyzed on 9 Affymetrix microarrays to assay mRNA levels. There were 3 biological replicates of each of 3 different cell types.
Project description:We previously showed that antigen immunization in the presence of the immunosuppressant dexamethasone (a strategy we termed "suppressed immunization") could tolerize established recall responses of T cells. However, the mechanism by which dexamethasone acts as a tolerogenic adjuvant has remained unclear. In the present study, we show that dexamethasone enriches CD11c(lo) CD40(lo) macrophages in a dose-dependent manner in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes of mice by depleting all other CD11c(+) CD40(+) cells including dendritic cells. The enriched macrophages display a distinct MHC class II (MHC II)(lo) CD86(hi) phenotype. Upon activation by antigen in vivo, CD11c(lo) CD40(lo) macrophages upregulate IL-10, a classic marker for tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, and elicit a serum IL-10 response. When presenting antigen in vivo, these cells do not elicit recall responses from memory T cells, but rather stimulate the expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Moreover, the depletion of CD11c(lo) CD40(lo) macrophages during suppressed immunization diminishes the tolerogenic efficacy of the treatment. These results indicate that dexamethasone acts as a tolerogenic adjuvant partly by enriching the CD11c(lo) CD40(lo) tolerogenic macrophages.
Project description:Antibody-mediated lymphoablation is used in solid organ and stem cell transplantation and autoimmunity. Using murine anti-thymocyte globulin (mATG) in a mouse model of heart transplantation, we previously reported that the homeostatic recovery of CD8+ T cells requires help from depletion-resistant memory CD4+ T cells delivered through CD40-expressing B cells. This study investigated the mechanisms by which B cells mediate CD8+ T cell proliferation in lymphopenic hosts. While CD8+ T cell recovery required MHC class I expression in the host, the reconstitution occurred independently of MHC class I, MHC class II, or CD80/CD86 expression on B cells. mATG lymphoablation upregulated the B cell expression of several cytokine genes, including IL-15 and IL-27, in a CD4-dependent manner. Neither treatment with anti-CD122 mAb nor the use of IL-15R?-/- recipients altered CD8+ T cell recovery after mATG treatment, indicating that IL-15 may be dispensable for T cell proliferation in our model. Instead, IL-27 neutralization or the use of IL-27R?-/- CD8+ T cells inhibited CD8+ T cell proliferation and altered the phenotype and cytokine profile of reconstituted CD8+ T cells. Our findings uncover what we believe is a novel role of IL-27 in lymphopenia-induced CD8+ T cell proliferation and suggest that targeting B cell-derived cytokines may increase the efficacy of lymphoablation and improve transplant outcomes.