Comparative analysis of IncHI2 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-9 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from poultry and humans.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-9) plasmid backbones from isolates from Belgium and France were analyzed. The bla(CTX-M-2-)plasmids from both human and poultry isolates were related to the IncHI2 pAPEC-O1-R plasmid, previously identified in the United States in avian Escherichia coli strains; the bla(CTX-M-9) plasmids were closely related to the IncHI2 R478 plasmid.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from chickens and to characterize the plasmids carrying fosA3. A total of 661 E. coli isolates of chicken origin collected from 2009 to 2011 were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants by PCR. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Associated addiction systems and resistance genes were identified by PCR. PCR-mapping was used for analysis of the genetic context of fosA3. Fosfomycin resistance was detected in 58 isolates that also carried the fosA3 gene. Fifty-seven, 17, and 52 FosA3-producers also harbored bla CTX-M, rmtB, and floR genes, respectively. Most of the 58 fosA3-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated, and all fosA3 genes were located on plasmids belonged to F33:A-:B- (n = 18), IncN-F33:A-:B- (n = 7), IncHI2/ST3 (n = 10), IncI1/ST71 (n = 3), IncI1/ST108 (n = 3), and others. The genetic structures, IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-orf477-bla TEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758bp-IS26 and ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65-IS903-iroN-IS26-fosA3-536bp-IS26 were located on highly similar F33:A-:B- plasmids. In addition, bla CTX-M-14-fosA3-IS26 was frequently present on similar IncHI2/ST3 plasmids. IncFII plasmids had a significantly higher frequency of addiction systems (mean 3.5) than other plasmids. Our results showed a surprisingly high prevalence of fosA3 gene in E. coli isolates recovered from chicken in China. The spread of fosA3 can be attributed to horizontal dissemination of several epidemic plasmids, especially F33:A-:B- plasmids. Since coselection by other antimicrobials is the major driving force for the diffusion of the fosA3 gene, a strict antibiotic use policy is urgently needed in China.
Project description:We report the emergence of Salmonella enterica isolates of serotype Concord (and its monophasic variant 6,7:l,v:-) producing the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) SHV-12 and CTX-M-15 in France and Norway between 2001 and 2006 (43 in France and 26 in Norway). The majority of these isolates were from adopted children from Ethiopia, most of whom were healthy carriers. Several symptomatic secondary cases were found in the adoptive families and health care facilities in France. Serotype Concord isolates collected before 2003 produced SHV-12 encoded on a 340-kb conjugative plasmid of replicon IncI1. Isolates collected after 2003 produced CTX-M-15. We detected two conjugative plasmids carrying bla(CTX-M-15). One plasmid, approximately 300 kb in size, was positive for the IncHI2 replicon and the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrA1. The other plasmid, from one of the earliest CTX-M-15-producing isolates collected, was a fusion plasmid with IncY and IncA/C(2) replicons and was 200 kb in size. However, we showed, using Southern hybridization of I-CeuI-digested chromosomal DNA and S1 nuclease analysis of plasmid DNA, that most isolates had a bla(CTX-M-15) gene located on chromosomal DNA. Analysis of the flanking regions of the chromosomally located bla(CTX-M-15) gene by cloning revealed an ISEcp1 truncated by an intact IS26 upstream from the bla(CTX-M-15) gene and a truncated orf477 gene downstream from bla(CTX-M-15). We found regions beyond the IS26 and the orf477 genes that were derived from IncA/C(2) plasmids, suggesting the chromosomal integration of part of the bla(CTX-M-15)-carrying IncY and IncA/C(2) fusion plasmid from early CTX-M-15-producing isolates.
