Cloning, sequence, and expression of the pantothenate permease (panF) gene of Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Pantothenate permease, the product of the panF gene, catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular pantothenate. The panF gene was isolated from an Escherichia coli genomic DNA library and subcloned into multicopy plasmids. Increased copy number of the panF+ allele resulted in increased rates of pantothenate uptake and a significant increase in the steady-state intracellular pantothenate concentration. Despite the higher levels of pantothenate, the utilization of pantothenate for coenzyme A formation was not elevated, indicating that pantothenate kinase activity is the dominant regulator of coenzyme A biosynthesis. DNA sequencing of the panF gene revealed the presence of a single open reading frame that encoded a hydrophobic protein with a molecular weight of 51,992. Sequence analysis predicts that pantothenate permease is an integral membrane protein possessing 12 hydrophobic membrane-spanning domains connected by short hydrophilic sequences. The predicted topological profile of pantothenate permease is similar to that of other membrane carriers that catalyze cation-dependent symport.
Project description:To study amino acid transport in plants at the molecular level, we have isolated an amino acid permease cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana by complementation of a yeast mutant defective in proline uptake with a cDNA. The predicted polypeptide of 53 kDa is highly hydrophobic with 12 putative membrane-spanning regions and shows no significant homologies to other known transporters. Expression of the cDNA enables the yeast mutant to take up L-[14C]proline. Competition studies argue for a broad but stereospecific substrate recognition by the permease, which resembles neutral or general amino acid transport systems from Chlorella and higher plants. Both pH dependence and inhibition by protonophores are consistent with a proton symport mechanism.
Project description:In nearly all non-photosynthetic cells, pantothenate (vitamin B5) transport and utilization are prerequisites for the synthesis of the universal essential cofactor Coenzyme A (CoA). Early studies showed that human malaria parasites rely on the uptake of pantothenate across the parasite plasma membrane for survival within erythrocytes. Recently, a P. falciparum candidate pantothenate transporter (PAT) was characterized by functional complementation in yeast. These studies revealed that PfPAT mediated survival of yeast cells in low pantothenate concentrations and restored sensitivity of yeast cells lacking pantothenate uptake to fenpropimorph. In addition, PfPAT was refractory to deletion in P. falciparum in vitro, but nothing is known about the in vivo functions of PAT in Plasmodium life cycle stages. Herein, we used gene-targeting techniques to delete PAT in Plasmodium yoelii. Parasites lacking PAT displayed normal asexual and sexual blood stage development compared to wild-type (WT) and WT-like p230p(-) parasites. However, progression from the ookinete to the oocyst stage and sporozoite formation were completely abolished in pat(-) parasites. These studies provide the first evidence for an essential role of a candidate pantothenate transport in malaria transmission to Anopheles mosquitoes. This will set the stage for the development of PAT inhibitors against multiple parasite life cycle stages.
Project description:Coenzyme A (CoA) and its derivatives such as acetyl-CoA are essential metabolites for several biosynthetic reactions. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, five enzymes (encoded by essential genes CAB1-CAB5; coenzyme A biosynthesis) are required to perform CoA biosynthesis from pantothenate, cysteine, and ATP. Similar to enzymes from other eukaryotes, yeast pantothenate kinase (PanK, encoded by CAB1) turned out to be inhibited by acetyl-CoA. By genetic selection of intragenic suppressors of a temperature-sensitive cab1 mutant combined with rationale mutagenesis of the presumed acetyl-CoA binding site within PanK, we were able to identify the variant CAB1 W331R, encoding a hyperactive PanK completely insensitive to inhibition by acetyl-CoA. Using a versatile gene integration cassette containing the TPI1 promoter, we constructed strains overexpressing CAB1 W331R in combination with additional genes of CoA biosynthesis (CAB2, CAB3, HAL3, CAB4, and CAB5). In these strains, the level of CoA nucleotides was 15-fold increased, compared to a reference strain without additional CAB genes. Overexpression of wild-type CAB1 instead of CAB1 W331R turned out as substantially less effective (fourfold increase of CoA nucleotides). Supplementation of overproducing strains with additional pantothenate could further elevate the level of CoA (2.3-fold). Minor increases were observed after overexpression of FEN2 (encoding a pantothenate permease) and deletion of PCD1 (CoA-specific phosphatase). We conclude that the strategy described in this work may improve the efficiency of biotechnological applications depending on acetyl-CoA. Key points • A gene encoding a hyperactive yeast pantothenate kinase (PanK) was constructed. • Overexpression of CoA biosynthetic genes elevated CoA nucleotides 15-fold. • Supplementation with pantothenate further increased the level of CoA nucleotides.
