Soluble adenylyl cyclase is localized to cilia and contributes to ciliary beat frequency regulation via production of cAMP.
ABSTRACT: Ciliated airway epithelial cells are subject to sustained changes in intracellular CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) during exacerbations of airway diseases, but the role of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in ciliary beat regulation is unknown. We now show not only sAC expression in human airway epithelia (by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence) but also its specific localization to the axoneme (Western blotting and immunofluorescence). Real time estimations of [cAMP] changes in ciliated cells, using FRET between fluorescently tagged PKA subunits (expressed under the foxj1 promoter solely in ciliated cells), revealed CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-mediated cAMP production. This cAMP production was specifically blocked by sAC inhibitors but not by transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) inhibitors. In addition, this cAMP production stimulated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) independently of intracellular pH because PKA and sAC inhibitors were uniquely able to block CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-mediated changes in CBF (while tmAC inhibitors had no effect). Thus, sAC is localized to motile airway cilia and it contributes to the regulation of human airway CBF. In addition, CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) increases indeed reversibly stimulate intracellular cAMP production by sAC in intact cells.
Project description:In beta cells, both glucose and hormones, such as GLP-1, stimulate production of the second messenger cAMP, but glucose and GLP-1 elicit distinct cellular responses. We now show in INS-1E insulinoma cells that glucose and GLP-1 produce cAMP with distinct kinetics via different adenylyl cyclases. GLP-1 induces a rapid cAMP signal mediated by G protein-responsive transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). In contrast, glucose elicits a delayed cAMP rise mediated by bicarbonate, calcium, and ATP-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). This glucose-induced, sAC-dependent cAMP rise is dependent upon calcium influx and is responsible for the glucose-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. These results demonstrate that sAC-generated and tmAC-generated cAMP define distinct signaling cascades.
Project description:In a model for neuronal movement, PC12 cells undergo fast migration in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) and phorbol ester (PMA). We previously showed that NGF increases intracellular cAMP via activation of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). In this report, we demonstrate that sAC activation is an essential component of NGF- + PMA-induced fast migration in PC12 cells. Interestingly, PMA also raises intracellular cAMP but does so by stimulating transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC); however, this tmAC-generated cAMP does not contribute to fast migration. Therefore, cells must possess independent pools of cAMP capable of modulating distinct functions.
Project description:Stimulation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors by hypercapnia triggers a reflex ventilatory response via a cascade of cellular events, which includes generation of cAMP. However, it is not known if molecular CO2/HCO3(-) and/or H(+) mediate this effect and how these molecules contribute to cAMP production. We previously reported that the CB highly expresses HCO3(-)-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). In the present study we systematically characterize the role of sAC in the CB, comparing the effect of isohydric hypercapnia (IH) in cAMP generation through activation of sAC or transmembrane-adenylyl cyclase (tmAC). Pharmacological deactivation of sAC and tmAC decreased the CB cAMP content in normocapnia and IH with no differences between these two conditions. Changes from normocapnia to IH did not effect the degree of PKA activation and the carotid sinus nerve discharge frequency. sAC and tmAC are functional in CB but intracellular elevations in CO2/HCO3(-) in IH conditions on their own are insufficient to further activate these enzymes, suggesting that the hypercapnic response is dependent on secondary acidosis.
Project description:Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is generated by adenylyl cyclases (ACs), a group of enzymes with different tissue specificity and regulation. We hypothesized that AC isoforms are heterogeneously expressed along the biliary tree, are associated with specific secretory stimuli, and are differentially modulated in cholestasis. Small duct and large duct cholangiocytes were isolated from controls and from lipopolysaccharide-treated or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated rats. AC isoform expression was assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Secretion and cAMP levels were measured in intrahepatic bile duct units after stimulation with secretin, forskolin, HCO(3)(-)/CO(2), cholinergic agonists, and beta-adrenergic agonists, with or without selected inhibitors or after silencing of AC8 or soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) with small interfering RNA. Gene expression of the Ca(2+)-insensitive isoforms (AC4, AC7) was higher in small duct cholangiocytes, whereas that of the Ca(2+)-inhibitable (AC5, AC6, AC9), the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated AC8, and the soluble sAC was higher in large duct cholangiocytes. Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitors and AC8 gene silencing inhibited choleresis and cAMP production stimulated by secretin and acetylcholine, but not by forskolin. Secretion stimulated by isoproterenol and calcineurin inibitors was cAMP-dependent and gamma-aminobutyric acid-inhibitable, consistent with activation of AC9. Cholangiocyte secretion stimulated by isohydric changes in [HCO(3)(-)](i) was cAMP-dependent and inhibited by sAC inhibitor and sAC gene silencing. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate increased expression of AC7 and sAC but decreased expression of the other ACs.These studies demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of ACs in biliary pathophysiology. In fact: (1) AC isoforms are differentially expressed in cholangiocyte subpopulations; (2) AC8, AC9, and sAC mediate cholangiocyte secretion in response to secretin, beta-adrenergic agonists, or changes in [HCO(3)(-)](i), respectively; and (3) AC gene expression is modulated in experimental cholestasis.
