The 78,000 M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein isa WD-repeat protein required for arm assembly.
ABSTRACT: We have isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA clone encoding the 78,000 Mr intermediate chain (IC78) of the Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. This protein previously was shown to be located at the base of the solubilized dynein particle and to interact with alpha tubulin in situ, suggesting that it may be involved in binding the outer arm to the doublet microtubule. The sequence predicts a polypeptide of 683 amino acids having a mass of 76.5 kD. Sequence comparison indicates that IC78 is homologous to the 69,000 M(r) intermediate chain (IC69) of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein and to the 74,000 M(r) intermediate chain (IC74) of cytoplasmic dynein. The similarity between the chains is greatest in their COOH-terminal halves; the NH(2)-terminal halves are highly divergent. The COOH-terminal half of IC78 contains six short imperfect repeats, termed WD repeats, that are thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Although not previously reported, these repeated elements also are present in IC69 and IC74. Using the IC78 cDNA as a probe, we screened a group of slow-swimming insertional mutants and identified one which has a large insertion in the IC78 gene and seven in which the IC78 gene is completely deleted. Electron microscopy of three of these IC78 mutants revealed that each is missing the outer arm, indicating that IC78 is essential for arm assembly or attachment to the outer doublet. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping places the IC78 gene on the left arm of chromosome XII/XIII, at or near the mutation oda9, which also causes loss of the outer arm. Mutants with defects in the IC78 gene do not complement the oda9 mutation in stable diploids, strongly suggesting that ODA9 is the structural gene for IC78.
Project description:Outer arm dynein (OAD) is bound to specific loci on outer-doublet-microtubules by interactions at two sites: via intermediate chain 1 (IC1) and the outer dynein arm docking complex (ODA-DC). Studies using Chlamydomonas mutants have suggested that the individual sites have rather weak affinities for microtubules, and therefore strong OAD attachment to microtubules is achieved by their cooperation. To test this idea, we examined interactions between IC1, IC2 (another intermediate chain) and ODA-DC using recombinant proteins. Recombinant IC1 and IC2 were found to form a 1:1 complex, and this complex associated with ODA-DC in vitro. Binding of IC1 to mutant axonemes revealed that there are specific binding sites for IC1. From these data, we propose a novel model of OAD-outer doublet association.
Project description:Immunological analysis showed that antibodies against the intermediate chains (ICs) IC2 and IC3 of sea urchin outer arm dynein specifically cross-reacted with intermediate chains IC78 and IC69, respectively, of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. In contrast, no specific cross-reactivity with any Chlamydomonas outer arm polypeptide was observed using antibody against IC1 of sea urchin outer arm dynein. To learn more about the relationships between the different ICs, overlapping cDNAs encoding all of IC2 and IC3 of sea urchin were isolated and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences with those previously obtained for the Chlamydomonas ICs revealed that, although all four chains are homologous, sea urchin IC2 is much more closely related to Chlamydomonas IC78 (45.8% identity), and sea urchin IC3 is much more closely related to Chlamydomonas IC69 (48.5% identity), than either sea urchin chain is related to the other (23.5% identity). For homologous pairs, the similarities extend throughout the full lengths of the chains. Regions of similarity between all four ICs and the IC (IC74) of cytoplasmic dynein, located in the C-terminal halves of the chains, are due primarily to conservation of the WD repeats present in all of these ICs. This is the first demonstration that structural differences between individual ICs within an outer arm dynein have been highly conserved in the dyneins of distantly related species. The results provide a basis for the subclassification of these chains.
Project description:In ciliary and flagellar axonemes, various discrete structures such as inner and outer dynein arms are regularly arranged on the outer doublet microtubules. Little is known about the basis for their regular arrangement. In this study, proteins involved in the attachment of inner-arm dyneins were searched by a microtubule overlay assay on Chlamydomonas mutant axonemes. A 58-kDa protein (p58) was found approximately 80% diminished in the mutants ida6 and pf3, both lacking one (species e) of the seven inner-arm species (a-g). Analysis of its cDNA indicated that p58 is homologous to tektin, a protein that was originally found in sea urchin and thought to be crucial for the longitudinal periodicity of the doublet microtubule. Unlike sea urchin tektin, which is a component of protofilament ribbons that occur after Sarkosyl treatment of axonemes, p58 was not contained in similar Sarkosyl-resistant ribbons from Chlamydomonas axonemes. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that p58 was localized uniformly along the axoneme and on the basal body. The p58 signal was reduced in ida6 and pf3. These results suggest that a reduced amount of p58 is sufficient for the production of outer doublets, whereas an additional amount of it is involved in inner-arm dynein attachment.
