DNA polymerase eta is the sole contributor of A/T modifications during immunoglobulin gene hypermutation in the mouse.
ABSTRACT: Mutations at A/T bases within immunoglobulin genes have been shown to be generated by a repair pathway involving the DNA-binding moiety of the mismatch repair complex constituted by the MSH2-MSH6 proteins, together with DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). However, residual A/T mutagenesis is still observed upon inactivation in the mouse of each of these factors, suggesting that the panel of activities involved might be more complex. We reported previously (Delbos, F., A. De Smet, A. Faili, S. Aoufouchi, J.-C. Weill, and C.-A. Reynaud. 2005. J. Exp. Med. 201:1191-1196) that residual A/T mutagenesis in pol eta-deficient mice was likely contributed by another enzyme not normally involved in hypermutation, DNA polymerase kappa, which is mobilized in the absence of the normal polymerase partner. We report the complete absence of A/T mutations in MSH2-pol eta double-deficient mice, thus indicating that the residual A/T mutagenesis in MSH2-deficient mice is contributed by pol eta, now recruited by uracil N-glycosylase, the second DNA repair pathway involved in hypermutation. We propose that this particular recruitment of pol eta corresponds to a profound modification of the function of uracil glycosylase in the absence of the mismatch repair complex, suggesting that MSH2-MSH6 actively prevent uracil glycosylase from error-free repair during hypermutation. pol eta thus appears to be the sole contributor of A/T mutations in the normal physiological context.
Project description:The basis for mutations at A:T base pairs in immunoglobulin hypermutation and defining how AID interacts with the DNA of the immunoglobulin locus are major aspects of the immunoglobulin mutator mechanism where questions remain unanswered. Here, we examined the pattern of mutations generated in mice deficient in various DNA repair proteins implicated in A:T mutation and found a previously unappreciated bias at G:C base pairs in spectra from mice simultaneously deficient in DNA mismatch repair and uracil DNA glycosylase. This suggests a strand-biased DNA transaction for AID delivery which is then masked by the mechanism that introduces A:T mutations. Additionally, we asked if any of the known components of the A:T mutation machinery underscore the basis for the paucity of A:T mutations in the Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and BL2. Ramos and BL2 cells were proficient in MSH2/MSH6-mediated mismatch repair, and express high levels of wild-type, full-length DNA polymerase eta. In addition, Ramos cells have high levels of uracil DNA glycosylase protein and are proficient in base excision repair. These results suggest that Burkitt lymphoma cell lines may be deficient in an unidentified factor that recruits the machinery necessary for A:T mutation or that AID-mediated cytosine deamination in these cells may be processed by conventional base excision repair truncating somatic hypermutation at the G:C phase. Either scenario suggests that cytosine deamination by AID is not enough to trigger A:T mutation, and that additional unidentified factors are required for full spectrum hypermutation in vivo.
Project description:Antibody diversity is initiated by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which deaminates cytosine to uracil in DNA. Uracils in the Ig gene loci can be recognized by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) or mutS homologs 2 and 6 (MSH2-MSH6) proteins, and then processed into DNA breaks. Breaks in switch regions of the H chain locus cause isotype switching and have been extensively characterized as staggered and blunt double-strand breaks. However, breaks in V regions that arise during somatic hypermutation are poorly understood. In this study, we characterize AID-dependent break formation in JH introns from mouse germinal center B cells. We used a ligation-mediated PCR assay to detect single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks that were either staggered or blunt. In contrast to switch regions, V regions contained predominantly single-strand breaks, which peaked 10 d after immunization. We then examined the pathways used to generate these breaks in UNG- and MSH6-deficient mice. Surprisingly, both DNA repair pathways contributed substantially to break formation, and in the absence of both UNG and MSH6, the frequency of breaks was severely reduced. When the breaks were sequenced and mapped, they were widely distributed over a 1000-bp intron region downstream of JH3 and JH4 exons and were unexpectedly located at all 4 nt. These data suggest that during DNA repair, nicks are generated at distal sites from the original deaminated cytosine, and these repair intermediates could generate both faithful and mutagenic repair. During mutagenesis, single-strand breaks would allow entry for low-fidelity DNA polymerases to generate somatic hypermutation.
Project description:Excision of uracil introduced into the immunoglobulin loci by AID is central to antibody diversification. While predominantly carried out by the UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase as reflected by deficiency in immunoglobulin class switching in Ung(-/-) mice, the deficiency is incomplete, as evidenced by the emergence of switched IgG in the serum of Ung(-/-) mice. Lack of switching in mice deficient in both UNG and MSH2 suggested that mismatch repair initiated a backup pathway. We now show that most of the residual class switching in Ung(-/-) mice depends upon the endogenous SMUG1 uracil-DNA glycosylase, with in vitro switching to IgG1 as well as serum IgG3, IgG2b, and IgA greatly diminished in Ung(-/-) Smug1(-/-) mice, and that Smug1 partially compensates for Ung deficiency over time. Nonetheless, using a highly MSH2-dependent mechanism, Ung(-/-) Smug1(-/-) mice can still produce detectable levels of switched isotypes, especially IgG1. While not affecting the pattern of base substitutions, SMUG1 deficiency in an Ung(-/-) background further reduces somatic hypermutation at A:T base pairs. Our data reveal an essential requirement for uracil excision in class switching and in facilitating noncanonical mismatch repair for the A:T phase of hypermutation presumably by creating nicks near the U:G lesion recognized by MSH2.
Project description:Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes depends upon the deamination of C nucleotides in WRCY (W = A/T, R = A/G, Y = C/T) motifs by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA). Despite this, a large number of mutations occur in WA motifs that can be accounted for by the activity of polymerase eta (POL eta). To determine whether there are AICDA-independent mutations and to characterize the relationship between AICDA- and POL eta-mediated mutations, 1470 H chain and 1313 kappa- and lambda-chain rearrangements from three AICDA(-/-) patients were analyzed. The Ig mutation frequency of all V(H) genes from AICDA(-/-) patients was 40-fold less than that of normal donors, whereas the mutation frequency of mutated V(H) sequences from AICDA(-/-) patients was 6.8-fold less than that of normal donors. AICDA(-/-) B cells lack mutations in WRCY/RGYW motifs as well as replacement mutations and mutational targeting in complementarity-determining regions. A significantly reduced mutation frequency in WA motifs compared with normal donors and an increased percentage of transitions, which may relate to reduced uracil DNA-glycosylase activity, suggest a role for AICDA in regulating POL eta and uracil DNA-glycosylase activity. Similar results were observed in V(L) rearrangements. The residual mutations were predominantly G:C substitutions, indicating that AICDA-independent cytidine deamination was a likely, yet inefficient, mechanism for mutating Ig genes.
Project description:Hypermutation in immunoglobulin genes produces a high frequency of substitutions of all four bases, which are likely generated by low-fidelity DNA polymerases. Indeed, humans deficient for DNA polymerase (pol) eta have decreased substitutions of A.T base pairs in variable and switch regions. To study the role of pol eta in a genetically tractable system, we created mice lacking pol eta. B cells from Polh-/- mice produced normal amounts of IgG, indicating that pol eta does not affect class switch recombination. Similar to their human counterparts, variable and switch regions from Polh-/- mice had fewer substitutions of A.T base pairs and correspondingly more mutations of C.G base pairs, which firmly establishes a central role for pol eta in hypermutation. Notably, the location and types of substitutions differ markedly from those in Msh6-/- clones, which also have fewer A.T mutations. The data suggest that pol eta preferentially synthesizes a repair patch on the nontranscribed strand, whereas MSH6 functions to generate the patch.
Project description:Somatic hypermutation is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and occurs in several kilobases of DNA around rearranged immunoglobulin variable (V) genes and switch (S) sites before constant genes. AID deaminates cytosine to uracil, which can produce mutations of C:G nucleotide pairs, and the mismatch repair protein Msh2 participates in generating substitutions of downstream A:T pairs. Msh2 is always found as a heterodimer with either Msh3 or Msh6, so it is important to know which one is involved. Therefore, we sequenced V and S regions from Msh3- and Msh6-deficient mice and compared mutations to those from wild-type mice. Msh6-deficient mice had fewer substitutions of A and T bases in both regions and reduced heavy chain class switching, whereas Msh3-deficient mice had normal antibody responses. This establishes a role for the Msh2-Msh6 heterodimer in hypermutation and switch recombination. When the positions of mutation were mapped, several focused peaks were found in Msh6(-/-) clones, whereas mutations were dispersed in Msh3(-/-) and wild-type clones. The peaks occurred at either G or C in WGCW motifs (W = A or T), indicating that C was mutated on both DNA strands. This suggests that AID has limited entry points into V and S regions in vivo, and subsequent mutation requires Msh2-Msh6 and DNA polymerase.