Project description:Pantothenate kinase generates 4'-phosphopantothenate in the first and rate-determining step of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The human genome encodes three well-characterized and nearly identical pantothenate kinases (PANK1-3) plus a putative bifunctional protein (PANK4) with a predicted amino-terminal pantothenate kinase domain fused to a carboxy-terminal phosphatase domain. Structural and phylogenetic analyses show that all active, characterized PANKs contain the key catalytic residues Glu138 and Arg207 (HsPANK3 numbering). However, all amniote PANK4s, including human PANK4, encode Glu138Val and Arg207Trp substitutions which are predicted to inactivate kinase activity. Biochemical analysis corroborates bioinformatic predictions-human PANK4 lacks pantothenate kinase activity. Introducing Glu138Val and Arg207Trp substitutions to the human PANK3 and plant PANK4 abolished their robust pantothenate kinase activity. Introducing both catalytic residues back into human PANK4 restored kinase activity, but only to a low level. This result suggests that epistatic changes to the rest of the protein already reduced the kinase activity prior to mutation of the catalytic residues in the course of evolution. The PANK4 from frog, an anamniote living relative encoding the catalytically active residues, had only a low level of kinase activity, supporting the view that HsPANK4 had reduced kinase activity prior to the catalytic residue substitutions in amniotes. Together, our data show that human PANK4 is a pseudo-pantothenate kinase-a catalytically deficient variant of the catalytically active PANK4 found in plants and fungi. The Glu138Val and Arg207Trp substitutions in amniotes (HsPANK3 numbering) completely deactivated the pantothenate kinase activity that had already been reduced by prior epistatic mutations.
Project description:The lactose permease (LacY) catalyzes coupled stoichiometric symport of a galactoside and an H(+). Crystal structures reveal 12, mostly irregular, transmembrane ?-helices surrounding a cavity with sugar- and H(+)- binding sites at the apex, which is accessible from the cytoplasm and sealed on the periplasmic side (an inward-facing conformer). An outward-facing model has also been proposed based on biochemical and spectroscopic measurements, as well as the X-ray structure of a related symporter. Converging lines of evidence demonstrate that LacY functions by an alternating access mechanism. Here, we generate a model for an apo-intermediate of LacY based on crystallographic coordinates of LacY and the oligopeptide/H(+) symporter. The model exhibits a conformation with an occluded cavity inaccessible from either side of the membrane. Furthermore, kinetic considerations and double electron-electron resonance measurements suggest that another occluded conformer with bound sugar exists during turnover. An energy profile for symport is also presented.
Project description:The malaria-causing blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum requires extracellular pantothenate for proliferation. The parasite converts pantothenate into coenzyme A (CoA) via five enzymes, the first being a pantothenate kinase (PfPanK). Multiple antiplasmodial pantothenate analogues, including pantothenol and CJ-15,801, kill the parasite by targeting CoA biosynthesis/utilisation. Their mechanism of action, however, remains unknown. Here, we show that parasites pressured with pantothenol or CJ-15,801 become resistant to these analogues. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in one of two putative PanK genes (Pfpank1) in each resistant line. These mutations significantly alter PfPanK activity, with two conferring a fitness cost, consistent with Pfpank1 coding for a functional PanK that is essential for normal growth. The mutants exhibit a different sensitivity profile to recently-described, potent, antiplasmodial pantothenate analogues, with one line being hypersensitive. We provide evidence consistent with different pantothenate analogue classes having different mechanisms of action: some inhibit CoA biosynthesis while others inhibit CoA-utilising enzymes.
