Induction of high-affinity IgE receptor on lung dendritic cells during viral infection leads to mucous cell metaplasia.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory viral infections are associated with an increased risk of asthma, but how acute Th1 antiviral immune responses lead to chronic inflammatory Th2 disease remains undefined. We define a novel pathway that links transient viral infection to chronic lung disease with dendritic cell (DC) expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRIalpha). In a mouse model of virus-induced chronic lung disease, in which Sendai virus triggered a switch to persistent mucous cell metaplasia and airway hyperreactivity after clearance of replicating virus, we found that FceRIa(-/-) mice no longer developed mucous cell metaplasia. Viral infection induced IgE-independent, type I IFN receptor-dependent expression of FcepsilonRIalpha on mouse lung DCs. Cross-linking DC FcepsilonRIalpha resulted in the production of the T cell chemoattractant CCL28. FceRIa(-/-) mice had decreased CCL28 and recruitment of IL-13-producing CD4(+) T cells to the lung after viral infection. Transfer of wild-type DCs to FceRIa(-/-) mice restored these events, whereas blockade of CCL28 inhibited mucous cell metaplasia. Therefore, lung DC expression of FcepsilonRIalpha is part of the antiviral response that recruits CD4(+) T cells and drives mucous cell metaplasia, thus linking antiviral responses to allergic/asthmatic Th2 responses.
Project description:The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family that binds multiple ligands and plays a key role in brain development. Although the VLDLR mediates pleiotropic biological processes, only a limited amount of information is available regarding its role in adaptive immunity. In this study, we identify an important role for the VLDLR in attenuating house dust mite (HDM)-induced airway inflammation in experimental murine asthma. We show that HDM-challenged Vldlr(-/-) mice have augmented eosinophilic and lymphocytic airway inflammation with increases in Th2 cytokines, C-C chemokines, IgE production, and mucous cell metaplasia. A genome-wide analysis of the lung transcriptome identified that mRNA levels of CD209e (DC-SIGNR4), a murine homolog of DC-SIGN, were increased in the lungs of HDM-challenged Vldlr(-/-) mice, which suggested that the VLDLR might modify dendritic cell (DC) function. Consistent with this, VLDLR expression by human monocyte-derived DCs was increased by HDM stimulation. In addition, 55% of peripheral blood CD11c(+) DCs from individuals with allergy expressed VLDLR under basal conditions. Lastly, the adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed, CD11c(+) bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from Vldlr(-/-) mice to the airways of wild type recipient mice induced augmented eosinophilic and lymphocytic airway inflammation upon HDM challenge with increases in Th2 cytokines, C-C chemokines, IgE production, and mucous cell metaplasia, as compared with the adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed, CD11c(+) BMDCs from wild type mice. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for the VLDLR as a negative regulator of DC-mediated adaptive immune responses in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Atopic diseases have been increasing in prevalence, yet the initial inciting events that lead to atopy are not understood. Paramyxoviral infections have been suggested to play a role; however, much of these data are correlative.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether exposure to a nonviral antigen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive IgE production against the bystander antigen and whether clinical disease against this antigen would result.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild-type C57BL6 mice or mice deficient in Fc?RI? (Fc?RI?(-/-)) or IgE (IgE(-/-)) were inoculated with Sendai virus (SeV) or UV-inactivated SeV (UV-SeV) and subsequently exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) intranasally. Mice were further challenged 3 times with intranasal OVA on days 20 to 22 after inoculation with SeV, and airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia were determined.<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to OVA during SeV infection led to significant OVA specific IgE production (median, 548 vs 0 ng/mL; P = .03; SeV vs UV-SeV). This induction of OVA specific IgE production depended on Fc?RI because Fc?RI?(-/-) mice produced significantly less IgE (112 ng/mL; P = .03; vs wild-type mice). Furthermore, in wild-type mice OVA exposure and challenge significantly enhanced SeV-induced airway hyperreactivity and mucous cell metaplasia, but this failed to occur in either Fc?RI?(-/-) or IgE(-/-) mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A single exposure to a bystander allergen during a paramyxoviral infection is sufficient to drive allergen specific IgE production in a partial Fc?RI-dependent mechanism. These data begin to provide mechanistic insight into how viral infections might drive development of atopic disease.
