Matrix-dependent Tiam1/Rac signaling in epithelial cells promotes either cell-cell adhesion or cell migration and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that both Tiam1, an activator of Rac, and constitutively active V12Rac promote E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in epithelial Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Moreover, Tiam1 and V12Rac inhibit invasion of Ras-transformed, fibroblastoid MDCK-f3 cells by restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Here we show that the Tiam1/Rac-induced cellular response is dependent on the cell substrate. On fibronectin and laminin 1, Tiam1/Rac signaling inhibits migration of MDCK-f3 cells by restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell- cell adhesion. On different collagens, however, expression of Tiam1 and V12Rac promotes motile behavior, under conditions that prevent formation of E-cadherin adhesions. In nonmotile cells, Tiam1 is present in adherens junctions, whereas Tiam1 localizes to lamellae of migrating cells. The level of Rac activation by Tiam1, as determined by binding to a glutathione-S-transferase- PAK protein, is similar on fibronectin or collagen I, suggesting that rather the localization of the Tiam1/Rac signaling complex determines the substrate-dependent cellular responses. Rac activation by Tiam1 requires PI3-kinase activity. Moreover, Tiam1- but not V12Rac-induced migration as well as E-cadherin-mediated cell- cell adhesion are dependent on PI3-kinase, indicating that PI3-kinase acts upstream of Tiam1 and Rac.
Project description:The Rac exchange factor Tiam1 is involved in diverse cell functions and signaling pathways through multiple protein interactions, raising the question of how signaling and functional specificity are achieved. We have shown that Tiam1 interactions with different scaffold proteins activate different Rac-dependent pathways by recruiting specific Rac effector proteins, and reasoned that there must be regulatory mechanisms governing each interaction. Fibroblasts express at least two Tiam1-interacting proteins, insulin receptor substrate protein 53 kDa (IRSp53) and spinophilin. We used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure localized Rac activation associated with IRSp53 and spinophilin complexes in individual fibroblasts to test this hypothesis. Pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and IRSp53. Forskolin or epinephrine induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and spinophilin. In spinophilin-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with IRSp53 in response to pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor. In IRSp53-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with spinophilin in response to forskolin or epinephrine. Total cellular levels of activated Rac were affected only in cells with exogenous Tiam1, and were primarily increased in the membrane fraction. Downstream effects of Rac activation were also stimulus and scaffold-specific. Cell ruffling, spreading, and cell adhesion were dependent on IRSp53, but not spinophilin. Epinephrine decreased IRSp53-dependent adhesion and increased cell migration in a Rac and spinophilin-dependent fashion. These results support the idea that Tiam1 interactions with different scaffold proteins couple distinct upstream signals to localized Rac activation and specific downstream pathways, and suggest that manipulating Tiam1-scaffold interactions can modulate Rac-dependent cellular behaviors.
Project description:Although Rac and its activator Tiam1 are known to stimulate cell-cell adhesion, the mechanisms regulating their activity in cell-cell junction formation are poorly understood. Here, we identify ?2-syntrophin as a Tiam1 interactor required for optimal cell-cell adhesion. We show that during tight-junction (TJ) assembly ?2-syntrophin promotes Tiam1-Rac activity, in contrast to the function of the apical determinant Par-3 whose inhibition of Tiam1-Rac activity is necessary for TJ assembly. We further demonstrate that ?2-syntrophin localizes more basally than Par-3 at cell-cell junctions, thus generating an apicobasal Rac activity gradient at developing cell-cell junctions. Targeting active Rac to TJs shows that this gradient is required for optimal TJ assembly and apical lumen formation. Consistently, ?2-syntrophin depletion perturbs Tiam1 and Rac localization at cell-cell junctions and causes defects in apical lumen formation. We conclude that ?2-syntrophin and Par-3 fine-tune Rac activity along cell-cell junctions controlling TJ assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity.
Project description:The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.
Project description:The Rac-specific GEF (guanine-nucleotide exchange factor) Tiam1 (T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) regulates migration, cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion by modulating the actin cytoskeleton through the GTPase, Rac1. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and biochemical assays, we found that Tiam1 interacts with the p21-Arc [Arp (actin-related protein) complex] subunit of the Arp2/3 complex. Association occurred through the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and the adjacent coiled-coil region of Tiam1. As a result, Tiam1 co-localizes with the Arp2/3 complex at sites of actin polymerization, such as epithelial cell-cell contacts and membrane ruffles. Deletion of the p21-Arc-binding domain in Tiam1 impairs its subcellular localization and capacity to activate Rac1, suggesting that binding to the Arp2/3 complex is important for the function of Tiam1. Indeed, blocking Arp2/3 activation with a WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) inhibitor leads to subcellular relocalization of Tiam1 and decreased Rac activation. Conversely, functionally active Tiam1, but not a GEF-deficient mutant, promotes activation of the Arp2/3 complex and its association with cytoskeletal components, indicating that Tiam1 and Arp2/3 are mutually dependent for their correct localization and signalling. Our data suggests a model in which the Arp2/3 complex acts as a scaffold to localize Tiam1, and thereby Rac activity, which are both required for activation of the Arp2/3 complex and further Arp2/3 recruitment. This 'self-amplifying' signalling module involving Tiam1, Rac and the Arp2/3 complex could thus drive actin polymerization at specific sites in cells that are required for dynamic morphological changes.
