The nematode resistance gene Mi of tomato confers resistance against the potato aphid.
ABSTRACT: Resistance against the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae previously was observed in tomato and attributed to a novel gene, designated Meu-1, tightly linked to the nematode resistance gene, Mi. Recent cloning of Mi allowed us to determine whether Meu-1 and Mi are the same gene. We show that Mi is expressed in leaves, that aphid resistance is isolate-specific, and that susceptible tomato transformed with Mi is resistant to the same aphid isolates as the original resistant lines. We conclude that Mi and Meu-1 are the same gene and that Mi mediates resistance against both aphids and nematodes, organisms belonging to different phyla. Mi is the first example of a plant resistance gene active against two such distantly related organisms. Furthermore, it is the first isolate-specific insect resistance gene to be cloned and belongs to the nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes.
Project description:The potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, is an important agricultural pest that causes economic losses to potato and tomato production. To establish the transcriptome for this aphid, RNA-Seq libraries constructed from aphids maintained on tomato plants were used in Illumina sequencing generating 52.6 million 75-105 bp paired-end reads. The reads were assembled using Velvet/Oases software with SEED preprocessing resulting in 22,137 contigs with an N50 value of 2,003bp. After removal of contigs from tomato host origin, 20,254 contigs were annotated using BLASTx searches against the non-redundant protein database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) as well as IntereProScan. This identified matches for 74% of the potato aphid contigs. The highest ranking hits for over 12,700 contigs were against the related pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Gene Ontology (GO) was used to classify the identified M. euphorbiae contigs into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. Among the contigs, sequences of microbial origin were identified. Sixty five contigs were from the aphid bacterial obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola origin and two contigs had amino acid similarities to viruses. The latter two were named Macrosiphum euphorbiae virus 2 (MeV-2) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae virus 3 (MeV-3). The highest sequence identity to MeV-2 had the Dysaphis plantaginea densovirus, while to MeV-3 is the Hubei sobemo-like virus 49. Characterization of MeV-2 and MeV-3 indicated that both are transmitted vertically from adult aphids to nymphs. MeV-2 peptides were detected in the aphid saliva and only MeV-2 and not MeV-3 nucleic acids were detected inside tomato leaves exposed to virus-infected aphids. However, MeV-2 nucleic acids did not persist in tomato leaf tissues, after clearing the plants from aphids, indicating that MeV-2 is likely an aphid virus.
Project description:Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2-) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways.
Project description:The spr2 mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which disrupts function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 (FAD7), confers resistance to the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and modifies the plant’s C6 volatile profiles. To investigate whether C6 volatiles play a role in resistance, HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), which encodes a critical enzyme in C6 volatile synthesis, was silenced in wild-type tomato plants and spr2 mutants. Silencing HPL in wild-type tomato increased potato aphid host preference and reproduction on 5-week old plants but had no influence on 3-week old plants. The spr2 mutation, in contrast, conferred strong aphid resistance at both 3 and 5 weeks, and silencing HPL in spr2 did not compromise this aphid resistance. Moreover, a mutation in the FAD7 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana also conferred resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) in a genetic background that carries a null mutation in HPL. These results indicate that HPL contributes to certain forms of aphid resistance in tomato, but that the effects of FAD7 on aphids in tomato and Arabidopsis are distinct from and independent of HPL.
Project description:Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.
