Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by peroxidation of arachidonate and restoration by vitamin E.
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. HCV-infected hepatocytes are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which initiate lipid peroxidation, a reaction that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonate, into reactive carbonyls that inactivate proteins. To study the effect of lipid peroxidation on HCV replication, we administered arachidonate to Huh7 cells that harbor an HCV replicon (Huh7-K2040 cells). After incubation in medium supplemented with arachidonate but deprived of lipid-soluble antioxidants, the cellular amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in Huh7-K2040 cells but not in parental Huh7 cells that do not harbor an HCV replicon. This increase was followed by a sharp reduction (>95%) in HCV RNA. Both of these events were prevented when cells were treated with vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant. After prolonged incubation of Huh7-K2040 cells with arachidonate in the absence of lipid-soluble antioxidants, the amount of MDA decreased after the reduction in the amount of HCV RNA. Thus, in the presence of arachidonate and in the absence of lipid-soluble antioxidants, HCV replication induces lipid peroxidation that reduces the amount of HCV RNA. Our results provide a mechanism for the previous observation that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit HCV replication [Kapadia SB, Chisari FV (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:2561-2566], and they suggest that these agents may be effective in inhibiting HCV replication in vivo.
Project description:The chemokine CXCL-8 (interleukin-8) is induced by many viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the current study, we examined CXCL-8 levels in the context of acute and chronic HCV replication in vitro. Two different small interfering RNAs were used to silence CXCL-8 mRNA and protein expression in Huh7 and BB7 replicon cells. HCV RNA synthesis in BB7 cells was inhibited by CXCL-8 knockdown. Furthermore, antibody neutralization of endogenous CXCL-8 activity inhibited HCV replication, while addition of recombinant human CXCL-8 stimulated NS5A protein expression. Moreover, CXCL-8 protein levels correlated positively with HCV RNA levels in four independent subgenomic and genomic replicon lines (R = 0.41, P = 0.0013). However, CXCL-8 mRNA levels correlated inversely with CXCL-8 protein and HCV RNA levels in all replicon lines and in Huh7 cells. Transient replication assays with strongly permissive and weakly permissive Huh7 cells and three independent subgenomic replicons with various replicative capacities revealed that CXCL-8 protein levels were higher in weakly than in strongly permissive cells. The JFH-1 subgenomic replicon, which replicated to high levels in both strongly and weakly permissive Huh7 cells, induced CXCL-8 protein to high levels in both cell types. The data indicate that in the replicon system, CXCL-8 protein levels are positively associated with chronic HCV replication and that CXCL-8 removal inhibits HCV replication. During acute HCV replication, CXCL-8 production may be inhibitory to viruses with low replicative capacity. The data underscore the complex regulation of CXCL-8 mRNA and protein expression and further suggest that in addition to contributing to HCV pathology via proinflammatory actions, CXCL-8 may have opposing antiviral and proviral effects depending on the level of HCV replication, the cellular context, and whether the infection is acute or chronic.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus B (GBV-B) replicons have been reported to replicate only in Huh7 cells. Here we demonstrate that subpopulations of another human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, are permissive for the GBV-B replicon, showing different levels of enhancement of replication from those of the unselected parental cell population. Adaptive mutations are not required for replication of the GBV-B replicon in these cells, as already demonstrated for Huh7 cells. Nonetheless, we identified a mutant replicon in one of the selected cell lines, which, although lacking the 5' end proximal stem-loop, is able to replicate in Hep3B cells as well as in Huh7 cells. This mutant indeed shows a higher replication efficiency than does wild-type replicon, especially in the Hep3B cell clone from which it was originally recovered. This indicates that the stem-loop Ia is not necessary for replication of the GBV-B replicon in human cells, unlike what occurs with HCV, and that its absence can even provide a selective advantage.
Project description:Recently a cell culture model supporting the complete life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was developed. Searching for host cell determinants involved in the HCV replication cycle, we evaluated the efficiency of virus propagation in different Huh-7-derived cell clones. We found that Huh-7.5 cells and Huh7-Lunet cells, two former replicon cell clones that had been generated by removal of an HCV replicon by inhibitor treatment, supported comparable levels of RNA replication and particle production, whereas virus spread was severely impaired in the latter cells. Analysis of cell surface expression of CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), two molecules previously implicated in HCV entry, revealed similar expression levels for SR-BI, while CD81 surface expression was much higher on Huh-7.5 cells than on Huh7-Lunet cells. Ectopic expression of CD81 in Huh7-Lunet cells conferred permissiveness for HCV infection to a level comparable to that for Huh-7.5 cells. Modulation of CD81 cell surface density in Huh-7.5 cells by RNA interference indicated that a certain amount of this molecule (approximately 7 x 10(4) molecules per cell) is required for productive infection with a low dose of HCV. Consistent with this, we show that susceptibility to HCV infection depends on a critical quantity of CD81 molecules. While infection is restricted in cells expressing very small amounts of CD81, susceptibility rapidly rises within a narrow range of CD81 levels, reaching a plateau where higher expression does not further increase the efficiency of infection. Together these data indicate that a high density of cell surface-exposed CD81 is a key determinant for productive HCV entry into host cells.
