Crystal structures of the active site mutant (Arg-243-->Ala) in the T and R allosteric states of pig kidney fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressed in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: The active site of pig kidney fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 22.214.171.124) is shared between subunits, Arg-243 of one chain interacting with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate or fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in the active site of an adjacent chain. In this study, we present the X-ray structures of the mutant version of the enzyme with Arg-243 replaced by alanine, crystallized in both T and R allosteric states. Kinetic characteristics of the altered enzyme showed the magnesium binding and inhibition by AMP differed slightly; affinity for the substrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was reduced 10-fold and affinity for the inhibitor fructose-2,6-bisphosphate was reduced 1,000-fold (Giroux E, Williams MK, Kantrowitz ER, 1994, J Biol Chem 269:31404-31409). The X-ray structures show no major changes in the organization of the active site compared with wild-type enzyme, and the structures confirm predictions of molecular dynamics simulations involving Lys-269 and Lys-274. Comparison of two independent models of the T form structures have revealed small but significant changes in the conformation of the bound AMP molecules and small reorganization of the active site correlated with the presence of the inhibitor. The differences in kinetic properties of the mutant enzyme indicate the key importance of Arg-243 in the function of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Calculations using the X-ray structures of the Arg-243-->Ala enzyme suggest that the role of Arg-243 in the wild-type enzyme is predominantly electrostatic in nature.
Project description:Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 126.96.36.199) requires two divalent metal ions to hydrolyze alpha-D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Although not required for catalysis, monovalent cations modify the enzyme activity; K+ and Tl+ ions are activators, whereas Li+ ions are inhibitors. Their mechanisms of action are still unknown. We report here crystallographic structures of pig kidney Fru-1,6-Pase complexed with K+, Tl+, or both Tl+ and Li+. In the T form Fru-1,6-Pase complexed with the substrate analogue 2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol 1,6-bisphosphate (AhG-1,6-P2) and Tl+ or K+ ions, three Tl+ or K+ binding sites are found. Site 1 is defined by Glu-97, Asp-118, Asp-121, Glu-280, and a 1-phosphate oxygen of AhG-1,6-P2; site 2 is defined by Glu-97, Glu-98, Asp-118, and Leu-120. Finally, site 3 is defined by Arg-276, Glu-280, and the 1-phosphate group of AhG-1,6-P2. The Tl+ or K+ ions at sites 1 and 2 are very close to the positions previously identified for the divalent metal ions. Site 3 is specific to K+ or Tl+. In the divalent metal ion complexes, site 3 is occupied by the guanidinium group of Arg-276. These observations suggest that Tl+ or K+ ions can substitute for Arg-276 in the active site and polarize the 1-phosphate group, thus facilitating nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus center. In the T form complexed with both Tl+ and Li+ ions, Li+ replaces Tl+ at metal site 1. Inhibition by lithium very likely occurs as it binds to this site, thus retarding turnover or phosphate release. The present study provides a structural basis for a similar mechanism of inhibition for inositol monophosphatase, one of the potential targets of lithium ions in the treatment of manic depression.
Project description:The crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; EC 188.8.131.52) complexed with Zn2+ and two allosteric regulators, AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) has been determined at 2.0-A resolution. In the refined model, the crystallographic R factor is 0.189 with rms deviations of 0.014 A and 2.8 degrees from ideal geometries for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. A 15 degrees rotation is observed between the upper dimer C1C2 and the lower dimer C3C4 relative to the R-form structure (fructose 6-phosphate complex), consistent with that expected from a T-form structure. The major difference between the structure of the previously determined Fru-2,6-P2 complex (R form) and that of the current quaternary T-form complex lies in the active site domain. A zinc binding site distinct from the three binding sites established earlier was identified within each monomer. Helix H4 (residues 123-127) was found to be better defined than in previously studied ligated Fru-1,6-Pase structures. Interactions between monomers in the active site domain were found involving H4 residues from one monomer and residues Tyr-258 and Arg-243 from the adjacent monomer. Cooperativity between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2 in signal transmission probably involves the following features: an AMP site, the adjacent B3 strand (residues 113-118), the metal site, the immediate active site, the short helix H4 (residues 123-127), and Tyr-258 and Arg-243 from the adjacent monomer within the upper (or lower) dimer. The closest distance between the immediate active site and that on the adjacent monomer is only 5 A. Thus, the involvement of H4 in signal transmission adds another important pathway to the scheme of the allosteric mechanism of Fru-1,6-Pase.