Project description:Tomato produces a number of terpenes in their glandular trichomes that contribute to host plant resistance against pests. While glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato <i>Solanum lycopersicum</i> primarily accumulate a blend of monoterpenes, those of the wild tomato species <i>Solanum habrochaites</i> produce various sesquiterpenes. Recently, we have identified two groups of sesquiterpenes in <i>S. habrochaites</i> accessions that negatively affect the performance and choice behavior of the potato aphid (<i>Macrosiphum euphorbiae</i>). Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use their mouthpart to penetrate and probe plant tissues in order to ultimately access vascular tissue and ingest phloem sap. Because secondary metabolites produced in glandular trichomes can affect the initial steps of the aphid feeding behavior, introducing the formation of defensive terpenes into additional plant tissues <i>via</i> metabolic engineering has the potential to reduce tissue penetration by aphids and in consequence virus transmission. Here, we have developed two multicistronic expression constructs based on the two sesquiterpene traits with activity toward <i>M. euphorbiae</i> previously identified in <i>S. habrochaites</i>. Both constructs are composed of sequences encoding a prenyl transferase and a respective <i>S. habrochaites</i> terpene synthase, as well as enhanced green fluorescent protein as a visible marker. All three coding sequences were linked by short nucleotide sequences encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A self-processing oligopeptide which allows their co-expression under the control of one promoter. Transient expression of both constructs under the epidermis-specific <i>Arabidopsis CER5</i>-promoter in tomato leaves demonstrated that formation of the two sets of defensive sesquiterpenes, β-caryophyllene/α-humulene and (-)-<i>endo</i>-α-bergamotene/(+)-α-santalene/(+)-<i>endo</i>-β-bergamotene, can be introduced into new tissues in tomato. The epidermis-specific transgene expression and terpene formation were verified by fluorescence microscopy and tissue fractionation with subsequent analysis of terpene profiles, respectively. In addition, the longevity and fecundity of <i>M. euphorbiae</i> feeding on these engineered tomato leaves were significantly reduced, demonstrating the efficacy of this novel aphid control strategy.
Project description:Aphids are sap-feeding plant pests and harbor the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which is essential for their fecundity and survival. During plant penetration and feeding, aphids secrete saliva that contains proteins predicted to alter plant defenses and metabolism. Plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). No aphid-associated molecular pattern has yet been identified. By mass spectrometry, we identified in saliva from potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) 105 proteins, some of which originated from Buchnera, including the chaperonin GroEL. Because GroEL is a widely conserved bacterial protein with an essential function, we tested its role in PTI. Applying or infiltrating GroEL onto Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves induced oxidative burst and expression of PTI early marker genes. These GroEL-induced defense responses required the known coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1. In addition, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, inducible expression of groEL activated PTI marker gene expression. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants expressing groEL displayed reduced fecundity of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating enhanced resistance against aphids. Furthermore, delivery of GroEL into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) or Arabidopsis through Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express the type III secretion system, also reduced potato aphid and green peach aphid fecundity, respectively. Collectively our data indicate that GroEL is a molecular pattern that triggers PTI.
Project description:Elicitation of plant defense signaling that results in altered emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) offers opportunities for protecting plants against arthropod pests. In this study, we treated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., with the plant defense elicitor cis-jasmone (CJ), which induces the emission of defense VOCs and thus affects the behavior of herbivores. Using chemical analysis, electrophysiological and behavioral assays with the potato-feeding aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae, we showed that CJ treatment substantially increased the emission of defense VOCs from potatoes compared to no treatment. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (GC-EAG) recordings from the antennae of M. euphorbiae showed robust responses to 14 compounds present in induced VOCs, suggesting their behavioral role in potato/aphid interactions. Plants treated with CJ and then challenged with M. euphorbiae were most repellent to alate M. euphorbiae. Principal component analysis (PCA) of VOC collections suggested that (E)-2-hexenal, (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), (E)-?-farnesene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate (MeSA), CJ, and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were the main VOCs contributing to aphid behavioral responses, and that production of TMTT, (E)-?-farnesene, CJ, and DMNT correlated most strongly with aphid repellency. Our findings confirm that CJ can enhance potato defense against aphids by inducing production of VOCs involved in aphid-induced signalling.