Project description:Dicistronic, selectable subgenomic replicons derived from the Con1 strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are capable of autonomous replication in cultured Huh7 cells (Lohmann et al., Science 285:110-113, 1999). However, adaptive mutations in the NS3, NS5A, and/or NS5B proteins are required for efficient replication of these RNAs and increase by orders of magnitude the numbers of G418-resistant colonies selected following transfection of Huh7 cells. Here, we demonstrate that a subgenomic replicon (NNeo/3-5B) derived from an infectious molecular clone of a second genotype 1b virus, HCV-N (Beard et al., Hepatology 30:316-324, 1999) is also capable of efficient replication in Huh7 cells. G418-resistant cells selected following transfection with NNeo/3-5B RNA contained abundant NS5A antigen and HCV RNA detectable by Northern analysis. Replicon RNA in one of three clonally isolated cell lines contained no mutations in the NS3-NS5B polyprotein, confirming that adaptive mutations are not required for efficient replication in these cells. However, the deletion of a unique 4-amino-acid insertion that is present within the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of the NS5A protein in wild-type HCV-N drastically decreased the number of G418-resistant colonies obtained following transfection of Huh7 cells. This effect could be reversed by inclusion of a previously described Con1 cell culture-adaptive mutation (S2005-->I), confirming that this natural insertion has a controlling role in determining the replication capacity of wild-type HCV-N RNA in Huh7 cells. Additional selectable, dicistronic RNAs encoding NS2-NS5B, E1-NS5B, or the full-length HCV polyprotein were also capable of replication and gave rise to G418-resistant cell clones following transfection of Huh7 cells. We conclude that RNA derived from this documented infectious molecular clone has a unique capacity for replication in Huh7 cells in the absence of additional cell culture-adaptive mutations.
Project description:Tp80 is a novel antiviral compound. Antiviral mechanism of Tp80 is the inhibition of the viral genome replication through the recoverly of GPx2 expression downregulated by HCV infection. We used microarrays to evaluated the effect of Tp80 on the transcriptome of HCV replicon cells, compared with Non-infected host cells or non-treated HCV replicon cells. Overall design: Huh7/RepFeo cells were incubated withTp80 or DMSO at the concentration of 10µM for 48 hours, and cellular RNAs were collected and subjected to microarray analysis. DMSO treated Huh7 cells were used as the noninfected control.
Project description:Cyclophilin binding drugs, NIM811 and cyclosporin A (CsA), inhibit the replication of HCV replicon. We investigated the mode of action of these drugs and identified host factors essential for HCV replication in a subgenomic replicon model. Overall design: Cultured Huh7 cell were treated with CsA or NIM811 at different concentrations. Cells were harvested after 12, 24 or 48 hours. The extracted mRNA were hybridized on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 microarrays.
Project description:We previously reported that nucleolin, a representative nucleolar marker, interacts with nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) through two independent regions of NS5B, amino acids 208 to 214 and 500 to 506. We also showed that truncated nucleolin that harbors the NS5B-binding region inhibited the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of NS5B in vitro, suggesting that nucleolin may be involved in HCV replication. To address this question, we focused on NS5B amino acids 208 to 214. We constructed one alanine-substituted clustered mutant (CM) replicon, in which all the amino acids in this region were changed to alanine, as well as seven different point mutant (PM) replicons, each of which harbored an alanine substitution at one of the amino acids in the region. After transfection into Huh7 cells, the CM replicon and the PM replicon containing NS5B W208A could not replicate, whereas the remaining PM replicons were able to replicate. In vivo immunoprecipitation also showed that the W208 residue of NS5B was essential for its interaction with nucleolin, strongly suggesting that this interaction is essential for HCV replication. To gain further insight into the role of nucleolin in HCV replication, we utilized the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to investigate the knockdown effect of nucleolin on HCV replication. Cotransfection of replicon RNA and nucleolin siRNA into Huh7 cells moderately inhibited HCV replication, although suppression of nucleolin did not affect cell proliferation. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that nucleolin is a host component that interacts with HCV NS5B and is indispensable for HCV replication.