Project description:The airways are conduits that transport atmospheric oxygen to the distal alveolus. Normally, airway mucous cells are rare. However, diseases of the airway are often characterized by mucous metaplasia, in which there are dramatic increases in mucous cell numbers. As the Notch pathway is known to regulate cell fate in many contexts, we misexpressed the active intracellular domain of the mouse Notch1 receptor in lung epithelium. Notch misexpression resulted in an increase in mucous cells and a decrease in ciliated cells in the airway. Similarly, mouse embryonic tracheal explants and adult human airway epithelium treated with Notch agonists displayed increased mucous cell numbers and decreased ciliated cell numbers. Notch antagonists had the opposite effect. Notably, Notch antagonists blocked IL13-induced mucous metaplasia. IL13 has a well-established role as an inflammatory mediator of mucous metaplasia and functions through Stat6-mediated gene transcription. We found that Notch ligands, however, are able to cause mucous metaplasia in Stat6-null cultured trachea, thus identifying a novel pathway that stimulates mucous metaplasia. Notch signaling may therefore play an important role in airway disease and, by extension, Notch antagonists may have therapeutic value. Conversely, in the distal lung, Notch misexpression prevented the differentiation of alveolar cell types. Instead, the distal lung formed cysts composed of cells that were devoid of alveolar markers but that expressed some, but not all, markers of proximal airway epithelium. Occasional distal cystic cells appeared to differentiate into normal proximal airway cells, suggesting that ectopic Notch signaling arrests the normal differentiation of distal lung progenitors before they initiate an alveolar program.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Airway mucous cell metaplasia and chronic inflammation are pathophysiological features that influence morbidity and mortality associated with asthma and other chronic pulmonary disorders. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating mucous metaplasia and hypersecretion provides the scientific basis for diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to improve the care of chronic pulmonary diseases.<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the role of the airway epithelial–specific transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1, also known as thyroid transcription factor-1 [TTF-1]) in mucous cell metaplasia and lung inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>Expression of NKX2-1 in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma was analyzed. NKX2-1 +/-gene targeted or transgenic mice expressing NKX2-1 in conducting airway epithelial cells were sensitized to the aeroallergen ovalbumin. In vitro studies were used to identify mechanisms by which NKX2-1 regulates mucous cell metaplasia and inflammation.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>NKX2-1 was suppressed in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma. Reduced expression of NKX2-1 in heterozygous NKX2-1 +/- gene targeted mice increased mucous metaplasia in the small airways after pulmonary sensitization to ovalbumin. Conversely, mucous cell metaplasia induced by aeroallergen was inhibited by expression of NKX2-1 in the respiratory epithelium in vivo. Genome-wide mRNA analysis of lung tissue from ovalbumin-treated mice demonstrated that NKX2-1 inhibited mRNAs associated with mucous metaplasia and Th2-regulated inflammation,including Spdef, Ccl17, and Il13. In vitro, NKX2-1 inhibited SPDEF, a critical regulator of airway mucous cell metaplasia,and the Th2 chemokine CCL26.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present data demonstrate a novel function for NKX2-1 in a gene network regulating mucous cell metaplasia and allergic inflammation in the respiratory epithelium.
Project description:Early-life respiratory viral infection is a risk factor for asthma development. Rhinovirus (RV) infection of 6-d-old mice, but not mature mice, causes mucous metaplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness that are associated with the expansion of lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and are dependent on IL-13 and the innate cytokine IL-25. However, contributions of the other innate cytokines, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), to the observed asthma-like phenotype have not been examined. We reasoned that IL-33 and TSLP expression are also induced by RV infection in immature mice and are required for maximum ILC2 expansion and mucous metaplasia. We inoculated 6-d-old BALB/c (wild-type) and TSLP receptor-knockout mice with sham HeLa cell lysate or RV. Selected mice were treated with neutralizing Abs to IL-33 or recombinant IL-33, IL-25, or TSLP. ILC2s were isolated from RV-infected immature mice and treated with innate cytokines ex vivo. RV infection of 6-d-old mice increased IL-33 and TSLP protein abundance. TSLP expression was localized to the airway epithelium, whereas IL-33 was expressed in epithelial and subepithelial cells. RV-induced mucous metaplasia, ILC2 expansion, airway hyperresponsiveness, and epithelial cell IL-25 expression were attenuated by anti-IL-33 treatment and in TSLP receptor-knockout mice. Administration of intranasal IL-33 and TSLP was sufficient for mucous metaplasia. Finally, TSLP was required for maximal ILC2 gene expression in response to IL-25 and IL-33. The generation of mucous metaplasia in immature RV-infected mice involves a complex interplay among the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP.
