Bacteriophage P2 ogr and P4 delta genes act independently and are essential for P4 multiplication.
ABSTRACT: Satellite bacteriophage P4 requires the products of the late genes of a helper phage such as P2 for lytic growth. Expression of the P2 late genes is positively regulated by the P2 ogr gene in a process requiring P2 DNA replication. Transactivation of P2 late gene expression by P4 requires the P4 delta gene product and works even in the absence of P2 DNA replication. We have made null mutants of the P2 ogr and P4 delta genes. In the absence of the P4 delta gene product, P4 multiplication required both the P2 ogr protein and P2 DNA replication. In the absence of the P2 ogr gene product, P4 multiplication required the P4 delta protein. In complementation experiments, we found that the P2 ogr protein was made in the absence of P2 DNA replication but could not function unless P2 DNA replicated. We produced P4 delta protein from a plasmid and found that it complemented the null P4 delta and P2 ogr mutants.
Project description:Satellite bacteriophage P4 requires the products of the late genes of a helper such as P2 in order to grow lytically. The Escherichia coli rpoA109 mutation, which alters the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase, prevents transcription of the late genes of bacteriophage P2. Suppressor mutations that define the P2 ogr gene overcome this block. We found that P4 lytic growth using a P2 ogr+ prophage helper was prevented by the rpoA109 mutation but that this block was overcome when the P2 helper carried the suppressor mutation in the ogr gene. Furthermore, we isolated and characterized four independent mutations in P4, called org, that suppress the E. coli rpoA109 mutation by allowing P4 lytic growth using a P2 ogr+ helper. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the four independent org mutations are identical and that they occur in the P4 delta gene, which codes for a factor that positively regulates the transcription of the P2 and P4 late genes. delta is predicted to code for a basic 166-amino-acid residue protein. Each 83-residue half of the predicted delta gene product is similar to the predicted 72-residue proteins encoded by the ogr gene of P2 and the B gene of phage 186.
Project description:Transcription from the late Psid promoter of satellite bacteriophage P4 is dependent on the bacterial RNA polymerase carrying the sigma 70 subunit and is positively regulated by the product of the P4 delta gene or the ogr gene of helper bacteriophage P2. Through deletion and mutational analyses of the Psid promoter, we identified mutations in the -10 region and in a region of hyphenated dyad symmetry centered around position -55 that inactivate Psid. Most of these mutations alter base pairs that are highly conserved in the five other delta-activated P4 and P2 late promoters. We propose that the P4 delta and P2 ogr gene products bind the -55 region of the P4 and P2 late promoters.
Project description:Bacteriophage P4 replication may result in either a lytic cycle or plasmid maintenance, depending on the presence or absence, respectively, of helper phase P2 genome. Bacteriophage P4 DNA replication depends on the product of gene alpha, which has origin recognition, primase, and helicase activities. An open reading frame with the coding capacity for a protein of 106 amino acids (orf106) is located upstream of the alpha gene. Genes orf106 and alpha are transcriptionally coregulated. Three amber mutations and an internal deletion (del51) were introduced into orf106. All of the amber mutations exhibited a polar effect on transcription of the downstream alpha gene. The P4 del51 mutant was slightly defective in lytic growth and could not be propagated in the plasmid state. In this latter condition, P4 DNA overreplication was observed. Overexpression of Orf106 severely inhibited P4 DNA replication, preventing P4 lytic growth and plasmid maintenance. The inhibitory effect of Orf106 on P4 replication was not observed when both orf106 and alpha were overexpressed. We suggest that orf106 is involved in P4 replication and that a balanced expression of orf106 relative to alpha may be necessary for proper P4 DNA replication. In particular, orf106 appears to be essential for the control of P4 genome replication in the plasmid state. We propose that orf106 be named cnr, for copy number regulation.
Project description:Bacteriophage P4 DNA replication depends on the product of the alpha gene, which has origin recognition ability, DNA helicase activity, and DNA primase activity. One temperature-sensitive and four amber mutations that eliminate DNA replication in vivo were sequenced and located in the alpha gene. Sequence analysis of the entire gene predicted a domain structure for the alpha polypeptide chain (777 amino acid residues, M(r) 84,900), with the N terminus providing the catalytic activity for the primase and the middle part providing that for the helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase. This model was confirmed experimentally in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the ori DNA recognition ability was found to be associated with the C-terminal third of the alpha polypeptide chain. The type A nucleotide-binding site is required for P4 replication in vivo, as shown for alpha mutations at G-506 and K-507. In the absence of an active DnaG protein, the primase function is also essential for P4 replication. Primase-null and helicase-null mutants retain the two remaining activities functionally in vitro and in vivo. The latter was demonstrated by trans complementation studies, indicating the assembly of active P4 replisomes by a primase-null and a helicase-null mutant.
Project description:The bacteriophage P2 ogr gene encodes an essential 72-amino-acid protein which acts as a positive regulator of P2 late transcription. A P2 ogr deletion phage, which depends on the supply of Ogr protein in trans for lytic growth on Escherichia coli C, has previously been constructed. E. coli B and K-12 were found to support the growth of the ogr-defective P2 phage because of the presence of functional ogr genes located in cryptic P2-like prophages in these strains. The cryptic ogr genes were cloned and sequenced. Compared with the P2 wild-type ogr gene, the ogr genes in the B and K-12 strains are conserved, containing mostly silent base substitutions. One of the base substitutions in the K-12 ogr gene results in replacement of an alanine with valine at position 57 in the Ogr protein but does not seem to affect the function of Ogr as a transcriptional activator. The cryptic ogr genes are constitutively transcribed, apparently at a higher level than the wild-type ogr gene in a P2 lysogen.
