Induction of high-affinity IgE receptor on lung dendritic cells during viral infection leads to mucous cell metaplasia.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory viral infections are associated with an increased risk of asthma, but how acute Th1 antiviral immune responses lead to chronic inflammatory Th2 disease remains undefined. We define a novel pathway that links transient viral infection to chronic lung disease with dendritic cell (DC) expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRIalpha). In a mouse model of virus-induced chronic lung disease, in which Sendai virus triggered a switch to persistent mucous cell metaplasia and airway hyperreactivity after clearance of replicating virus, we found that FceRIa(-/-) mice no longer developed mucous cell metaplasia. Viral infection induced IgE-independent, type I IFN receptor-dependent expression of FcepsilonRIalpha on mouse lung DCs. Cross-linking DC FcepsilonRIalpha resulted in the production of the T cell chemoattractant CCL28. FceRIa(-/-) mice had decreased CCL28 and recruitment of IL-13-producing CD4(+) T cells to the lung after viral infection. Transfer of wild-type DCs to FceRIa(-/-) mice restored these events, whereas blockade of CCL28 inhibited mucous cell metaplasia. Therefore, lung DC expression of FcepsilonRIalpha is part of the antiviral response that recruits CD4(+) T cells and drives mucous cell metaplasia, thus linking antiviral responses to allergic/asthmatic Th2 responses.
Project description:The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family that binds multiple ligands and plays a key role in brain development. Although the VLDLR mediates pleiotropic biological processes, only a limited amount of information is available regarding its role in adaptive immunity. In this study, we identify an important role for the VLDLR in attenuating house dust mite (HDM)-induced airway inflammation in experimental murine asthma. We show that HDM-challenged Vldlr(-/-) mice have augmented eosinophilic and lymphocytic airway inflammation with increases in Th2 cytokines, C-C chemokines, IgE production, and mucous cell metaplasia. A genome-wide analysis of the lung transcriptome identified that mRNA levels of CD209e (DC-SIGNR4), a murine homolog of DC-SIGN, were increased in the lungs of HDM-challenged Vldlr(-/-) mice, which suggested that the VLDLR might modify dendritic cell (DC) function. Consistent with this, VLDLR expression by human monocyte-derived DCs was increased by HDM stimulation. In addition, 55% of peripheral blood CD11c(+) DCs from individuals with allergy expressed VLDLR under basal conditions. Lastly, the adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed, CD11c(+) bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from Vldlr(-/-) mice to the airways of wild type recipient mice induced augmented eosinophilic and lymphocytic airway inflammation upon HDM challenge with increases in Th2 cytokines, C-C chemokines, IgE production, and mucous cell metaplasia, as compared with the adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed, CD11c(+) BMDCs from wild type mice. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for the VLDLR as a negative regulator of DC-mediated adaptive immune responses in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation.
Project description:Airway mucous cell metaplasia and chronic inflammation are pathophysiological features that influence morbidity and mortality associated with asthma and other chronic pulmonary disorders. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating mucous metaplasia and hypersecretion provides the scientific basis for diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to improve the care of chronic pulmonary diseases.To determine the role of the airway epithelial–specific transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1, also known as thyroid transcription factor-1 [TTF-1]) in mucous cell metaplasia and lung inflammation.Expression of NKX2-1 in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma was analyzed. NKX2-1 +/-gene targeted or transgenic mice expressing NKX2-1 in conducting airway epithelial cells were sensitized to the aeroallergen ovalbumin. In vitro studies were used to identify mechanisms by which NKX2-1 regulates mucous cell metaplasia and inflammation.NKX2-1 was suppressed in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma. Reduced expression of NKX2-1 in heterozygous NKX2-1 +/- gene targeted mice increased mucous metaplasia in the small airways after pulmonary sensitization to ovalbumin. Conversely, mucous cell metaplasia induced by aeroallergen was inhibited by expression of NKX2-1 in the respiratory epithelium in vivo. Genome-wide mRNA analysis of lung tissue from ovalbumin-treated mice demonstrated that NKX2-1 inhibited mRNAs associated with mucous metaplasia and Th2-regulated inflammation,including Spdef, Ccl17, and Il13. In vitro, NKX2-1 inhibited SPDEF, a critical regulator of airway mucous cell metaplasia,and the Th2 chemokine CCL26.The present data demonstrate a novel function for NKX2-1 in a gene network regulating mucous cell metaplasia and allergic inflammation in the respiratory epithelium.