Project description:Airway mucus plays a critical role in clearing inhaled toxins, particles, and pathogens. Diverse toxic, inflammatory, and infectious insults induce airway mucus secretion and goblet cell metaplasia to preserve airway sterility and homeostasis. However, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus hypersecretion, and airway obstruction are integral features of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis, which cause an immense burden of morbidity and mortality. These chronic lung diseases are united by susceptibility to microbial colonization and recurrent airway infections. Whether these twinned phenomena (mucous metaplasia, compromised host defenses) are causally related has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) was induced by rhinoviral infection of primary human airway cells and that cytoplasmic activities of SPDEF, a transcriptional regulator of airway goblet cell metaplasia, inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of epithelial cells. SPDEF bound to and inhibited activities of TLR signaling adapters, MyD88 and TRIF, inhibiting MyD88-induced cytokine production and TRIF-induced interferon ? production. Conditional expression of SPDEF in airway epithelial cells in vivo inhibited LPS-induced neutrophilic infiltration and bacterial clearance. SPDEF-mediated inhibition of both TLR and type I interferon signaling likely protects the lung against inflammatory damage when inciting stimuli are not eradicated. Present findings provide, at least in part, a molecular explanation for increased susceptibility to infection in lung diseases associated with mucous metaplasia and a mechanism by which patients with florid mucous metaplasia may tolerate microbial burdens that are usually associated with fulminant inflammatory disease in normal hosts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adhesion G-protein coupled receptor F5 (ADGRF5) was recently identified as an essential regulator of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis in alveolar type II cells. We previously showed that in addition to abnormal surfactant accumulation, Adgrf5-deficient (Adgrf5-/-) mice exhibit emphysema-like signs, suggesting a possible role for ADGRF5 in immune regulation. Here, we extended the phenotypic analysis of Adgrf5-/- mice to help understand its biological role in the lung, and especially in immune regulation. METHODS:Histological features of lungs were evaluated by Alcian blue and Masson's trichrome staining. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to analyze the differential expression of genes/proteins related to airway inflammation in lungs between wildtype and Adgrf5-/- mice. Acid-base status was assessed by performing blood gas tests and urine pH measurements. Inflammatory cell counting was performed using Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Serum IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of Ccl2, S100a8, S100a9, and Saa3 in primary lung endothelial cells (ECs) was determined by qPCR and/or western blotting. Finally, the effect of administrating RS504393 to 2-week-old Adgrf5-/- mice on gene expression in the lungs was analyzed by qPCR. RESULTS:Adgrf5-/- mice exhibited several features of chronic airway inflammation (mucous cell metaplasia, mucus hyperproduction, subepithelial fibrosis, respiratory acidosis, high serum IgE, mast cell accumulation, and neutrophilia) in parallel with elevated expression of genes involved in mucous cell metaplasia (Muc5ac, Muc5b, Slc26a4, and Clca1), fibrosis (Tgfb1, Col1a1, Fn1, and Tnc), and type 2 immune response (Il4, Il5, Il13, IL-25, and IL-33) at 12 and/or 30?weeks of age. In contrast, mRNA expression of Ccl2, S100a8, and S100a9 was upregulated in embryonic or neonatal Adgrf5-/- lungs as well as in lung ECs of Adgrf5-/- mice at 1?week of age. RS504393 treatment suppressed the upregulation of S100a8, S100a9, Slc26a4, and Il5 in Adgrf5-/- lungs. CONCLUSIONS:Targeted disruption of ADGRF5 results in the development of airway inflammation, which is likely mediated by the type 2 immune response and possibly CCL2-mediated inflammation. ADGRF5 also has a potential role in the regulation of genes encoding CCL2 in lung ECs, thereby maintaining immune homeostasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early-life wheezing-associated respiratory infection with human rhinovirus (RV) is associated with asthma development. RV infection of 6-day-old immature mice causes mucous metaplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness which is associated with the expansion of IL-13-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and dependent on IL-25 and IL-33. We examined regulation of this asthma-like phenotype by IL-1β.<h4>Methods</h4>Six-day-old wild-type or NRLP3-/- mice were inoculated with sham or RV-A1B. Selected mice were treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), anti-IL-1β, or recombinant IL-1β.