Project description:To learn more about how dyneins are targeted to specific sites in the flagellum, we have investigated a factor necessary for binding of outer arm dynein to the axonemal microtubules of Chlamydomonas. This factor, termed the outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC), previously was shown to be missing from axonemes of the outer dynein armless mutants oda1 and oda3. We have now partially purified the ODA-DC, determined that it contains equimolar amounts of M(r) approximately 105,000 and approximately 70,000 proteins plus a third protein of M(r) approximately 25,000, and found that it is associated with the isolated outer arm in a 1:1 molar ratio. We have cloned a full-length cDNA encoding the M(r) approximately 70,000 protein; the sequence predicts a 62.5-kDa protein with potential homologs in higher ciliated organisms, including humans. Sequencing of corresponding cDNA from strain oda1 revealed it has a mutation resulting in a stop codon just downstream of the initiator ATG; thus, it is unable to make the full-length M(r) approximately 70,000 protein. These results demonstrate that the ODA1 gene encodes the M(r) approximately 70,000 protein, and that the protein is essential for assembly of the ODA-DC and the outer dynein arm onto the doublet microtubule.
Project description:The outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC) is a microtubule-associated structure that targets the outer dynein arm to its binding site on the flagellar axoneme (Takada et al. 2002. Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 1015-1029). The ODA-DC of Chlamydomonas contains three proteins, referred to as DC1, DC2, and DC3. We here report the isolation and sequencing of genomic and full-length cDNA clones encoding DC3. The sequence predicts a 21,341 Da protein with four EF-hands that is a member of the CTER (calmodulin, troponin C, essential and regulatory myosin light chains) group and is most closely related to a predicted protein from Plasmodium. The DC3 gene, termed ODA14, is intronless. Chlamydomonas mutants that lack DC3 exhibit slow, jerky swimming because of loss of some but not all outer dynein arms. Some outer doublet microtubules without arms had a "partial" docking complex, indicating that DC1 and DC2 can assemble in the absence of DC3. In contrast, DC3 cannot assemble in the absence of DC1 or DC2. Transformation of a DC3-deletion strain with the wild-type DC3 gene rescued both the motility phenotype and the structural defect, whereas a mutated DC3 gene was incompetent to rescue. The results indicate that DC3 is important for both outer arm and ODA-DC assembly.
Project description:We have used an insertional mutagenesis/ gene tagging technique to generate new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants that are defective in assembly of the uter ynein rm. Among 39 insertional oda mutants characterized, two are alleles of the previously uncloned ODA3 gene, one is an allele of the uncloned ODA10 gene, and one represents a novel ODA gene (termed ODA12). ODA3 is of particular interest because it is essential for assembly of both the outer dynein arm and the outer dynein arm docking complex (ODA-DC) onto flagellar doublet microtubules (Takada, S., and R. Kamiya. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 126:737- 745). Beginning with the inserted DNA as a tag, the ODA3 gene and a full-length cDNA were cloned. The cloned gene rescues the phenotype of oda3 mutants. The cDNA sequence predicts a novel 83. 4-kD protein with extensive coiled-coil domains. The ODA-DC contains three polypeptides; direct amino acid sequencing indicates that the largest of these polypeptides corresponds to ODA3. This protein is likely to have an important role in the precise positioning of the outer dynein arms on the flagellar axoneme.