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Allergic asthma is the most common inflammatory disease of upper airways. Airway dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells that regulate T helper 2 (Th2)-dependent allergic inflammation. Recent studies have shown critical role of airway DCs in the induction of Th2-mediated allergic inflammation and are attractive therapeutic targets in asthma. However, molecular signaling mechanism that regulate DCs function to Th2 immune responses are poorly understood. Here we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an FDA approved small molecule drug, in the house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental model of allergic asthma. METHODS:DMF was administered intranasally in the challenge period of HDM-induced murine model of experimental asthma. Airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, Th2/Th1 cytokine were assessed. The effect of DMF on DC function was further evaluated by adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed DMF treated DCs to wild-type naïve mice. RESULTS:DMF treatment significantly reduced HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway hyperactivity to inhaled methacholine. Mechanistically, DMF interferes with the migration of lung DCs to draining mediastinal lymph nodes, thereby attenuates the induction of allergic sensitization and Th2 immune response. Notably, adoptive transfer of DMF treated DCs to naïve mice with HDM challenge similarly reduces the features of allergic asthma. CONCLUSION:This identifies a novel function of DMF on DC-mediated adaptive immune responses in the setting of HDM-induced airway inflammation. Taken together, our results offer a mechanistic rationale for DMF use to target DCs in local lung environment as antiasthmatic therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Atopic diseases have been increasing in prevalence, yet the initial inciting events that lead to atopy are not understood. Paramyxoviral infections have been suggested to play a role; however, much of these data are correlative.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether exposure to a nonviral antigen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive IgE production against the bystander antigen and whether clinical disease against this antigen would result.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild-type C57BL6 mice or mice deficient in Fc?RI? (Fc?RI?(-/-)) or IgE (IgE(-/-)) were inoculated with Sendai virus (SeV) or UV-inactivated SeV (UV-SeV) and subsequently exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) intranasally. Mice were further challenged 3 times with intranasal OVA on days 20 to 22 after inoculation with SeV, and airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia were determined.<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to OVA during SeV infection led to significant OVA specific IgE production (median, 548 vs 0 ng/mL; P = .03; SeV vs UV-SeV). This induction of OVA specific IgE production depended on Fc?RI because Fc?RI?(-/-) mice produced significantly less IgE (112 ng/mL; P = .03; vs wild-type mice). Furthermore, in wild-type mice OVA exposure and challenge significantly enhanced SeV-induced airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia, but this failed to occur in either Fc?RI?(-/-) or IgE(-/-) mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A single exposure to a bystander allergen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive allergen specific IgE production in a partial Fc?RI-dependent mechanism. These data begin to provide mechanistic insight into how viral infections might drive development of atopic disease.
Project description:The airways are conduits that transport atmospheric oxygen to the distal alveolus. Normally, airway mucous cells are rare. However, diseases of the airway are often characterized by mucous metaplasia, in which there are dramatic increases in mucous cell numbers. As the Notch pathway is known to regulate cell fate in many contexts, we misexpressed the active intracellular domain of the mouse Notch1 receptor in lung epithelium. Notch misexpression resulted in an increase in mucous cells and a decrease in ciliated cells in the airway. Similarly, mouse embryonic tracheal explants and adult human airway epithelium treated with Notch agonists displayed increased mucous cell numbers and decreased ciliated cell numbers. Notch antagonists had the opposite effect. Notably, Notch antagonists blocked IL13-induced mucous metaplasia. IL13 has a well-established role as an inflammatory mediator of mucous metaplasia and functions through Stat6-mediated gene transcription. We found that Notch ligands, however, are able to cause mucous metaplasia in Stat6-null cultured trachea, thus identifying a novel pathway that stimulates mucous metaplasia. Notch signaling may therefore play an important role in airway disease and, by extension, Notch antagonists may have therapeutic value. Conversely, in the distal lung, Notch misexpression prevented the differentiation of alveolar cell types. Instead, the distal lung formed cysts composed of cells that were devoid of alveolar markers but that expressed some, but not all, markers of proximal airway epithelium. Occasional distal cystic cells appeared to differentiate into normal proximal airway cells, suggesting that ectopic Notch signaling arrests the normal differentiation of distal lung progenitors before they initiate an alveolar program.
