Protein structure refinement based on paramagnetic NMR shifts: applications to wild-type and mutant forms of cytochrome c.
ABSTRACT: A new approach to NMR solution structure refinement is introduced that uses paramagnetic effects on nuclear chemical shifts as constraints in energy minimization or molecular dynamics calculations. Chemical shift differences between oxidized and reduced forms of horse cytochrome c for more than 300 protons were used as constraints to refine the structure of the wild-type protein in solution and to define the structural changes induced by a Leu 94 to Val mutation. A single round of constrained minimization, using the crystal structure as the starting point, converged to a low-energy structure with an RMS deviation between calculated and observed pseudo-contact shifts of 0.045 ppm, 7.5-fold lower than the starting structure. At the same time, the procedure provided stereospecific assignments for more than 45 pairs of methylene protons and methyl groups. Structural changes caused by the mutation were determined to a precision of better than 0.3 A. Structure determination based on dipolar paramagnetic (pseudocontact) shifts is applicable to molecules containing anisotropic paramagnetic centers with short electronic relaxation times, including numerous naturally occurring metalloproteins, as well as proteins or nucleic acids to which a paramagnetic metal ion or ligand may be attached. The long range of paramagnetic shift effects (up to 20 A from the iron in the case of cytochrome c) provides global structural constraints, which, in conjunction with conventional NMR distance and dihedral angle constraints, will enhance the precision of NMR solution structure determination.
Project description:There is a general need to develop more powerful and more robust methods for structural characterization of homodimers, homo-oligomers, and multiprotein complexes using solution-state NMR methods. In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on integrating distinct and complementary methodologies for structure determination of multiprotein complexes. One approach not yet widely used is to obtain intermediate and long-range distance constraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PRE) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based techniques such as double electron electron resonance (DEER), which, when used together, can provide supplemental distance constraints spanning to 10-70 A. In this Communication, we describe integration of PRE and DEER data with conventional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods for structure determination of Dsy0195, a homodimer (62 amino acids per monomer) from Desulfitobacterium hafniense. Our results indicate that combination of conventional NMR restraints with only one or a few DEER distance constraints and a small number of PRE constraints is sufficient for the automatic NMR-based structure determination program CYANA to build a network of interchain nuclear Overhauser effect constraints that can be used to accurately define both the homodimer interface and the global homodimer structure. The use of DEER distances as a source of supplemental constraints as described here has virtually no upper molecular weight limit, and utilization of the PRE constraints is limited only by the ability to make accurate assignments of the protein amide proton and nitrogen chemical shifts.
Project description:The solution structure of NKA, a decapeptide of mammalian origin, has been characterized by CD spectropolarimetry and 2D proton nuclear magnetic resonance (2D 1H-NMR) spectroscopy in both aqueous and membrane mimetic solvents. Unambiguous NMR assignments of protons have been made with the aid of correlation spectroscopy (DQF-COSY and TOCSY) experiments and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY and ROESY) experiments. The distance constraints obtained from the NMR data have been utilized to generate a family of structures, which have been refined using restrained energy minimization and dynamics. These data show that in water NKA prefers to be in an extended chain conformation whereas a helical conformation is induced in the central core and the C-terminal region (D4-M10) of the peptide in the presence of perdeuterated dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, a membrane model system. Though less defined the N-terminus also displays some degree of order and a possible turn structure. The conformation adopted by NKA in the presence of DPC micelles represents a structural motif typical of neurokinin-2 selective agonists and is similar to that reported for eledoisin in hydrophobic environment.