Project description:This study analyzes the diversity of In60, a class 1 integron bearing CR1 and containing bla(CTX-M-9), and its association with Tn402, Tn21, and classical conjugative plasmids among 45 CTX-M-9-producing clinical strains (41 Escherichia coli strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, 1 Salmonella enterica strain, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae strain). Forty-five patients in a Spanish tertiary care hospital were studied (1996 to 2003). The diversity of In60 and association of In60 with Tn402 or mercury resistance transposons were investigated by overlapping PCR assays and/or hybridization. Plasmid characterization included comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns and determination of incompatibility group by PCR-based replicon typing, sequencing, and hybridization. CTX-M-9 plasmids belonged to IncHI2 (n = 26), IncP-1alpha (n = 10), IncFI (n = 4), and IncI (n = 1) groups. Genetic platforms containing bla(CTX-M-9) were classified in six types in relation to the In60 backbone and in eight subtypes in relation to Tn402 derivatives. They were associated with Tn21 sequences when located in IncP-1alpha or IncHI2 plasmids. Our study identified bla(CTX-M-9) in a high diversity of CR1-bearing class 1 integrons linked to different Tn402 derivatives, often to Tn21, highlighting the role of recombination events in the evolution of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The presence of bla(CTX-M-9) on broad-host-range IncP-1alpha plasmids might contribute to its dissemination to hosts that were not members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Project description:During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the bla CMY-2/bla CTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2%) was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6%; p < 0.05). The bla CMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1%) in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13) of the bla CMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring bla CMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207) revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a bla CMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addition to bla CMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7), sulfonamides (sul1), as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of bla CMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins, and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of bla CMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a bla CMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.
Project description:Background:An ESBL, carbapenemase- and MCR-1-producing Escherichia coli ST648 strain was isolated from the urine sample of a patient in a Chinese tertiary hospital in 2016. Methods:The strain was fully sequenced by GridION X5 platform of Oxford Nanopore Technology. Results:The sequence analysis showed that the extended-spectrum ?-lactamases CTX-M-65 and OXA-1, the carbapenemase NDM-5, the MCR-1 were encoded, respectively, by three different resistance plasmids. The pE648CTX-M-65-carrying bla CTX-M-65 was a novel conjugative plasmid belonging to IncHI2 type; except for the bla CTX-M-65, it also carried resistance genes ble, floR, sul1, aph(4)-Ia, aac(3)-VI, aac(6')-II, bla OXA-1, catB, arr3 and tetA. Besides, an IncX4 plasmid pE648MCR-1-carrying mcr-1 and an IncX3 plasmid pE648NDM-5-carrying bla NDM-5 were also identified. Conclusion:The three transferable resistance plasmids coexisting in the E. coli ST648 isolate indicated the high risk to disseminate the extensively-drug-resistance among Enterobacteriaceae.
Project description:Since its first description in 2000, CTX-M-14 has become one of the most widespread extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Spain. In the present Escherichia coli multilevel population genetic study involving the characterization of phylogroups, clones, plasmids, and genetic platforms, 61 isolates from 16 hospitalized patients and 40 outpatients and healthy volunteers recovered from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] type, phylogenetic group, multilocus sequence type [MLST]) was established by standard methods. Analysis of transferred plasmids (I-CeuI; S1 nuclease; restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; and analysis of RNA interference, replicase, and relaxase) was performed by PCR, sequencing, and hybridization. The genetic environment of bla(CTX-M-14) was characterized by PCR on the basis of known associated structures (ISEcp1, IS903, ISCR1). The isolates were mainly recovered from patients in the community (73.8%; 45/61) with urinary tract infections (62.2%; 28/45). They were clonally unrelated by PFGE and corresponded to phylogenetic groups A (36.1%), D (34.4%), and B1 (29.5%). MLST revealed a high degree of sequence type (ST) diversity among phylogroup D isolates and the overrepresentation of the ST10 complex among phylogroup A isolates and ST359/ST155 among phylogroup B1 isolates. Two variants of bla(CTX-M-14) previously designated bla(CTX-M-14a) (n = 59/61) and bla(CTX-M-14b) (n = 2/61) were detected. bla(CTX-M-14a) was associated with either ISEcp1 within IncK plasmids (n = 27), ISCR1 linked to an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1), or ISCR1 linked to IncI-like plasmids (n = 3). The bla(CTX-M-14b) identified was associated with an ISCR1 element located in an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1) or with ISEcp1 located in IncK (n = 1). The CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates in our geographic area are frequent causes of community-acquired urinary tract infections. The increase in the incidence of such isolates is mostly due to the dissemination of IncK plasmids among E. coli isolates of phylogroups A, B1, and D.