Project description:Species of the ecological opportunistic, avirulent fungus, <i>Trichoderma</i> are widely used in agriculture for their ability to protect crops from the attack of pathogenic fungi and for plant growth promotion activity. Recently, it has been shown that they may also have complementary properties that enhance plant defense barriers against insects. However, the use of these fungi is somewhat undermined by their variable level of biocontrol activity, which is influenced by environmental conditions. Understanding the source of this variability is essential for its profitable and wide use in plant protection. Here, we focus on the impact of temperature on <i>Trichoderma afroharzianum</i> T22, <i>Trichoderma atroviride</i> P1, and the defense response induced in tomato by insects. The <i>in vitro</i> development of these two strains was differentially influenced by temperature, and the observed pattern was consistent with temperature-dependent levels of resistance induced by them in tomato plants against the aphid, <i>Macrosiphum euphorbiae</i>, and the noctuid moth, <i>Spodoptera littoralis</i>. Tomato plants treated with <i>T. afroharzianum</i> T22 exhibited enhanced resistance toward both insect pests at 25°C, while <i>T. atroviride</i> P1 proved to be more effective at 20°C. The comparison of plant transcriptomic profiles generated by the two <i>Trichoderma</i> species allowed the identification of specific defense genes involved in the observed response, and a selected group was used to assess, by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), the differential gene expression in <i>Trichoderma</i>-treated tomato plants subjected to the two temperature regimens that significantly affected fungal biological performance. These results will help pave the way toward a rational selection of the most suitable <i>Trichoderma</i> isolates for field applications, in order to best face the challenges imposed by local environmental conditions and by extreme climatic shifts due to global warming.
Project description:Numerous microbial root symbionts are known to induce different levels of enhanced plant protection against a variety of pathogens. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that beneficial microbes are able to induce plant systemic resistance that confers some degree of protection against insects. Here, we report how treatments with the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride strain P1 in tomato plants induce responses that affect pest insects with different feeding habits: the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) and the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). We observed that the tomato plant-Trichoderma P1 interaction had a negative impact on the development of moth larvae and on aphid longevity. These effects were attributed to a plant response induced by Trichoderma that was associated with transcriptional changes of a wide array of defense-related genes. While the impact on aphids could be related to the up-regulation of genes involved in the oxidative burst reaction, which occur early in the defense reaction, the negative performance of moth larvae was associated with the enhanced expression of genes encoding for protective enzymes (i.e., Proteinase inhibitor I (PI), Threonine deaminase, Leucine aminopeptidase A1, Arginase 2, and Polyphenol oxidase) that are activated downstream in the defense cascade. In addition, Trichoderma P1 produced alterations in plant metabolic pathways leading to the production and release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are involved in the attraction of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi, thus reinforcing the indirect plant defense barriers. Our findings, along with the evidence available in the literature, indicate that the outcome of the tripartite interaction among plant, Trichoderma, and pests is highly specific and only a comprehensive approach, integrating both insect phenotypic changes and plant transcriptomic alterations, can allow a reliable prediction of its potential for plant protection.
Project description:This research examined aphid and plant responses to distinct levels (none, low, and high) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal root colonization by studying the association between potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and AM fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices). It extends knowledge on gene expression changes, assessed by RT-qPCR, of ten defense-related genes at two time-points post-herbivory (24 h and 10 days), focusing on aphid-infested local leaves, non-infested systemic leaves, and roots. The results showed that aphid fitness was not altered by AM symbiosis. At 24 h, ETHYLENE RECEPTOR 1 gene expression was repressed in roots of aphid-infested non-mycorrhizal plants and aphid-infested plants with a high level of AM fungal root colonization, but not on aphid-infested plants with a low level of AM fungal root colonization. At 10 days, ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE and POTATO TYPE I PROTEASE INHIBITOR were upregulated exclusively in local leaves of aphid-infested plants with a low level of AM fungal root colonization. In addition, local and systemic changes in plant gene expression appeared to be regulated exclusively by AM status and aphid herbivory. In summary, the gene expression data provide insights on mycorrhizal potato responses to aphid herbivory and serve as a starting point for future studies using this system.