Project description:Mericitabine (RG7128) is the prodrug of a highly selective cytidine nucleoside analog inhibitor (RO5855) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This study evaluated the effects of combining RO5855 and ribavirin on HCV replication in the HCV subgenomic replicon by using two drug-drug interaction models. The effects of RO5855 and ribavirin on the intracellular metabolism of each compound, on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and on the viability of hepatocyte-derived cells were also investigated. RO5855 and ribavirin had additive inhibitory activities against HCV subgenomic replicon replication in drug-drug interaction analyses. RO5855 did not affect the uptake or phosphorylation of ribavirin in primary human hepatocytes, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or genotype 1b (G1b) replicon cells. Similarly, ribavirin did not affect the concentrations of intracellular species derived from RO5855 in primary human hepatocytes or the formation of the triphosphorylated metabolites of RO5855. Ribavirin at concentrations of >40 ?M significantly reduced the viability of primary hepatocytes but not of Huh7, the G1b replicon, or interferon-cured Huh7 cells. RO5855 alone or with ribavirin did not significantly alter the viability of Huh7 or G1b replicon cells, and it did not significantly affect the viability of primary hepatocytes when it was administered alone. The viability of primary hepatocytes was reduced when they were incubated with RO5855 and ribavirin, similar to the effects of ribavirin alone. RO5855 alone or with ribavirin had no effect on ISG mRNA levels in any of the cells tested. In conclusion, RO5855 did not show any unfavorable interactions with ribavirin in human hepatocytes or an HCV subgenomic replicon system.
Project description:The cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a pattern recognition receptor that senses HCV double-stranded RNA and triggers type I interferon pathways. The clone Huh7.5 of human hepatoma Huh7 cells contains a mutation in RIG-I that is believed to be responsible for the improved replication of HCV in these cells relative to the parental strain. We hypothesized that, in addition to RIG-I, other determinant(s) outside the RIG-I coding sequence are involved in limiting HCV replication in cell culture. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed Huh7 cell clones that support the efficient replication of HCV and analyzed the RIG-I gene.One clone, termed Huh7D, was more permissive for HCV replication and more efficient for HCV-neomycin and HCV-hygromycin based replicon colony formation than parental Huh7 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the RIG-I mRNA coding region from Huh7D cells showed no mutations relative to Huh7 parental cells.We derived a new Huh7 cell line, Huh7D, which is more permissive for HCV replication than parental Huh7 cells. The higher permissiveness of Huh7D cells is not due to mutations in the RIG-I protein, indicating that cellular determinants other than the RIG-I amino-acid sequence are responsible for controlling HCV replication. In addition, we have selected Huh7 cells resistant to hygromycin via newly generated HCV-replicons carrying the hygromycin resistant gene. Further studies on Huh7D cells will allow the identification of cellular factors that increased the susceptibility to HCV infection, which could be targeted for anti-HCV therapies.
Project description:Studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication have been greatly advanced by the development of cell culture models for HCV known as replicon systems. The prototype replicon consists of a subgenomic HCV RNA in which the HCV structural region is replaced by the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene, and translation of the HCV proteins NS3 to NS5 is directed by the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The interferon (IFN)-inducible protein kinase PKR plays an important role in cell defense against virus infection by impairing protein synthesis as a result of eIF-2alpha phosphorylation. Here, we show that expression of the viral nonstructural (NS) and PKR proteins and eIF-2alpha phosphorylation are all variably regulated in proliferating replicon Huh7 cells. In proliferating cells, induction of PKR protein by IFN-alpha is inversely proportional to viral RNA replication and NS protein expression, whereas eIF-2alpha phosphorylation is induced by IFN-alpha in proliferating but not in serum-starved replicon cells. The role of PKR and eIF-2alpha phosphorylation was further addressed in transient-expression assays in Huh7 cells. These experiments demonstrated that activation of PKR results in the inhibition of EMCV IRES-driven NS protein synthesis from the subgenomic viral clone through mechanisms that are independent of eIF-2alpha phosphorylation. Unlike NS proteins, HCV IRES-driven NPTII protein synthesis from the subgenomic clone was resistant to PKR activation. Interestingly, activation of PKR could induce HCV IRES-dependent mRNA translation from dicistronic constructs, but this stimulatory effect was mitigated by the presence of the viral 3' untranslated region. Thus, PKR may assume multiple roles in modulating HCV replication and protein synthesis, and tight control of PKR activity may play an important role in maintaining virus replication and allowing infection to evade the host's IFN system.