Project description:We have sequenced a large plasmid that occurs among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates. This plasmid, pAPEC-O1-R, is a 241,387-bp IncHI2 plasmid which is cotransmissible via bacterial conjugation with a ColBM virulence plasmid, encodes resistance to eight antimicrobial agents, and appears to occur at low rates among extraintestinal E. coli isolates.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> (CPE) are an increasingly common cause of healthcare-associated infections and may occasionally be identified in patients without extensive healthcare exposure. <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> is the most frequently detected carbapenemase gene in <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> within Australia, but little is known about the mechanisms behind its persistence. Here we used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate the molecular epidemiology of <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> in Queensland, Australia. In total, 107 CPE were collected between 2014 and 2017 and sent for WGS on an Illumina NextSeq500. Resistance genes and plasmid types were detected using a combination of read mapping and nucleotide comparison of <i>de novo</i> assemblies. Six isolates were additionally sequenced using Oxford Nanopore MinION to generate long-reads and fully characterize the context of the <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> gene. Of 107 CPE, 93 carried the <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> gene; 74/107 also carried an IncHI2 plasmid, suggesting carriage of the <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> gene on an IncHI2 plasmid. Comparison of these isolates to a previously characterized IncHI2 plasmid pMS7884A (isolated from an <i>Enterobacter hormaechei</i> strain in Brisbane) suggested that all isolates carried a similar plasmid. Five of six representative isolates sequenced using Nanopore long-read technology carried IncHI2 plasmids harbouring the <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> gene. While the vast majority of isolates represented ?<i>E. hormaechei</i>, several other species were also found to carry the IncHI2 plasmid, including <i>Klebsiella</i> species, <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Citrobacter</i> species. Several clonal groups of <i>E. hormaechei</i> were also identified, suggesting that persistence of <i>bla</i> <sub>IMP-4</sub> is driven by both presence on a common plasmid and clonal spread of certain <i>E. hormaechei</i> lineages.
Project description:Background:Polymyxins are currently regarded as a possible last-resort therapy to eradicate multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria. Meanwhile, the old antimicrobial agent fosfomycin has recently been reintroduced into clinical use for the treatment of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated a multidrug-resistant Salmonella 4,,12:i:- strain from a food catering handler, which had the potential to act as a vehicle for transmitting MDR foodborne pathogens. Methods:A Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 strain was isolated from the fecal sample of a food catering worker according to the standard protocol of the Salmonella detection method from World Health Organization in 2003. Serotyping of YZU1189 was performed according to the Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial resistance phenotype of the strain was determined by the agar dilution method according to the instruction from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Plasmid conjugation was performed between the donor strain Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 and the recipient strain Escherichia coli C600. The genetic locations of mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 genes were determined by the whole genome sequence analysis. Results:Salmonella 4,,12:i:- YZU1189 was an ESBL-producing stain isolated from a healthy catering worker. The strain displayed resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, polymyxins, fosfomycins, phenicols, trimethoprims, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Whole genome sequence analysis and plasmid conjugation revealed that the strain had a transferable IncHI2 plasmid carrying the mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 genes. Sequence homology analysis showed that this plasmid possessed high sequence similarity to previously reported mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 positive plasmids in China. Conclusion:This study reported a the multidrug-resistant Salmonella 4,,12:i:- isolate harboring mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14 and fosA3 from human for the first time in China. The occurrence of mcr-1 and fosA3 genes in the transferable IncHI2 plasmid pYZU1189 from the ESBL-producing Salmonella 4,,12:i:- isolate showed a potential threat to public health. Great concern should be taken for the spread of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates from food catering workers to consumers.
Project description:CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from three Croatian hospitals were analyzed. All bla(CTX-M-15) genes and one bla(CTX-M-3a) gene resided in widely spread ISEcp1 transposition modules, but other bla(CTX-M-3a) genes were in a new configuration with two IS26 copies, indicating a new event of gene mobilization from a Kluyvera ascorbata genome. The study confirmed the role of the E. coli ST131 clonal group with IncFII-type plasmids in the spread of bla(CTX-M-15) and of IncL/M pCTX-M3-type plasmids in the dissemination of bla(CTX-M-3a).