Project description:Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4'-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency.
Project description:In a variety of bacteria, the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Glc) plays a key regulatory role in catabolite repression in addition to its role in the vectorial phosphorylation of glucose catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli catalyzes stoichiometric symport of a galactoside with an H(+), using a mechanism in which sugar- and H(+)-binding sites become alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. Both the expression (via regulation of cAMP levels) and the activity of LacY are subject to regulation by IIA(Glc) (inducer exclusion). Here we report the thermodynamic features of the IIA(Glc)-LacY interaction as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies show that IIA(Glc) binds to LacY with a Kd of about 5 ?M and a stoichiometry of unity and that binding is driven by solvation entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Upon IIA(Glc) binding, the conformational entropy of LacY is restrained, which leads to a significant decrease in sugar affinity. By suppressing conformational dynamics, IIA(Glc) blocks inducer entry into cells and favors constitutive glucose uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the studies support the notion that sugar binding involves an induced-fit mechanism that is inhibited by IIA(Glc) binding. The precise mechanism of the inhibition of LacY by IIA(Glc) elucidated by ITC differs from the inhibition of melibiose permease (MelB), supporting the idea that permeases can differ in their thermodynamic response to binding IIA(Glc).
Project description:The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli is the prototype of the major facilitator superfamily, one of the largest families of membrane transport proteins. Structurally, two pseudo-symmetrical six-helix bundles surround a large internal aqueous cavity. Single binding sites for galactoside and H+ are positioned at the approximate center of LacY halfway through the membrane at the apex of the internal cavity. These features enable LacY to function by an alternating-access mechanism that can catalyze galactoside/H+ symport in either direction across the cytoplasmic membrane. The H+-binding site is fully protonated under physiological conditions, and subsequent sugar binding causes transition of the ternary complex to an occluded intermediate that can open to either side of the membrane. We review the structural and functional evidence that has provided new insight into the mechanism by which LacY achieves active transport against a concentration gradient.
Project description:In cells, phosphorylation of pantothenic acid to generate phosphopantothenic acid by the pantothenate kinase enzymes is the first step in coenzyme A synthesis. Pantothenate kinase 2, the isoform localized in neuronal cell mitochondria, is dysfunctional in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Fosmetpantotenate is a phosphopantothenic acid prodrug in clinical development for treatment of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, which aims to replenish phosphopantothenic acid in patients. Fosmetpantotenate restored coenzyme A in short-hairpin RNA pantothenate kinase 2 gene-silenced neuroblastoma cells and was permeable in a blood-brain barrier model. The rate of fosmetpantotenate metabolism in blood is species-dependent. Following up to 700 mg/kg orally, blood exposure to fosmetpantotenate was negligible in rat and mouse, but measurable in monkey. Consistent with the difference in whole blood half-life, fosmetpantotenate dosed orally was found in the brains of the monkey (striatal dialysate) but was absent in mice. Following administration of isotopically labeled-fosmetpantotenate to mice, ~40% of liver coenzyme A (after 500 mg/kg orally) and ~50% of brain coenzyme A (after 125 ?g intrastriatally) originated from isotopically labeled-fosmetpantotenate. Additionally, 10-day dosing of isotopically labeled-fosmetpantotenate, 12.5 ?g, intracerebroventricularly in mice led to ~30% of brain coenzyme A containing the stable isotopic labels. This work supports the hypothesis that fosmetpantotenate acts to replace reduced phosphopantothenic acid in pantothenate kinase 2-deficient tissues.