Project description:IL-28 (IFN-?) cytokines exhibit potent antiviral and antitumor function but their full spectrum of activities remains largely unknown. Recently, IL-28 cytokine family members were found to be profoundly down-regulated in allergic asthma. We now reveal a novel role of IL-28 cytokines in inducing type 1 immunity and protection from allergic airway disease. Treatment of wild-type mice with recombinant or adenovirally expressed IL-28A ameliorated allergic airway disease, suppressed Th2 and Th17 responses and induced IFN-?. Moreover, abrogation of endogenous IL-28 cytokine function in IL-28R?(-/-) mice exacerbated allergic airway inflammation by augmenting Th2 and Th17 responses, and IgE levels. Central to IL-28A immunoregulatory activity was its capacity to modulate lung CD11c(+) dendritic cell (DC) function to down-regulate OX40L, up-regulate IL-12p70 and promote Th1 differentiation. Consistently, IL-28A-mediated protection was absent in IFN-?(-/-) mice or after IL-12 neutralization and could be adoptively transferred by IL-28A-treated CD11c(+) cells. These data demonstrate a critical role of IL-28 cytokines in controlling T cell responses in vivo through the modulation of lung CD11c(+) DC function in experimental allergic asthma.
Project description:Early-life respiratory viral infection is a risk factor for asthma development. Rhinovirus (RV) infection of 6-d-old mice, but not mature mice, causes mucous metaplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness that are associated with the expansion of lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and are dependent on IL-13 and the innate cytokine IL-25. However, contributions of the other innate cytokines, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), to the observed asthma-like phenotype have not been examined. We reasoned that IL-33 and TSLP expression are also induced by RV infection in immature mice and are required for maximum ILC2 expansion and mucous metaplasia. We inoculated 6-d-old BALB/c (wild-type) and TSLP receptor-knockout mice with sham HeLa cell lysate or RV. Selected mice were treated with neutralizing Abs to IL-33 or recombinant IL-33, IL-25, or TSLP. ILC2s were isolated from RV-infected immature mice and treated with innate cytokines ex vivo. RV infection of 6-d-old mice increased IL-33 and TSLP protein abundance. TSLP expression was localized to the airway epithelium, whereas IL-33 was expressed in epithelial and subepithelial cells. RV-induced mucous metaplasia, ILC2 expansion, airway hyperresponsiveness, and epithelial cell IL-25 expression were attenuated by anti-IL-33 treatment and in TSLP receptor-knockout mice. Administration of intranasal IL-33 and TSLP was sufficient for mucous metaplasia. Finally, TSLP was required for maximal ILC2 gene expression in response to IL-25 and IL-33. The generation of mucous metaplasia in immature RV-infected mice involves a complex interplay among the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP.