Project description:H2 O2 is widely understood to regulate intracellular signalling. In airway epithelia, H2 O2 stimulates anion secretion primarily by activating an autocrine PGE2 signalling pathway via EP4 and EP1 receptors to initiate cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) secretion. This study investigated signalling downstream of the receptors activated by H2 O2 .Anion secretion by differentiated bronchial epithelial cells was measured in Ussing chambers during stimulation with H2 O2 , an EP4 receptor agonist or ?2 -adrenoceptor agonist in the presence and absence of inhibitors of ACs and downstream effectors. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]I ) changes were followed by microscopy using fura-2-loaded cells and PKA activation followed by FRET microscopy.Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) were both necessary for H2 O2 and EP4 receptor-mediated CFTR activation in bronchial epithelia. H2 O2 and EP4 receptor agonist stimulated tmAC to increase exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activity that drives PLC activation to raise [Ca(2+) ]i via Ca(2+) store release (and not entry). Increased [Ca(2+) ]i led to sAC activation and further increases in CFTR activity. Stimulation of sAC did not depend on changes in [HCO3 (-) ]. Ca(2+) -activated apical KCa 1.1 channels and cAMP-activated basolateral KV 7.1 channels contributed to H2 O2 -stimulated anion currents. A similar Epac-mediated pathway was seen following ?2 -adrenoceptor or forskolin stimulation.H2 O2 initiated a complex signalling cascade that used direct stimulation of tmACs by G?s followed by Epac-mediated Ca(2+) crosstalk to activate sAC. The Epac-mediated Ca(2+) signal constituted a positive feedback loop that amplified CFTR anion secretion following stimulation of tmAC by a variety of stimuli.
Project description:pH homeostasis is essential for life, yet it remains unclear how animals sense their systemic acid/base (A/B) status. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionary conserved signaling enzyme that produces the second messenger cAMP in response to bicarbonate ions (HCO(3)(-)). We cloned the sAC ortholog from the dogfish, a shark that regulates blood A/B by absorbing and secreting protons (H(+)) and HCO(3)(-) at its gills. Similar to mammalian sAC, dogfish soluble adenylyl cyclase (dfsAC) is activated by HCO(3)(-) and can be inhibited by two structurally and mechanistically distinct small molecule inhibitors. dfsAC is expressed in the gill epithelium, where the subset of base-secreting cells resides. Injection of inhibitors into animals under alkaline stress confirmed that dfsAC is essential for maintaining systemic pH and HCO(3)(-) levels in the whole organism. One of the downstream effects of dfsAC is to promote the insertion of vacuolar proton pumps into the basolateral membrane to absorb H(+) into the blood. sAC orthologs are present throughout metazoans, and mammalian sAC is expressed in A/B regulatory organs, suggesting that systemic A/B sensing via sAC is widespread in the animal kingdom.
Project description:Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a key enzyme that synthesizes cyclic AMP (cAMP) at the onset of the signaling pathway to activate sperm motility. Here, we showed that both transmembrane AC (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) are distinctly involved in the regulation of sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A tmAC inhibitor blocked both cAMP synthesis and the activation of sperm motility induced by the egg factor sperm activating and attracting factor (SAAF), as well as those induced by theophylline, an inhibitor of phoshodiesterase. It also significantly inhibited cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of a set of proteins at motility activation. On the other hand, a sAC inhibitor does not affect on SAAF-induced transient increase of cAMP, motility activation or protein phosphorylation, but it reduced swimming velocity to half in theophylline-induced sperm. A sAC inhibitor KH-7 induced circular swimming trajectory with smaller diameter and significantly suppressed chemotaxis of sperm to SAAF. These results suggest that tmAC is involved in the basic mechanism for motility activation through cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, whereas sAC plays distinct roles in increase of flagellar beat frequency and in the Ca2+-dependent chemotactic movement of sperm.
Project description:The second messenger cAMP has been extensively studied for half a century, but the plethora of regulatory mechanisms controlling cAMP synthesis in mammalian cells is just beginning to be revealed. In mammalian cells, cAMP is produced by two evolutionary related families of adenylyl cyclases, soluble adenylyl cyclases (sAC) and transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). These two enzyme families serve distinct physiological functions. They share a conserved overall architecture in their catalytic domains and a common catalytic mechanism, but they differ in their sub-cellular localizations and responses to various regulators. The major regulators of tmACs are heterotrimeric G proteins, which transduce extracellular signals via G protein-coupled receptors. sAC enzymes, in contrast, are regulated by the intracellular signaling molecules bicarbonate and calcium. Here, we discuss and compare the biochemical, structural and regulatory characteristics of the two mammalian AC families. This comparison reveals the mechanisms underlying their different properties but also illustrates many unifying themes for these evolutionary related signaling enzymes.
Project description:cAMP is a critical second messenger mediating activity-dependent neuronal survival and neurite growth. We investigated the expression and function of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) in CNS retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found sAC protein expressed in multiple RGC compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm and axons. sAC activation increased cAMP above the level seen with transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tmAC) activation. Electrical activity and bicarbonate, both physiologic sAC activators, significantly increased survival and axon growth, whereas pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated sAC inhibition dramatically decreased RGC survival and axon growth in vitro, and survival in vivo. Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth were unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knock-out mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. These data identify a novel sAC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway regulating RGC survival and axon growth, and suggest new neuroprotective or regenerative strategies based on sAC modulation.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting recessive genetic disease among Caucasians caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with over 95% male patients infertile. However, whether CFTR mutations could affect spermatogenesis and result in azoospermia remains an open question. Here we report compromised spermatogenesis, with significantly reduced testicular weight and sperm count, and decreased cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) expression in the testes of CFTR knockout mice. The involvement of CFTR in HCO(3) (-) transport and the expression of the HCO(3) (-) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), are demonstrated for the first time in the primary culture of rat Sertoli cells. Inhibition of CFTR or depletion of HCO(3) (-) could reduce FSH-stimulated, sAC-dependent cAMP production and phosphorylation of CREB, the key transcription factor in spermatogenesis. Decreased CFTR and CREB expression are also observed in human testes with azoospermia. The present study reveals a previously undefined role of CFTR and sAC in regulating the cAMP-CREB signaling pathway in Sertoli cells, defect of which may result in impaired spermatogenesis and azoospermia. Altered CFTR-sAC-cAMP-CREB functional loop may also underline the pathogenesis of various CF-related diseases.