<h4>Results</h4>Rhinovirus infection induced Il25, Il33, Il4, Il5, Il13, muc5ac, and gob5 mRNA expression, ILC2 expansion, mucus metaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. RV also induced lung mRNA and protein expression of pro-IL-1β and NLRP3 as well as cleavage of caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β, indicating inflammasome priming and activation. Lung macrophages were a major source of IL-1β. Inhibition of IL-1β signaling with IL-1RA, anti-IL-1β, or NLRP3 KO increased RV-induced type 2 cytokine immune responses, ILC2 number, and mucus metaplasia, while decreasing IL-17 mRNA expression. Treatment with IL-1β had the opposite effect, decreasing IL-25, IL-33, and mucous metaplasia while increasing IL-17 expression. IL-1β and IL-17 each suppressed Il25, Il33, and muc5ac mRNA expression in cultured airway epithelial cells. Finally, RV-infected 6-day-old mice showed reduced IL-1β mRNA and protein expression compared to mature mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Macrophage IL-1β limits type 2 inflammation and mucous metaplasia following RV infection by suppressing epithelial cell innate cytokine expression. Reduced IL-1β production in immature animals provides a mechanism permitting asthma development after early-life viral infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is influenced by physicochemical characteristics and genetic susceptibility. We hypothesized that contrasting rigidities of tangled (t) versus rod-like (r) MWCNTs would result in differing immunologic or fibrogenic responses in mice and that these responses would be exaggerated in transgenic mice lacking the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1), a susceptible mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis.<h4>Methods</h4>Male wild type (Stat1 <sup>+/+</sup> ) and STAT1-deficient (Stat1 <sup>-/-</sup> ) mice were exposed to 4 mg/kg tMWCNTs, rMWCNTs, or vehicle alone via oropharyngeal aspiration and evaluated for inflammation at one and 21 days post-exposure via histopathology, differential cell counts, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Granuloma formation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway fibrosis were evaluated by quantitative morphometry. Airway epithelial cell proliferation was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Cytokine protein levels in BALF and serum IgE levels were measured by ELISA. Lung protein Smad2/3 levels and activation were measured by Western blot. Lung mRNAs were measured by PCR.<h4>Results</h4>There was a 7-fold difference in rigidity between tMWCNTs and rMWCNTs as determined by static bending ratio. Both MWCNT types resulted in acute inflammation (neutrophils in BALF) after one-day post-exposure, yet only rMWCNTs resulted in chronic inflammation at 21 days as indicated by neutrophil influx and larger granulomas. Both MWCNTs induced BrdU uptake in airway epithelial cells, with the greatest proliferative response observed in rMWCNT-exposed mice after one-day. Only rMWCNTs induced mucous cell metaplasia, but this index was not different between genotypes. Stat1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice had higher levels of baseline serum IgE than Stat1 <sup>+/+</sup> mice. Greater airway fibrosis was observed with rMWCNTs compared to tMWCNTs, and exaggerated airway fibrosis was seen in the Stat1 <sup>-/-</sup> mouse lungs with rMWCNTs but not tMWCNTs. Increased fibrosis correlated with elevated levels of TGF-β1 protein levels in the BALF of Stat1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice exposed to rMWCNTs and increased lung Smad2/3 phosphorylation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Rigidity plays a key role in the toxicity of MWCNTs and results in increased inflammatory, immunologic, and fibrogenic effects in the lung. STAT1 is an important protective factor in the fibroproliferative response to rMWCNTs, regulating both induced TGF-β1 production and Smad2/3 phosphorylation status. Therefore, both rigidity and genetic susceptibility should be major considerations for risk assessment of MWCNTs.
Project description:Mucous cell metaplasia is a hallmark of asthma, and may be mediated by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-6 signaling. IL-17A is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with severe asthma, and IL-17A also increases mucus production in airway epithelial cells. Asthma therapeutics are being developed that inhibit STAT6 signaling, but the role of IL-17A in inducing mucus production in the absence of STAT6 remains unknown. We hypothesized that IL-17A induces mucous cell metaplasia independent of STAT6, and we tested this hypothesis in two murine models in which increased IL-17A protein expression is evident. In the first model, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific D011.10 Th17 cells were adoptively transferred into wild-type (WT) or STAT6 knockout (KO) mice, and the mice were challenged with OVA or PBS. WT-OVA and STAT6 KO-OVA mice demonstrated increased airway IL-17A and IL-13 protein expression and mucous cell metaplasia, compared with WT-PBS or STAT6 KO-PBS mice. In the second model, WT, STAT1 KO, STAT1/STAT6 double KO (DKO), or STAT1/STAT6/IL-17 receptor A (RA) triple KO (TKO) mice were challenged with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or mock viral preparation, and the mucous cells were assessed. STAT1 KO-RSV mice demonstrated increased airway mucous cell metaplasia compared with WT-RSV mice. STAT1 KO-RSV and STAT1/STAT6 DKO-RSV mice also demonstrated increased mucous cell metaplasia, compared with STAT1/STAT6/IL17RA TKO-RSV mice. We also treated primary murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) from WT and STAT6 KO mice. STAT6 KO mTECs showed increased periodic acid-Schiff staining with IL-17A but not with IL-13. Thus, asthma therapies targeting STAT6 may increase IL-17A protein expression, without preventing IL-17A-induced mucus production.