Project description:The Ni(II) and Zn(II) derivatives of Desulfovibrio vulgaris rubredoxin (DvRd) have been studied by NMR spectroscopy to probe the structure at the metal centre. The beta CH(2) proton pairs from the cysteines that bind the Ni(II) atom have been identified using 1D nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) difference spectra and sequence specifically assigned via NOE correlations to neighbouring protons and by comparison with the published X-ray crystal structure of a Ni(II) derivative of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin. The solution structures of DvRd(Zn) and DvRd(Ni) have been determined and the paramagnetic form refined using pseudocontact shifts. The determination of the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy tensor allowed the contact and pseudocontact contributions to the observed chemical shifts to be obtained. Analysis of the pseudocontact and contact chemical shifts of the cysteine H beta protons and backbone protons close to the metal centre allowed conclusions to be drawn as to the geometry and hydrogen-bonding pattern at the metal binding site. The importance of NH-S hydrogen bonds at the metal centre for the delocalization of electron spin density is confirmed for rubredoxins and can be extrapolated to metal centres in Cu proteins: amicyanin, plastocyanin, stellacyanin, azurin and pseudoazurin.
Project description:We introduce a new approach to improve structural and dynamical determination of large metalloproteins using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with (1)H detection under ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS). The approach is based on the rapid and sensitive acquisition of an extensive set of (15)N and (13)C nuclear relaxation rates. The system on which we demonstrate these methods is the enzyme Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), which coordinates a Cu ion available either in Cu(+) (diamagnetic) or Cu(2+) (paramagnetic) form. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements are obtained from the difference in rates measured in the two forms and are employed as structural constraints for the determination of the protein structure. When added to (1)H-(1)H distance restraints, they are shown to yield a twofold improvement of the precision of the structure. Site-specific order parameters and timescales of motion are obtained by a gaussian axial fluctuation (GAF) analysis of the relaxation rates of the diamagnetic molecule, and interpreted in relation to backbone structure and metal binding. Timescales for motion are found to be in the range of the overall correlation time in solution, where internal motions characterized here would not be observable.
Project description:The development of nonpeptide fusion inhibitors through rational drug design has been hampered by the limited accessibility of the gp41 coiled coil target, which is highly hydrophobic, and the absence of structural data defining details of small molecule interactions. Here we describe a new approach for obtaining structural information on small molecules bound in the hydrophobic pocket of gp41, using a paramagnetic probe peptide which binds adjacent to the pocket along an extended coiled coil. Ligand binding in the pocket leads to paramagnetic relaxation effects or pseudocontact shifts of ligand protons. These effects are distance and/or orientation dependent, permitting determination of ligand pose in the pocket. The method is demonstrated with a fast-exchanging ligand. Multiple measurements at different coiled coil and probe peptide ratios enabled accurate determination of the NMR parameters. Use of a labeled probe peptide stabilizes an otherwise aggregation-prone coiled coil and also enables modulation of the paramagnetic effect to study ligands of various affinities. Ultimately, this technique can provide essential information for structure-based design of nonpeptide fusion inhibitors.
Project description:Knowledge of RNA structure is necessary to determine structure-function relationships and to facilitate design of potential therapeutics. RNA secondary structure prediction can be improved by applying constraints from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments to a dynamic programming algorithm. Imino proton walks from NOESY spectra reveal double-stranded regions. Chemical shifts of protons in GH1, UH3, and UH5 of GU pairs, UH3, UH5, and AH2 of AU pairs, and GH1 of GC pairs were analyzed to identify constraints for the 5' to 3' directionality of base pairs in helices. The 5' to 3' directionality constraints were incorporated into an NMR-assisted prediction of secondary structure (NAPSS-CS) program. When it was tested on 18 structures, including nine pseudoknots, the sensitivity and positive predictive value were improved relative to those of three unrestrained programs. The prediction accuracy for the pseudoknots improved the most. The program also facilitates assignment of chemical shifts to individual nucleotides, a necessary step for determining three-dimensional structure.
Project description:The biological function of metalloproteins is closely tied to the geometric and electronic structures of the metal sites. Here, we show that the geometric structure of the metal site of a metalloprotein in solution can be determined from experimentally measured electron-nuclear spin-spin interactions obtained by NMR. Thus, the geometric metal site structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis was determined by including the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of protons close to the copper site as restraints in a conventional NMR structure determination, together with the distribution of the unpaired electron onto the ligand atoms. Also, the interproton distances (nuclear Overhauser enhancements) and dihedral angles (scalar nuclear spin-spin couplings) normally used in NMR structure determinations were included as restraints. The structure calculations were carried out with the program X-PLOR and a module that takes into account the specific characteristics of the paramagnetic restraints. A well defined metal site structure was obtained with the structural characteristics of the blue copper site, including a distorted tetrahedral geometry, a short Cu-Cys S gamma bond, and a long Cu-Met S delta bond. Overall, the agreement of the obtained metal site structure of Anabaena variabilis plastocyanin with those of other plastocyanins obtained by x-ray crystallography confirms the reliability of the approach.