Project description:The aim of this paper is to study some steady-state kinetic properties of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, its pH-dependence and the effect of a substrate analogue, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Studies were carried out with sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate and with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, an alternative substrate. The pK values are identical for both substrates, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate behaves like a competitive inhibitor. These results suggest that there exists a unique active site for either sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate on the enzyme molecule. Increasing Mg2+ concentrations shifted the optimum pH. As for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, we believe that this shift is due to the neutralization of negative charges near the active centre [Cadet, Meunier & Ferté (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 162, 393-398]. The free species of sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate are not the usual substrates of enzyme, nor is Mg2+. But the kinetics relative to the (Mg2+-substrate4-)2- complex is not consistent with this complex being the substrate. An explanation of this discrepancy is proposed, involving both the negative charges near the active centre and the positive charges of Mg2+. The observed Vmax. of the reduced enzyme is 65% of the theoretical Vmax. for both substrates, but the observed Vmax. relative to sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate is 3 times the one relative to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The specificity constant (kcat./Km), 1.62 x 10(6) M-1.s-1 with respect to sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate compared with 5.5 x 10(4) M-1.s-1 with respect to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, indicates that the enzyme specificity towards sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate is high but not absolute.
Project description:Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.
Project description:The Pyrococcus furiosus fbpA gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase produced was subsequently purified and characterized. The dimeric enzyme showed a preference for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, with a K(m) of 0.32 mM and a V(max) of 12.2 U/mg. The P. furiosus fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was strongly inhibited by Li(+) (50% inhibitory concentration, 1 mM). Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs and the substrate specificity of the P. furiosus fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, we propose that this enzyme belongs to a new family, class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.
Project description:Inhibition of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by AMP was uncompetitive with respect to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in the absence of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, but non-competitive in its presence. AMP was unable to bind to the enzyme except in the presence of one of the fructose bisphosphates; the binding stoicheiometry was 2 molecules/tetramer. Increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased the Hill coefficient h and the apparent Ki for AMP, whereas fructose 2,6-bisphosphate had the opposite effect. Increasing concentrations of both AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate decreased h and increased the apparent Ka for Mg2+. AMP slightly decreased, and Mg2+ slightly increased, the apparent Ki for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, but each had only small effects on h. These results are interpreted in terms of a new three-state model for the allosteric properties of the enzyme, in which fructose 2,6-bisphosphate can bind both to the catalytic site and to an allosteric site and AMP can bind to the enzyme only when the catalytic site is occupied.
Project description:1. The activity of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 184.108.40.206) in the fatty endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) increases 25-fold during germination and then declines. The developmental pattern follows that of catalase, a marker enzyme for gluconeogenesis in this tissue. 2. The enzyme at its peak of development was partially purified, and its properties were studied. It has an optimal activity at neutral pH (7.0-8.0). The apparent Km value for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is 3.8 X 10(-5) M. The activity is inhibited by AMP allosterically with an apparent Ki value of 2.2 X 10(-4) M. The enzyme hydrolyses fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and not ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate or sedoehptulose 1,7-bisphosphate. 3. Treatment of the partially purified enzyme with acid leads to an 80% decrease in activity. The remaining activity is insensitive to AMP and has optimal activity at pH 6.7 and a high apparent Km value (2.5 X 10(-4) M) for fructose 1.6-bisphosphate. Enzyme extracted from the tissue with water instead of buffer has a similar modification. The effect of acid explains the discrepancies between this report and previous ones on the properties of the enzyme in this tissue. 4. The storage tissues of various fatty seedlings all contain a 'neutral' fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. The activities of the enzyme from some of the tissues are inhibited by AMP. 5. The properties of the enzyme in fatty seedlings and in green leaves are discussed in comparison with that in animal tissues.
Project description:The dual-function fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase) in cyanobacteria carries out two activities in the Calvin cycle. Structures of this enzyme from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exist, but only with adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and AMP bound. The mechanisms which control both selectivity between the two sugars and the structural mechanisms for redox control are still unresolved. Here, the structure of the dual-function FBP/SBPase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus is presented with sedoheptulose-7-phosphate bound and in the absence of AMP. The structure is globally very similar to the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 enzyme, but highlights features of selectivity at the active site and loop ordering at the AMP-binding site. Understanding the selectivity and control of this enzyme is critical for understanding the Calvin cycle in cyanobacteria and for possible biotechnological application in plants.
Project description:Purified chicken liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase was phosphorylated either from fructose 2,6-bis[2-32P]phosphate or fructose 2-phosphoro[35S]thioate 6-phosphate. The turnover of the thiophosphorylated enzyme intermediate as well as the overall phosphatase reaction was four times faster than with authentic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Fructose 2-phosphorothioate 6-phosphate was 10-100-fold less potent than authentic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in stimulating 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase, but about 10 times more potent in inhibiting fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. The analogue was twice as effective as authentic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in stimulating pyruvate kinase from trypanosomes.
Project description:A new purification procedure for rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase that involves use of Procion Red-Sepharose is described. The purified enzyme was homogeneous, had a subunit Mr of 40 000-41 000 and seemed to be undegraded. The enzyme could be phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with a stoicheiometry of one per subunit. Phosphorylation caused a 2-fold decrease in the Km of the enzyme for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, but did not affect its allosteric responses to AMP, Mg2+ and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.