Type I interferons protect neonates from acute inflammation through interleukin 10-producing B cells.
ABSTRACT: Newborns and infants are highly susceptible to viral and bacterial infections, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. We show that neonatal B cells effectively control the production of proinflammatory cytokines by both neonatal plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells, in an interleukin (IL) 10-dependent manner, after Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 triggering. This antiinflammatory property of neonatal B cells may extend to other TLR agonists (Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide, and R848) and viruses. In the absence of B cells or of CD5(+) B cell subsets, neonatal mice developed stronger inflammatory responses and became lethally susceptible to CpG challenge after galactosamine sensitization, whereas wild-type (WT) mice were resistant. Paradoxically, interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta enhanced the inflammatory response to CpG challenge in adult mice, whereas they helped to control neonatal acute inflammation by stimulating the secretion of IL-10 by neonatal B cells. Finally, WT neonatal B cells rescued IL-10(-/-) neonates from a lethal CpG challenge, whereas IFN-alpha/beta receptor-deficient B cells did not. Our results show that type I IFNs support a negative regulatory role of neonatal B cells on TLR-mediated inflammation, with important implications for neonatal inflammation and infection.
Project description:Each year millions of neonates die due to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Our study seeks to develop novel neonatal vaccines and improve immunogenicity of early childhood vaccines by incorporating TLR agonist-adjuvant combinations that overcome the inherent neonatal Th2 bias and stimulate Th1 polarizing response from neonatal APCs. We systematically stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells with single and multiple combinations of TLR agonists and measured levels of IL-12p70, IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? from cell culture supernatants. APC-specific surface expression levels of costimulatory markers CD40, CD83 and PD-L1 were assessed by flow cytometry. Whole blood assays were included to account for the effect of plasma inhibitory factors and APC intracellular TNF-? and IL-12p40 secretions were measured. We found robust Th1 polarizing IL-12p70, IFN-? and IFN-? responses when cord blood APCs were stimulated with TLR agonist combinations that contained Poly I:C, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) or R848. Addition of class A CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) to Th1 polarizing TLR agonist combinations significantly reduced cord blood IL-12p70 and IFN-? levels and addition of a TLR2 agonist induced significantly high Th2 polarizing IL-13. Multi-TLR agonist combinations that included R848 induced lower inhibitory PD-L1 expression on cord blood classical dendritic cells than CpG ODN-containing combinations. Incorporation of combination adjuvants containing TLR3, TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists to neonatal vaccines may be an effective strategy to overcome neonatal Th2 bias.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 promotes joint inflammation in mice. Despite that several studies report a functional link between TLR4 and interleukin-(IL-)1? in arthritis, TLR4-mediated regulation of the complicated cytokine network in arthritis is poorly understood. To address this, we investigated the mechanisms by which TLR4 regulates the cytokine network in antibody-induced arthritis.<h4>Methods</h4>To induce arthritis, we injected mice with K/BxN serum. TLR4-mediated pathogenesis in antibody-induced arthritis was explored by measuring joint inflammation, cytokine levels and histological alteration.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to wild type (WT) mice, TLR4-/- mice showed attenuated arthritis and low interferon (IFN)-?, IL-12p35 and IL-1? transcript levels in the joints, but high transforming growth factor (TGF)-? expression. Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced arthritis and exaggerated joint cytokine alterations in WT, but not TLR4-/- or IL-12p35-/- mice. Moreover, STAT4 phosphorylation in joint cells and intracellular IL-12p35 expression in macrophages, mast cells and Gr-1+ cells were detected in WT mice with arthritis and enhanced by LPS injection. Therefore, IL-12p35 appears to act downstream of TLR4 in antibody-induced arthritis. TLR4-mediated IL-12 production enhanced IFN-? and IL-1? production via T-bet and pro-IL-1? production. Recombinant IL-12, IFN-? and IL-1? administration restored arthritis, but reduced joint TGF-? levels in TLR4-/- mice. Moreover, a TGF-? blockade restored arthritis in TLR4-/- mice. Adoptive transfer of TLR4-deficient macrophages and mast cells minimally altered joint inflammation and cytokine levels in macrophage- and mast cell-depleted WT mice, respectively, whereas transfer of WT macrophages or mast cells restored joint inflammation and cytokine expression. Gr-1+ cell-depleted splenocytes partially restored arthritis in TLR4-/- mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>TLR4-mediated IL-12 production by joint macrophages, mast cells and Gr-1+ cells enhances IFN-? and IL-1? production, which suppresses TGF-? production, thereby promoting antibody-induced arthritis.