Project description:Small GTPase Rac is important regulator of endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement by prostacyclin characterized by increased peripheral actin cytoskeleton and increased interactions between VE-cadherin and other adherens junction (AJ) proteins. This study utilized complementary approaches including siRNA knockdown, culturing in Ca(2+) -free medium, and VE-cadherin blocking antibody to alter VE-cadherin extracellular interactions to investigate the role of VE-cadherin outside-in signaling in modulation of Rac activation and EC barrier regulation by prostacyclin analog iloprost. Spatial analysis of Rac activation in pulmonary EC by FRET revealed additional spike in iloprost-induced Rac activity at the sites of newly formed cell-cell junctions. In contrast, disruption of VE-cadherin extracellular trans-interactions suppressed iloprost-activated Rac signaling and attenuated EC barrier enhancement and cytoskeletal remodeling. These inhibitory effects were associated with decreased membrane accumulation and activation of Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) Tiam1 and Vav2. Conversely, plating of pulmonary EC on surfaces coated with extracellular VE-cadherin domain further promoted iloprost-induced Rac signaling. In the model of thrombin-induced EC barrier recovery, blocking of VE-cadherin trans-interactions attenuated activation of Rac pathway during recovery phase and delayed suppression of Rho signaling and restoration of EC barrier properties. These results suggest that VE-cadherin outside-in signaling controls locally Rac activity stimulated by barrier protective agonists. This control is essential for maximal EC barrier enhancement and accelerated barrier recovery.
Project description:Kidney-derived Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells form lumina at their apices, and target luminal proteins to an intracellular vacuolar apical compartment (VAC) when prevented from polarizing. Hepatocytes, by contrast, organize their luminal surfaces (the bile canaliculi; BC) between their lateral membranes, and, when nonpolarized, they display an intracellular luminal compartment that is distinct from the VACs of MDCK cells. Overexpression of the serine/threonine kinase Par1b/EMK1/MARK2 induces BC-like lateral lumina and a hepatic-type intracellular luminal compartment in MDCK cells, suggesting a role for Par1b in the branching decision between kidney- and hepatic-type epithelial phenotypes. Here, we report that Par1b promotes lateral lumen polarity in MDCK cells independently of Ca(2+)-mediated cell-cell adhesion by inhibiting myosin II in a rho kinase-dependent manner. Polarization was inhibited by E-cadherin depletion but promoted by an adhesion-defective E-cadherin mutant. By contrast, apical surface formation in control MDCK cells required Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion, but it occurred in the absence of E-cadherin. We propose that E-cadherin, when in an adhesion-incompetent state at the lateral domain, serves as targeting patch for the establishment of lateral luminal surfaces. E-cadherin depletion also reverted the hepatic-type intracellular luminal compartment in Par1b-MDCK cells to VACs characteristic of control MDCK cells, indicating a novel link between E-cadherin and luminal protein targeting.
Project description:CADM1 encodes a multifunctional immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule whose cytoplasmic domain contains a type II PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding motif (BM) for associating with other intracellular proteins. Although CADM1 lacks expression in T lymphocytes of healthy individuals, it is overexpressed in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) cells. It has been suggested that the expression of CADM1 protein promotes infiltration of leukemic cells into various organs and tissues, which is one of the frequent clinical manifestations of ATL. Amino acid sequence alignment revealed that Tiam1 (T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1), a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, has a type II PDZ domain similar to those of membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGUKs) that are known to bind to the PDZ-BM of CADM1. In this study, we demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domain of CADM1 directly interacted with the PDZ domain of Tiam1 and induced formation of lamellipodia through Rac activation in HTLV-I-transformed cell lines as well as ATL cell lines. Our results indicate that Tiam1 integrates signals from CADM1 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton through Rac activation, which may lead to tissue infiltration of leukemic cells in ATL patients.
Project description:Exposure of cells to certain cytokines can alter how these same cells respond to later cues from other agents, such as extracellular matrix or growth factors. Interferon (IFN)-gamma pre-exposure inhibits the spreading of fibroblasts on fibronectin. Expression of the IFN-gamma-induced GTPase murine guanylate-binding protein-2 (mGBP-2) can phenocopy this inhibition and small interfering RNA knockdown of mGBP-2 prevents IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of cell spreading. Either IFN-gamma treatment or mGBP-2 expression inhibits Rac activation during cell spreading. Rac is required for cell spreading. mGBP-2 also inhibits the activation of Akt during cell spreading on fibronectin. mGBP-2 is incorporated into a protein complex containing the catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), p110. The association of mGBP-2 with p110 seems important for the inhibition of cell spreading because S52N mGBP-2, which does not incorporate into the protein complex with p110, is unable to inhibit cell spreading. PI3-K activation during cell spreading on fibronectin was inhibited in the presence of mGBP-2. Both IFN-gamma and mGBP-2 also inhibit cell spreading initiated by platelet-derived growth factor treatment, which is also accompanied by inhibition of Rac activation by mGBP-2. This is the first report of a novel mechanism by which IFN-gamma can alter how cells respond to subsequent extracellular signals, by the induction of mGBP-2.
Project description:RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis.
Project description:Integrin-mediated adhesion to substratum is required for cyclin D1 induction in mesenchymal cells, but we show here that the induction of cyclin D1 persists despite blockade of ECM-integrin signaling in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion also supports cyclin D1 induction in these cells, and the combined inhibition of both E-cadherin and integrin adhesion is required to prevent the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein. Our previous studies described a pro-proliferative effect of E-cadherin in MCF10A cells, mediated by Rac, and we now show that Rac is required for cyclin D1 mRNA induction by both E-cadherin and integrin engagement. The levels of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, Cdk inhibitors that are also targets of integrin signaling, are not affected by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Finally, we show that the increased expression of cyclin D1 mRNA associated with E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion is causally linked to an increased entry into S phase. Our results identify Rac signaling to cyclin D1 as a crucial pro-proliferative effect of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion.