Oxygen-induced Regulation of Na/K ATPase in cerebellar granule cells.
ABSTRACT: Adjustment of the Na/K ATPase activity to changes in oxygen availability is a matter of survival for neuronal cells. We have used freshly isolated rat cerebellar granule cells to study oxygen sensitivity of the Na/K ATPase function. Along with transport and hydrolytic activity of the enzyme we have monitored alterations in free radical production, cellular reduced glutathione, and ATP levels. Both active K(+) influx and ouabain-sensitive inorganic phosphate production were maximal within the physiological pO(2) range of 3-5 kPa. Transport and hydrolytic activity of the Na/K ATPase was equally suppressed under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The ATPase response to changes in oxygenation was isoform specific and limited to the alpha1-containing isozyme whereas alpha2/3-containing isozymes were oxygen insensitive. Rapid activation of the enzyme within a narrow window of oxygen concentrations did not correlate with alterations in the cellular ATP content or substantial shifts in redox potential but was completely abolished when NO production by the cells was blocked by l-NAME. Taken together our observations suggest that NO and its derivatives are involved in maintenance of high Na/K ATPase activity under physiological conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: When cells are exposed to high salinity conditions, they develop a mechanism to extrude excess Na+ from cells to maintain the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration. Until now, the ATPase involved in Na+ transport in cyanobacteria has not been characterized. Here, the characterization of ATPase and its role in Na+ transport of alkaliphilic halotolerant Aphanothece halophytica were investigated to understand the survival mechanism of A. halophytica under high salinity conditions. RESULTS: The purified enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP in the presence of Na+ but not K+, Li+ and Ca2+. The apparent Km values for Na+ and ATP were 2.0 and 1.2 mM, respectively. The enzyme is likely the F1F0-ATPase based on the usual subunit pattern and the protection against N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibition of ATPase activity by Na+ in a pH-dependent manner. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with the purified enzyme could take up Na+ upon the addition of ATP. The apparent Km values for this uptake were 3.3 and 0.5 mM for Na+ and ATP, respectively. The mechanism of Na+ transport mediated by Na+-stimulated ATPase in A. halophytica was revealed. Using acridine orange as a probe, alkalization of the lumen of proteoliposomes reconstituted with Na+-stimulated ATPase was observed upon the addition of ATP with Na+ but not with K+, Li+ and Ca2+. The Na+- and ATP-dependent alkalization of the proteoliposome lumen was stimulated by carbonyl cyanide m - chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but was inhibited by a permeant anion nitrate. The proteoliposomes showed both ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Na+ uptake activity. The uptake of Na+ was enhanced by CCCP and nitrate. On the other hand, both CCCP and nitrate were shown to dissipate the preformed electric potential generated by Na+-stimulated ATPase of the proteoliposomes. CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate that Na+-stimulated ATPase from A. halophytica, a likely member of F-type ATPase, functions as an electrogenic Na+ pump which transports only Na+ upon hydrolysis of ATP. A secondary event, Na+- and ATP-dependent H+ efflux from proteoliposomes, is driven by the electric potential generated by Na+-stimulated ATPase.
Project description:Ouabain inhibited 86RbCl uptake by 80% in rabbit gastric superficial epithelial cells (SEC), revealing the presence of a functional Na+,K+-ATPase [(Na+ + K+)-transporting ATPase] pump. Intact SEC were used to study the ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase (K+-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase) activities before and after lysis. Intact SEC showed no Na+,K+-ATPase and insignificant Mg2+-ATPase activity. However, appreciable K+-pNPPase activity sensitive to ouabain inhibition was demonstrated by localizing its activity to the cell-surface exterior. The lysed SEC, on the other hand, demonstrated both ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase activities. Thus the ATP-hydrolytic site of Na+,K+-ATPase faces exclusively the cytosol, whereas the associated K+-pNPPase is distributed equally across the plasma membrane. The study suggests that the cell-exterior-located K+-pNPPase can be used as a convenient and reliable 'in situ' marker for the functional Na+,K+-ATPase system of various isolated cells under noninvasive conditions.
Project description:By maintaining the Na(+) and K(+) transmembrane gradient mammalian Na,K-ATPase acts as a key regulator of neuronal electrotonic properties. Na,K-ATPase has an important role in synaptic transmission and memory formation. Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by reduction of Na,K-ATPase functional activity. The molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is not known. Here we show that the monomeric Aβ(1-42) forms a tight (Kd of 3 μM), enthalpy-driven equimolar complex with α1β1 Na,K-ATPase. The complex formation results in dose-dependent inhibition of the enzyme hydrolytic activity. The binding site of Aβ(1-42) is localized in the "gap" between the alpha- and beta-subunits of Na,K-ATPase, disrupting the enzyme functionality by preventing the subunits from shifting towards each other. Interaction of Na,K-ATPase with exogenous Aβ(1-42) leads to a pronounced decrease of the enzyme transport and hydrolytic activity and Src-kinase activation in neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. This interaction allows regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity by short-term increase of the Aβ(1-42) level. However prolonged increase of Aβ(1-42) level under pathological conditions could lead to chronical inhibition of Na,K-ATPase and disruption of neuronal function. Taken together, our data suggest the role of beta-amyloid as a novel physiological regulator of Na,K-ATPase.
Project description:Since defective regulation of ion transport could initiate or contribute to the abnormal cellular function in myotonic dystrophy (MyD), Na+/K(+)-ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase were examined in skeletal muscle and cultured skeletal muscle cells of controls and MyD patients. Na+/K(+)-ATPase was investigated by measuring ouabain binding and the activities of Na+/K(+)-ATPase and K(+)-dependent 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate (3-O-MFPase). SR Ca(2+)-ATPase was analysed by e.l.i.s.a., Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation and its activities with ATP and 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase (3-O-MFP). In MyD muscle the K(+)-dependent 3-O-MFPase activity and the activity and concentration of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were decreased by 40%. In cultured muscle cells from MyD patients the activities as well as the concentration of both Na+/K(+)-ATPase and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were reduced by about 30-40%. The ouabain-binding constant and the molecular activities, i.e. catalytic-centre activities with ATP or 3-O-MFP, of Na+/K(+)-ATPase and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were similar in muscle as well as in cultured cells from both controls and MyD patients. Thus the decreased activity of both ATPases in MyD muscle is caused by a reduction in the number of their molecules. To check whether the deficiency of ATP-dependent ion pumps is a general feature of the pathology of MyD, we examined erythrocytes from the same patients. In these cells the Ca2+ uptake rate and the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were lower than in controls, but the Ca(2+)-ATPase concentration was normal. Thus the reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity is caused by a decrease in the molecular activity of the ion pump. The Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity is also lower in erythrocytes of MyD patients. It is concluded that the observed alterations in ion pumps may contribute to the pathological phenomena in the muscle and other tissues in patients with MyD.
Project description:Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase "oxygen-sensitive." This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the processes underlying successful adaptation strategies will make it possible to harness them and use for treatment of patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, sleep apnoea and high altitude pulmonary oedema, and those undergoing surgical interventions associated with the interruption of blood perfusion.
Project description:Purpose:To elucidate the molecular events in solute carrier family 4 member 11 (SLC4A11)-deficient corneal endothelium that lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes the dystrophies associated with SLC4A11 mutations, congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy 4. Methods:Comparative transcriptomic analysis (CTA) was performed in primary human corneal endothelial cells (pHCEnC) and murine corneal endothelial cells (MCEnC) with normal and reduced levels of SLC4A11 (SLC4A11 KD pHCEnC) and Slc4a11 (Slc4a11-/- MCEnC), respectively. Validation of differentially expressed genes was performed using immunofluorescence staining of CHED corneal endothelium, as well as western blot and quantitative PCR analysis of SLC4A11 KD pHCEnC and Slc4a11-/- MCEnC. Functional analyses were performed to investigate potential functional changes associated with the observed transcriptomic alterations. Results:CTA revealed inhibition of cell metabolism and ion transport function as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, in SLC4A11 KD pHCEnC and Slc4a11-/- MCEnC. Co-localization of SNARE protein STX17 with mitochondria marker COX4 was observed in CHED corneal endothelium, as was activation of AMPK-p53/ULK1 in both SLC4A11 KD pHCEnC and Slc4a11-/- MCEnC, providing additional evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy. Reduced Na+-dependent HCO3- transport activity and altered NH4Cl-induced membrane potential changes were observed in Slc4a11-/- MCEnC. Conclusions:Reduced steady-state ATP levels and subsequent activation of the AMPK-p53 pathway provide a link between the metabolic functional deficit and transcriptome alterations, as well as evidence of insufficient ATP to maintain the Na+/K+-ATPase corneal endothelial pump as the cause of the edema that characterizes SLC4A11-associated corneal endothelial dystrophies.
Project description:Coated microvesicles isolated from bovine neurohypophyses could be loaded with Ca2+ in two different ways, either by incubation in the presence of ATP or by imposition of an outwardly directed Na+ gradient. Na+, but not K+, was able to release Ca2+ accumulated by the coated microvesicles. These results suggest the existence of an ATP-dependent Ca2+-transport system as well as of a Na+/Ca2+ carrier in the membrane of coated microvesicles similar to that present in the membranes of secretory vesicles from the neurohypophysis. A kinetic analysis of transport indicates that the apparent Km for free Ca2+ of the ATP-dependent uptake was 0.8 microM. The average Vmax. was 2 nmol of Ca2+/5 min per mg of protein. The total capacity of microvesicles for Ca2+ uptake was 3.7 nmol/mg of protein. Both nifedipine (10 microM) and NH4Cl (50 mM) inhibited Ca2+ uptake. The ATPase activity in purified coated-microvesicles fractions from brain and neurohypophysis was characterized. Micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ in the presence of millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ did not change enzyme activity. Ionophores increasing the proton permeability across membranes activated the ATPase activity in preparations of coated microvesicles from brain as well as from the neurohypophysis. Thus the enzyme exhibits properties of a proton-transporting ATPase. This enzyme seems to be linked to the ion accumulation by coated microvesicles, although the precise coupling of the proton transport to Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes remains to be determined.
Project description:Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).
Project description:We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K-ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K-ATPase signaling and sodium handling.Stable pig ?1 knockdown LLC-PK1-originated PY-17 cells were rescued by expressing wild-type rat ?1 and rat ?1 with a single mutation of Pro224 (corresponding to pig Pro222) to Ala. This mutation does not affect ouabain-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase activity, but abolishes the effects of ouabain on Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, Na/K-ATPase endocytosis, and active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport.Direct carbonylation modification of Pro224 in the rat ?1 subunit determines ouabain-mediated Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent regulation of renal proximal tubule sodium transport.
Project description:Several ABC exporters carry a degenerate nucleotide binding site (NBS) that is unable to hydrolyze ATP at a rate sufficient for sustaining transport activity. A hallmark of a degenerate NBS is the lack of the catalytic glutamate in the Walker B motif in the nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) has two canonical NBSs, and mutation of the catalytic glutamate E556 in NBS1 renders ABCB1 transport-incompetent. In contrast, the closely related bile salt export pump ABCB11 (BSEP), which shares 49% sequence identity with ABCB1, naturally contains a methionine in place of the catalytic glutamate. The NBD-NBD interfaces of ABCB1 and ABCB11 differ only in four residues, all within NBS1. Mutation of the catalytic glutamate in ABCB1 results in the occlusion of ATP in NBS1, leading to the arrest of the transport cycle. Here we show that despite the catalytic glutamate mutation (E556M), ABCB1 regains its ATP-dependent transport activity, when three additional diverging residues are also replaced. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the rescue of ATPase activity is due to the modified geometry of NBS1, resulting in a weaker interaction with ATP, which allows the quadruple mutant to evade the conformationally locked pre-hydrolytic state to proceed to ATP-driven transport. In summary, we show that ABCB1 can be transformed into an active transporter with only one functional catalytic site by preventing the formation of the ATP-locked pre-hydrolytic state in the non-canonical site.