Project description:Extrarenal viral infections commonly trigger glomerulonephritis, usually in association with immune complex disease. The Ig component of immune complexes can activate glomerular cell Fc receptors, but whether complexed viral nucleic acids contribute to glomerular inflammation remains unknown. Because of the types of Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) expressed by glomerular mesangial cells, we hypothesized that viral single-stranded RNA and DNA would activate mesangial cells via Tlr-independent pathways and trigger overlapping antiviral immune responses. Consistent with this hypothesis, 5'-triphosphate RNA (3P-RNA) and non-CpG DNA activated murine primary glomerular mesangial cells to secrete Cxcl10 and Il-6 even in cells derived from mice deficient in the Tlr adaptor proteins Myd88 and Trif. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 3P-RNA and non-CpG-DNA triggered almost identical gene expression programs, especially the proinflammatory cytokine Il-6, several chemokines, and genes related to type I IFN. We observed similar findings in glomerular preparations after injecting 3P-RNA and non-CpG-DNA in vivo. These effects depended on the formation of complexes with cationic lipids, which enhanced nucleic acid uptake into the cytosol of mesangial cells. Small interfering RNA studies revealed that 3P-RNA recognition involves Rig-1, whereas non-CpG-DNA did not require Rig-1 or Dai to activate glomerular mesangial cells. We conclude that 3P-RNA and double-stranded DNA trigger a common, TLR-independent, antiviral response in glomerular mesangial cells, which may promote glomerulonephritis in the setting of viral infection.
Project description:We previously showed that in mice infected with Leishmania major type I interferons (IFNs) initiate the innate immune response to the parasite at day 1 and 2 of infection. Here, we investigated which type I IFN subtypes are expressed during the first 8?weeks of L. major infection and whether type I IFNs are essential for a protective immune response and clinical cure of the disease. In self-healing C57BL/6 mice infected with a high dose of L. major, IFN-?4, IFN-?5, IFN-?11, IFN-?13, and IFN-? mRNA were most prominently regulated during the course of infection. In C57BL/6 mice deficient for IFN-? or the IFN-?/?-receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1), development of skin lesions and parasite loads in skin, draining lymph node, and spleen was indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) mice. In line with the clinical findings, C57BL/6 IFN-?-/-, IFNAR1-/-, and WT mice exhibited similar mRNA expression levels of IFN-?, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and arginase 1 during the acute and late phase of the infection. Also, myeloid dendritic cells from WT and IFNAR1-/- mice produced comparable amounts of IL-12p40/p70 protein upon exposure to L. major in vitro. In non-healing BALB/c WT mice, the mRNAs of IFN-? subtypes (?2, ?4, ?5, ?6, and ?9) were rapidly induced after high-dose L. major infection. However, genetic deletion of IFNAR1 or IFN-? did not alter the progressive course of infection seen in WT BALB/c mice. Finally, we tested whether type I IFNs and/or IL-12 are required for the prophylactic effect of CpG-oligodesoxynucleotides (ODN) in BALB/c mice. Local and systemic administration of CpG-ODN 1668 protected WT and IFN-?-/- mice equally well from progressive leishmaniasis. By contrast, the protective effect of CpG-ODN 1668 was lost in BALB/c IFNAR1-/- (despite a sustained suppression of IL-4) and in BALB/c IL-12p35-/- mice. From these data, we conclude that IFN-? and IFNAR1 signaling are dispensable for a curative immune response to L. major in C57BL/6 mice and irrelevant for disease development in BALB/c mice, whereas IL-12 and IFN-? subtypes are essential for the disease prevention by CpG-ODNs in this mouse strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum IL-22 levels are increased in patients with atopic dermatitis, which commonly precedes asthma in the atopic march. Epicutaneous sensitization in mice results in TH2-dominated skin inflammation that mimics atopic dermatitis and sensitizes the airways for antigen challenge-induced allergic inflammation characterized by the presence of both eosinophils and neutrophils. Epicutaneous sensitization results in increased serum levels of IL-22. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the role of IL-22 in antigen-driven airway allergic inflammation after inhalation challenge in epicutaneously sensitized mice. METHODS:Wild-type (WT) and Il22-/- mice were sensitized epicutaneously or immunized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged intranasally with antigen. OVA T-cell receptor-specific T cells were TH22 polarized in vitro. Airway inflammation, mRNA levels in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were examined. RESULTS:Epicutaneous sensitization preferentially elicited an IL-22 response compared with intraperitoneal immunization. Intranasal challenge of mice epicutaneously sensitized with OVA elicited in the lungs Il22 mRNA expression, IL-22 production, and accumulation of CD3+CD4+IL-22+ T cells that coexpressed IL-17A and TNF-?. Epicutaneously sensitized Il22-/- mice exhibited diminished eosinophil and neutrophil airway infiltration and decreased AHR after intranasal OVA challenge. Production of IL-13, IL-17A, and TNF-? was normal, but IFN-? production was increased in lung cells from airway-challenged and epicutaneously sensitized Il22-/- mice. Intranasal instillation of IFN-?-neutralizing antibody partially reversed the defect in eosinophil recruitment. WT recipients of TH22-polarized WT, but not IL-22-deficient, T-cell receptor OVA-specific T cells, which secrete both IL-17A and TNF-?, had neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and AHR on intranasal OVA challenge. Intranasal instillation of IL-22 with TNF-?, but not IL-17A, elicited neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and AHR in WT mice, suggesting that loss of IL-22 synergy with TNF-? contributed to defective recruitment of neutrophils into the airways of Il22-/- mice. TNF-?, but not IL-22, blockade at the time of antigen inhalation challenge inhibited airway inflammation in epicutaneously sensitized mice. CONCLUSION:Epicutaneous sensitization promotes generation of antigen-specific IL-22-producing T cells that promote airway inflammation and AHR after antigen challenge, suggesting that IL-22 plays an important role in the atopic march.
Project description:IL-12-mediated type 1 inflammation confers host protection against the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. However, production of IFN-?, another type 1 inflammatory cytokine, also drives lethality from excessive injury to the intestinal epithelium. As mechanisms that restore epithelial barrier function following infection remain poorly understood, this study investigated the role of trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), a well-established regulator of mucosal tissue repair. Paradoxically, TFF2 antagonized IL-12 release from dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, which protected TFF2-deficient (TFF2(-/-)) mice from T. gondii pathogenesis. Dysregulated intestinal homeostasis in naive TFF2(-/-) mice correlated with increased IL-12/23p40 levels and enhanced T cell recruitment at baseline. Infected TFF2(-/-) mice displayed low rates of parasite replication and reduced gut immunopathology, whereas wild-type (WT) mice experienced disseminated infection and lethal ileitis. p38 MAPK activation and IL-12p70 production was more robust from TFF2(-/-)CD8+ DC compared with WT CD8+ DC and treatment of WT DC with rTFF2 suppressed TLR-induced IL-12/23p40 production. Neutralization of IFN-? and IL-12 in TFF2(-/-) animals abrogated resistance shown by enhanced parasite replication and infection-induced morbidity. Hence, TFF2 regulated intestinal barrier function and type 1 cytokine release from myeloid phagocytes, which dictated the outcome of oral T. gondii infection in mice.
Project description:Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly infectious and contagious viral disease of chickens caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belonging to the genus Coronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It can affect all age groups of birds. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of innate immune pattern recognition receptors that have a key role in immune response and defense against various infections.The TLRs are essential for initiation of innate immune responses and in the development of adaptive immune responses. An in ovo model was employed to study the antiviral activity of TLR ligands (Pam3CSK4, LPS and CpG ODN) on replication of IBV. It was hypothesized that optimum dose and specific timing of TLR ligands may reduce viral load of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Further, the mechanism involved in the TLR-mediated antiviral response in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of ECEs was investigated. The ECEs of 9-11 days old were treated with different doses (high, intermediate and low) of TLR-2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR-4 (LPS) and TLR-21 (CpG ODN) ligands. In addition, to know the timing of TLR ligand treatment, six time intervals were analyzed viz. 36, 24 and 12?h prior to infection, time of infection (co-administration of TLR ligands and avian IBV) and 12 and 24?h post-IBV infection. For studying the relative expression of immuno-stimulatory genes (IFN-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, iNOS and OAS) in CAM, TLR ligands were administered through intra-allantoicroute and CAM were collected at 4, 8 and 16?h post treatment. The results demonstrated that intermediate dose of all the three TLR ligands significantly reduced virus titers and used in the present study. However, the LPS reduced virus titer pre- and post-IBV infection but Pam3CSK4 and CpG ODN reduced only pre-IBV infection. Further analysis showed that TLR ligands induced IFN-?, IL-1? and IFN stimulated genes viz. iNOS and OAS genes in CAM. The present study pointed towards the novel opportunities for rational design of LPS as immuno-stimulatory agent in chickens with reference to IBV. It may be speculated that in ovo administration of these TLR ligands may enhance resistance against viral infection in neonatal chicken and may contribute towards the development of more effective and safer vaccines including in ovo vaccines.
Project description:Neonatal CD4(+) T cells have traditionally been viewed as deficient in their capacity to produce Th1 cytokines in response to polyclonal or Ag-specific stimuli. Thus, defining unique aspects of CD4(+) T cell activation and development into Th1 effector cells in neonates is essential to the successful development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies to protect infants from intracellular pathogens. Using highly purified naive CD4(+) T cells derived from cord and adult peripheral blood, we compared the impact of anti-CD3 stimulation plus costimulation through TLR-2 performed in the absence of APC on CD4(+) T cell cytokine production, proliferation, and expression of activation markers. In both age groups, TLR-2 costimulation elicited activation of naive CD4(+) T cells, characterized by robust production of IL-2 as well as key Th1-type cytokines IFN-? and TNF-?. TLR-2 costimulation also dramatically reduced naive T cell production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. We observed that neonatal naive CD4(+) T cells are uniquely sensitive to TLR-2-mediated costimulation, which enabled them to produce equivalent amounts of IFN-? and more IL-2 when compared with adult responses. Thus, neonatal CD4(+) T cells have a distinctive propensity to use TLR-2-mediated costimulation for development into proinflammatory Th1 effectors, and interventions that target CD4(+) T cell TLR-2-mediated responses may be exploited to enhance neonatal adaptive immunity.
Project description:Liver inflammation and injury are mediated by the innate immune response, which is regulated by Toll-like receptors (TLR). Activation of TLR9 induces type I interferons (IFNs) via the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-7. We investigated the roles of type I IFNs in TLR9-associated liver injury.Wild-type (WT), IRF7-deficient, and IFN-?/? receptor 1 (IFNAR1)-deficient mice were stimulated with TLR9 or TLR2 ligands. Findings from mice were verified in cultured hepatocytes and liver mononuclear cells (LMNCs) as well as in vivo experiments using recombinant type I IFN and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra).Type I IFNs were up-regulated during TLR9-associated liver injury in WT mice. IRF7- and IFNAR1-deficient mice, which have disruptions in type I IFN production or signaling, respectively, had increased liver damage and inflammation, decreased recruitment of dendritic cells, and increased production of tumor necrosis factor ? by LMNCs. These findings indicate that type I IFNs have anti-inflammatory activities in liver. IL-1ra, which is produced by LMNCs and hepatocytes, is an IFN-regulated antagonist of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?; IRF7- and IFNAR1-deficient mice had decreased levels of IL-1ra compared with WT mice. IL-1ra protected cultured hepatocytes from IL-1?-mediated sensitization to cytotoxicity from tumor necrosis factor ?. In vivo exposure to type I IFN, which induced IL-1ra, or administration of IL-1ra reduced TLR9-associated liver injury; the protective effect of type I IFNs therefore appears to be mediated by IFN-dependent induction of IL-1ra.Type I IFNs have anti-inflammatory effects mediated by endogenous IL-1ra, which regulates the extent of TLR9-induced liver damage. Type I IFN signaling is therefore required for protection from immune-mediated liver injury.