Project description:Recent work demonstrated the importance of macroautophagy in dendritic cell (DC) maturation and innate cytokine production upon viral infection through delivery of cytoplasmic viral components to intracellular TLRs. To study the functional consequences of impaired autophagosome formation during a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, mice harboring significant autophagy defects due to Beclin-1 haploinsufficiency (Beclin-1(+/-)) were used. Upon RSV infection in vivo, lungs of Beclin-1(+/-) mice showed increased Th2 cytokine production, mucus secretion, and lung infiltration of eosinophils and inflammatory DCs. Although isolated airway epithelial cells from Beclin-1(+/-) mice demonstrated little change compared with wild-type mice, Beclin-1(+/-) pulmonary and bone marrow-derived DCs showed decreased expression of MHC class II and innate cytokine production upon RSV infection. Further examination indicated that Beclin-1(+/-) DCs stimulated less IFN-? and IL-17 production by cocultured CD4(+) T cells and increased Th2 cytokine production in comparison with wild-type controls. Finally, adoptive transfer of RSV-infected Beclin-1(+/-) DCs into the airways of wild-type mice produced severe lung pathology and increased Th2 cytokine production upon subsequent RSV challenge compared with wild-type DC transfer controls. These results indicate a critical role for autophagy in DCs during pulmonary viral infection, facilitating appropriate antiviral adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects ?20% of the population worldwide. Microarray analyses of nasal epithelial cells from acute asthmatic patients detected a 50% decrease in expression of Stard7, an intracellular phosphatidylcholine transport protein. To determine whether loss of Stard7 expression promotes allergic responses, mice were generated in which one allele of the Stard7 locus was globally disrupted (Stard7 (+/-) mice). OVA sensitization and challenge of Stard7(+/-) mice resulted in a significant increase in pulmonary inflammation, mucous cell metaplasia, airway hyperresponsiveness, and OVA-specific IgE compared with OVA-sensitized/challenged wild-type (WT) mice. This exacerbation was largely Th2-mediated with a significant increase in CD4(+)IL-13(+) T cells and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines. The loss of Stard7 was also associated with increased lung epithelial permeability and activation of proinflammatory dendritic cells in sensitized and/or challenged Stard7 (+/-) mice. Notably, OVA-pulsed dendritic cells from Stard7(+/-) mice were sufficient to confer an exaggerated allergic response in OVA-challenged WT mice, although airway hyperresponsiveness was greater in Stard7(+/-) recipients compared with WT recipients. Enhanced allergic responses in the lung were accompanied by age-dependent development of spontaneous atopic dermatitis. Overall, these data suggest that Stard7 is an important component of a novel protective pathway in tissues exposed to the extracellular environment.
Project description:Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are increasingly used in a variety of industrial applications, including the manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). While occupational nickel exposure is a known cause of pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis, and cancer, the health risks of NiNPs are not well understood, especially in susceptible individuals such as asthmatics. The T-box transcription factor Tbx21 (T-bet) maintains Th1 cell development and loss of T-bet is associated with a shift towards Th2 type allergic airway inflammation that characterizes asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of T-bet in susceptibility to lung remodeling by NiNPs or MWCNTs.Wild-type (WT) and T-bet-/- mice were exposed to NiNPs or MWCNTs (4 mg/kg) by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA). Necropsy was performed at 1 and 21 days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for differential counting of inflammatory cells and for measurement of cytokines by ELISA. The left lung was collected for histopathology. The right lung was analyzed for cytokine or mucin (MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNAs.Morphometry of alcian-blue/periodic acid Schiff (AB/PAS)-stained lung tissue showed that NiNPs significantly increased mucous cell metaplasia in T-bet-/- mice at 21 days (p?<?0.001) compared to WT mice, and increased MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNAs (p?<?0.05). MWCNTs also increased mucous cell metaplasia in T-bet-/- mice, but to a lesser extent than NiNPs. Chronic alveolitis was also increased by NiNPs, but not MWCNTs, in T-bet-/- mice compared to WT mice at 21 days (P?<?0.001). NiNPs also increased IL-13 and eosinophils (p?<?0.001) in BALF from T-bet-/- mice after 1 day. Interestingly, the chemokine CCL2 in the BALF of T-bet-/- mice was increased at 1 and 21 days (p?<?0.001 and p?<?0.05, respectively) by NiNPs, and to a lesser extent by MWCNTs at 1 day. Treatment of T-bet-/- mice with a monoclonal anti-CCL2 antibody enhanced NiNP-induced mucous cell metaplasia and MUC5AC mRNA levels (p?<?0.05), yet marginally reduced NiNP-induced alveolitis.These findings identify T-bet as a potentially important susceptibility factor for NiNP exposure and to a lesser extent for MWCNT exposure, and suggests that individuals with asthma are at greater risk.