Project description:Low-fidelity DNA polymerases introduce nucleotide substitutions in immunoglobulin variable regions during somatic hypermutation. Although DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the major low-fidelity polymerase, other DNA polymerases may also contribute. Existing data are contradictory as to whether pol ? is involved. We reasoned that the presence of pol ? may mask the contribution of pol ?, and therefore we generated mice deficient for pol ? and heterozygous for pol ?. The frequency and spectra of hypermutation was unaltered between Pol?(+/-) Pol?(-/-) and Pol?(+/+) Pol?(-/-) clones. However, there was a decrease in tandem double-base substitutions in Pol?(+/-) Pol?(-/-) cells compared with Pol?(+/+) Pol?(-/-) cells, suggesting that pol ? generates tandem mutations. Contiguous mutations are consistent with the biochemical property of pol ? to extend a mismatch with a second mutation. The presence of this unique signature implies that pol ? contributes to mutational synthesis in vivo. Additionally, data on tandem mutations from wild type, Pol?(+/-), Pol?(-/-), Ung(-/-), Msh2(-/-), Msh6(-/-), and Ung(-/-) Msh2(-/-) clones suggest that pol ? may function in the MSH2-MSH6 pathway.
Project description:Immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification occurs via somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), and is initiated by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytosine to uracil. Variable (V) region genes undergo SHM to create amino acid substitutions that produce antibodies with higher affinity for antigen. The conversion of cytosine to uracil in DNA promotes mutagenesis. Two distinct DNA repair mechanisms regulate uracil processing in Ig genes. The first involves base removal by the uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), and the second detects uracil via the mismatch repair (MMR) complex. Methyl binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a uracil glycosylase and an intriguing candidate for involvement in somatic hypermutation because of its interaction with the MMR MutL homolog 1 (MLH1). We found that the DNA uracil glycosylase domain of MBD4 is highly conserved among mammals, birds, shark, and insects. Conservation of the human and chicken MBD4 uracil glycosylase domain structure is striking. Here we examined the function of MBD4 in chicken DT40 B cells which undergo constitutive SHM. We constructed structural variants of MBD4 DT40 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Disruption of the MBD4 uracil glycosylase catalytic region increased SHM frequency in IgM loss assays. We propose that MBD4 plays a role in SHM.
Project description:Mismatch repair plays an essential role in reducing the cellular mutation load. Paradoxically, proteins in this pathway produce A . T mutations during the somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Although recent evidence implicates the translesional DNA polymerase eta in producing these mutations, it is unknown how this or other translesional polymerases are recruited to immunoglobulin genes, since these enzymes are not normally utilized in conventional mismatch repair. In this report, we demonstrate that A . T mutations were closely associated with transversion mutations at a deoxycytidine. Furthermore, deficiency in uracil-N-glycolase (UNG) or mismatch repair reduced this association. These data reveal a previously unknown interaction between the base excision and mismatch repair pathways and indicate that an abasic site generated by UNG within the mismatch repair tract recruits an error-prone polymerase, which then introduces A . T mutations. Our analysis further indicates that repair tracts typically are approximately 200 nucleotides long and that polymerase eta makes approximately 1 error per 300 T nucleotides. The concerted action of Msh2 and UNG in stimulating A . T mutations also may have implications for mutagenesis at sites of spontaneous cytidine deamination.
Project description:Although the primary function of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is to identify and correct base mismatches that have been erroneously introduced during DNA replication, recent studies have further implicated several MMR components in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. We studied the immune response in mice deficient in MutS homologue (MSH)3 and MSH6, two mutually exclusive partners of MSH2 that have not been examined previously for their role in Ig hypermutation. In Msh6(-)/- and Msh3(-)/-/Msh6(-)/- mice, base substitutions are preferentially targeted to G and C nucleotides and to an RGYW hot spot, as has been shown previously in Msh2(-)/- mice. In contrast, Msh3(-)/- mice show no differences from their littermate controls. These findings indicate that the MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer, but not the MSH2-MSH3 complex, is responsible for modulating Ig hypermutation.