Project description:The determination of the location and conformation of a natural ligand bound to a protein receptor is often a first step in the rational design of molecules that can modulate receptor function. NMR observables, including NOEs, often provide the basis for these determinations. However, when ligands are carbohydrates, interactions mediated by extensive hydrogen-bonding networks often reduce or eliminate NOEs between ligand and protein protons. In these cases, it is useful to look to other distance- and orientation-dependent observables that can constrain the geometry of ligand-protein complexes. Here we illustrate the use of paramagnetism-based NMR constraints, including pseudo-contact shifts (PCS) and field-induced residual dipolar couplings (RDCs). When a paramagnetic center can be attached to the protein, field-induced RDCs and PCS reflect only bound-state properties of the ligand, even when averages over small fractions of bound states and large fractions of free states are observed. The effects can also be observed over a long range, making it possible to attach a paramagnetic center to a remote part of the protein. The system studied here is a Galectin-3-lactose complex. A lanthanide-binding peptide showing minimal flexibility with respect to the protein was integrated into the C terminus of an expression construct for the Galectin-3-carbohydrate-binding domain. Dysprosium ion, which has a large magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, was complexed to the peptide, making it possible to observe both PCSs and field-induced RDCs for the protein and the ligand. The structure determined from these constraints shows agreement with a crystal structure of a Galectin-3-N-acetyllactosamine complex.
Project description:The traditional NMR-based method for determining oligomeric protein structure usually involves distinguishing and assigning intra- and intersubunit NOEs. This task becomes challenging when determining symmetric homo-dimer structures because NOE cross-peaks from a given pair of protons occur at the same position whether intra- or intersubunit in origin. While there are isotope-filtering strategies for distinguishing intra from intermolecular NOE interactions in these cases, they are laborious and often prove ineffectual in cases of weak dimers, where observation of intermolecular NOEs is rare. Here, we present an efficient procedure for weak dimer structure determination based on residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), chemical shift changes upon dilution, and paramagnetic surface perturbations. This procedure is applied to the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium protein target, SeR13, a negatively charged Staphylococcus epidermidis dimeric protein (K(d) 3.4 ± 1.4 mM) composed of 86 amino acids. A structure determination for the monomeric form using traditional NMR methods is presented, followed by a dimer structure determination using docking under orientation constraints from RDCs data, and scoring under residue pair potentials and shape-based predictions of RDCs. Validation using paramagnetic surface perturbation and chemical shift perturbation data acquired on sample dilution is also presented. The general utility of the dimer structure determination procedure and the possible relevance of SeR13 dimer formation are discussed.
Project description:The large paramagnetic shifts and short relaxation times resulting from the presence of a paramagnetic centre complicate NMR data acquisition and interpretation in solution. As a result, NMR analysis of paramagnetic complexes is limited in comparison to diamagnetic compounds and often relies on theoretical models. We report a toolbox of 1D (<sup>1</sup>H, proton-coupled <sup>13</sup>C, selective <sup>1</sup>H-decoupling <sup>13</sup>C, steady-state NOE) and 2D (COSY, NOESY, HMQC) paramagnetic NMR methods that enables unprecedented structural characterisation and in some cases, provides more structural information than would be observable for a diamagnetic analogue. We demonstrate the toolbox's broad versatility for fields from coordination chemistry and spin-crossover complexes to supramolecular chemistry through the characterisation of Co<sup>II</sup> and high-spin Fe<sup>II</sup> mononuclear complexes as well as a Co<sub>4</sub>L<sub>6</sub> cage.