Project description:Phospholipid flippases (P4-ATPases) utilize ATP to translocate specific phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of biological membranes, thus generating and maintaining transmembrane lipid asymmetry essential for a variety of cellular processes. P4-ATPases belong to the P-type ATPase protein family, which also encompasses the ion transporting P2-ATPases: Ca2+-ATPase, Na+,K+-ATPase, and H+,K+-ATPase. In comparison with the P2-ATPases, understanding of P4-ATPases is still very limited. The electrogenicity of P4-ATPases has not been explored, and it is not known whether lipid transfer between membrane bilayer leaflets can lead to displacement of charge across the membrane. A related question is whether P4-ATPases countertransport ions or other substrates in the opposite direction, similar to the P2-ATPases. Using an electrophysiological method based on solid supported membranes, we observed the generation of a transient electrical current by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 in the presence of ATP and the negatively charged lipid substrate phosphatidylserine, whereas only a diminutive current was generated with the lipid substrate phosphatidylethanolamine, which carries no or little charge under the conditions of the measurement. The current transient seen with phosphatidylserine was abolished by the mutation E198Q, which blocks dephosphorylation. Likewise, mutation I364M, which causes the neurological disorder cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and disequilibrium (CAMRQ) syndrome, strongly interfered with the electrogenic lipid translocation. It is concluded that the electrogenicity is associated with a step in the ATPase reaction cycle directly involved in translocation of the lipid. These measurements also showed that no charged substrate is being countertransported, thereby distinguishing the P4-ATPase from P2-ATPases.
Project description:P4 is a mobile genetic element (MGE) that can exist as a plasmid or integrated into its Escherichia coli host genome, but becomes packaged into phage particles by a helper bacteriophage, such as P2. P4 is the original example of what we have termed "molecular piracy", the process by which one MGE usurps the life cycle of another for its own propagation. The P2 helper provides most of the structural gene products for assembly of the P4 virion. However, when P4 is mobilized by P2, the resulting capsids are smaller than those normally formed by P2 alone. The P4-encoded protein responsible for this size change is called Sid, which forms an external scaffolding cage around the P4 procapsids. We have determined the high-resolution structure of P4 procapsids, allowing us to build an atomic model for Sid as well as the gpN capsid protein. Sixty copies of Sid form an intertwined dodecahedral cage around the T = 4 procapsid, making contact with only one out of the four symmetrically non-equivalent copies of gpN. Our structure provides a basis for understanding the sir mutants in gpN that prevent small capsid formation, as well as the nms "super-sid" mutations that counteract the effect of the sir mutations, and suggests a model for capsid size redirection by Sid.
Project description:Bacteriophage P4 DNA replication depends upon the phage-encoded alpha protein, which has DNA helicase and DNA primase activity and can specifically bind to the replication origin (ori) and to the cis replicating region (crr). The P4 Cnr protein functions as a negative regulator of P4 replication, and P4 does not replicate in cells that overexpress cnr. We searched for P4 mutants that suppressed this phenotype (Cnr resistant [alpha cr]). Eight independent mutants that grew in the presence of high levels of Cnr were obtained. None of these can establish the plasmid state. Each of these mutations lies in the DNA binding domain of gp alpha that occupies the C terminus of the protein. Five different sequence changes were found: T675M, G732V (three times), G732W (twice), L733V, and L737V. A TrxA-Cnr fusion protein does not bind DNA by itself but stimulates the ori and crr binding abilities of alpha protein in vitro. The alpha cr mutant proteins were still able to bind specifically to ori or crr, but specific DNA binding was less stimulated by the TrxA-Cnr protein. We present evidence that Cnr protein interacts with the gp alpha domain that binds specifically to DNA and that gp(alpha)cr mutations impair this interaction. We hypothesize that gp alpha-Cnr interaction is essential for the control of P4 DNA replication.
Project description:DNA replication of phage-plasmid P4 in its host Escherichia coli depends on its replication protein alpha. In the plasmid state, P4 copy number is controlled by the regulator protein Cnr (copy number regulation). Mutations in alpha (alpha(cr)) that prevent regulation by Cnr cause P4 over-replication and cell death. Using the two-hybrid system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a system based on lambda immunity in E.coli for in vivo detection of protein-protein interactions, we found that (i) alpha protein interacts with Cnr, whereas alpha(cr) proteins do not; (ii) both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) interactions occur and the interaction domain is located within the C-terminal of alpha; (iii) Cnr-Cnr interaction also occurs. Using an in vivo competition assay, we found that Cnr interferes with both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) dimerization. Our data suggest that Cnr and alpha interact in at least two ways, which may have different functional roles in P4 replication control.
Project description:We have carried out a mutational scan of the upstream region of the bacteriophage P2 FETUD late operon promoter, P(F), which spans an element of hyphenated dyad symmetry that is conserved among all six of the P2 and P4 late promoters. All mutants were assayed for activation by P4 delta in vivo, by using a lacZ reporter plasmid, and a subset of mutants was assayed in vitro for delta binding. The results confirm the critical role of the three complementary nucleotides in each half site of the upstream element for transcription factor binding and for activation of transcription. A trinucleotide DNA recognition site is consistent with a model in which these transcription factors bind via a zinc finger motif. The mutational scan also led to identification of the -35 region of the promoter. Introduction of a sigma(70) -35 consensus sequence resulted in increased constitutive expression, which could be further stimulated by delta. These results indicate that activator binding to the upstream region of P2 late promoters compensates in part for poor sigma(70) contacts and helps to recruit RNA polymerase holoenzyme.