Project description:A system distinct from the central pair-radial spoke complex was proposed to control outer arm dynein function in response to alterations in the mechanical state of the flagellum. In this study, we examine the role of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii outer arm dynein light chain that associates with the motor domain of the gamma heavy chain (HC). We demonstrate that expression of mutant forms of LC1 yield dominant-negative effects on swimming velocity, as the flagella continually beat out of phase and stall near or at the power/recovery stroke switchpoint. Furthermore, we observed that LC1 interacts directly with tubulin in a nucleotide-independent manner and tethers this motor unit to the A-tubule of the outer doublet microtubules within the axoneme. Therefore, this dynein HC is attached to the same microtubule by two sites: via both the N-terminal region and the motor domain. We propose that this gamma HC-LC1-microtubule ternary complex functions as a conformational switch to control outer arm activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In order to proceed through their life cycle, Leishmania parasites switch between sandflies and mammals. The flagellated promastigote cells transmitted by the insect vector are phagocytized by macrophages within the mammalian host and convert into the amastigote stage, which possesses a rudimentary flagellum only. During an earlier proteomic study of the stage differentiation of the parasite we identified a component of the outer dynein arm docking complex, a structure of the flagellar axoneme. The 70 kDa subunit of the outer dynein arm docking complex consists of three subunits altogether and is essential for the assembly of the outer dynein arm onto the doublet microtubule of the flagella. According to the nomenclature of the well-studied Chlamydomonas reinhardtii complex we named the Leishmania protein LdDC2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study features a characterization of the protein over the life cycle of the parasite. It is synthesized exclusively in the promastigote stage and localizes to the flagellum. Gene replacement mutants of lddc2 show reduced growth rates and diminished flagellar length. Additionally, the normally spindle-shaped promastigote parasites reveal a more spherical cell shape giving them an amastigote-like appearance. The mutants lose their motility and wiggle in place. Ultrastructural analyses reveal that the outer dynein arm is missing. Furthermore, expression of the amastigote-specific A2 gene family was detected in the deletion mutants in the absence of a stage conversion stimulus. In vitro infectivity is slightly increased in the mutant cell line compared to wild-type Leishmania donovani parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the correct assembly of the flagellum has a great influence on the investigated characteristics of Leishmania parasites. The lack of a single flagellar protein causes an aberrant morphology, impaired growth and altered infectiousness of the parasite.
Project description:Tctex1 and Tctex2 were originally described as potential distorters/sterility factors in the non-Mendelian transmission of t-haplotypes in mice. These proteins have since been identified as subunits of cytoplasmic and/or axonemal dyneins. Within the Chlamydomonas flagellum, Tctex1 is a subunit of inner arm I1. We have now identified a second Tctex1-related protein (here termed LC9) in Chlamydomonas. LC9 copurifies with outer arm dynein in sucrose density gradients and is missing only in those strains completely lacking this motor. Zero-length cross-linking of purified outer arm dynein indicates that LC9 interacts directly with both the IC1 and IC2 intermediate chains. Immunoblot analysis revealed that LC2, LC6, and LC9 are missing in an IC2 mutant strain (oda6-r88) that can assemble outer arms but exhibits significantly reduced flagellar beat frequency. This defect is unlikely to be due to lack of LC6, because an LC6 null mutant (oda13) exhibits only a minor swimming abnormality. Using an LC2 null mutant (oda12-1), we find that although some outer arm dynein components assemble in the absence of LC2, they are nonfunctional. In contrast, dyneins from oda6-r88, which also lack LC2, retain some activity. Furthermore, we observed a synthetic assembly defect in an oda6-r88 oda12-1 double mutant. These data suggest that LC2, LC6, and LC9 have different roles in outer arm assembly and are required for wild-type motor function in the Chlamydomonas flagellum.
Project description:We find that two Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein assembly loci, oda6 and oda9, are located on the left arm of linkage group XII, in the vicinity of the previously mapped locus for a 70,000 Mr dynein intermediate chain protein. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping indicates that this dynein gene is very closely linked to the oda6 locus. A cDNA clone encoding the 70,000 Mr protein was isolated, sequenced, and used to select genomic clones spanning the corresponding locus from both wild-type and oda6 libraries. When wild-type clones were introduced into cells containing an oda6 allele, the mutant phenotype was rescued, while no rescue was observed after transformation with oda6 clones. Genetic analysis further revealed that newly introduced gene copies were responsible for the rescued phenotype and thus confirms that ODA6 encodes the 70,000 Mr dynein intermediate chain protein. The inability of oda6 mutants to assemble any major outer arm dynein subunits shows that this protein is essential for assembly of stable outer dynein arms. This is the first use of transformation with a wild-type gene to identify the product of a Chlamydomonas mutant.