Project description:Strategies targeting cross-talk between immunosuppressive renal dendritic cells (DCs) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) may be effective in treating cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Galectin 3 (Gal-3), expressed on renal DCs, is known as a crucial regulator of immune response in the kidneys. In this study, we investigated the role of Gal-3 for DCs-mediated expansion of Tregs in the attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI.Methods: AKI was induced in CDDP-treated wild type (WT) C57BL/6 and Gal-3 deficient (Gal-3) mice. Biochemical, histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, magnetic cell sorting, flow cytometry and intracellular staining of renal-infiltrated immune cells were used to determine the differences between CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 mice. Newly synthesized selective inhibitor of Gal-3 (Davanat) was used for pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3. Recombinant Gal-3 was used to demonstrate the effects of exogenously administered soluble Gal-3 on AKI progression. Pam3CSK4 was used for activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 in DCs. Cyclophosphamide or anti-CD25 antibody were used for the depletion of Tregs. 1-Methyl Tryptophan (1-MT) was used for pharmacological inhibition of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in TLR-2-primed DCs which were afterwards used in passive transfer experiments.Results: CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity was significantly more aggravated in Gal-3 mice. Significantly reduced number of immunosuppressive TLR-2 and IDO1-expressing renal DCs, lower serum levels of KYN, decreased presence of IL-10-producing Tregs and significantly higher number of inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17-producing neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cells were observed in the CDDP-injured kidneys of Gal-3 mice. Pharmacological inhibitor of Gal-3 aggravated CDDP-induced AKI in WT animals while recombinant Gal-3 attenuated renal injury and inflammation in CDDP-treated Gal-3 mice. CDDP-induced apoptosis, driven by Bax and caspase-3, was aggravated in Gal-3 animals and in WT mice that received Gal-3 inhibitor (CDDP+Davanat-treated mice). Recombinant Gal-3 managed to completely attenuate CDDP-induced apoptosis in CDDP-injured kidneys of Gal-3 mice. Genetic deletion as well as pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 in renal DCs remarkably reduced TLR-2-dependent activation of IDO1/KYN pathway in these cells diminishing their capacity to prevent transdifferentiation of Tregs in inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells. Additionally, Tregs generated by Gal-3 deficient DCs were not able to suppress production of IFN-γ and IL-17 in activated neutrophils. TLR-2-primed DCs significantly enhanced capacity of Tregs for attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI and inflammation and expression of Gal-3 on TLR-2-primed DCs was crucially important for their capacity to enhance nephroprotective and immunosuppressive properties of Tregs. Adoptive transfer of TLR-2-primed WTDCs significantly expanded Tregs in the kidneys of CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 recipients resulting in the suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17-driven inflammation and alleviation of AKI. Importantly, this phenomenon was not observed in CDDP-treated WT and Gal-3 recipients of TLR-2-primed Gal-3DCs. Gal-3-dependent nephroprotective and immunosuppressive effects of renal DCs was due to the IDO1-induced expansion of renal Tregs since either inhibition of IDO1 activity in TLR-2-primed DCs or depletion of Tregs completely diminished DCs-mediated attenuation of CDDP-induced AKI.Conclusions: Gal-3 protects from CDDP-induced AKI by promoting TLR-2-dependent activation of IDO1/KYN pathway in renal DCs resulting in increased expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs in injured kidneys. Activation of Gal-3:TLR-2:IDO1 pathway in renal DCs should be further explored as new therapeutic approach for DC-based immunosuppression of inflammatory renal diseases.