Involvement of dynein and spectrin with early melanosome transport and melanosomal protein trafficking.
ABSTRACT: Melanosomes are unique membrane-bound organelles specialized for the synthesis and distribution of melanin. Mechanisms involved in the trafficking of proteins to melanosomes and in the transport of mature pigmented melanosomes to the dendrites of melanocytic cells are being characterized, but details about those processes during early stages of melanosome maturation are not well understood. Early melanosomes must remain in the perinuclear area until critical components are assembled. In this study, we characterized the processing of two distinct melanosomal proteins, tyrosinase (TYR) and Pmel17, to elucidate protein processing in early or late steps of the secretory pathway, respectively, and to determine mechanisms underlying the subcellular localization and transport of early melanosomes. We used immunological, biochemical, and molecular approaches to demonstrate that the movement of early melanosomes in the perinuclear area depends primarily on microtubules but not on actin filaments. In contrast, the trafficking of TYR and Pmel17 depends on cytoplasmic dynein and its interaction with the spectrin/ankyrin system, which is involved with the sorting of cargo from the plasma membrane. These results provide important clues toward understanding the processes involved with early events in melanosome formation and transport.
Project description:Most amyloids are pathological, but fragments of Pmel17 form a functional amyloid in vertebrate melanosomes essential for melanin synthesis and deposition. We previously reported that only at the mildly acidic pH (4-5.5) typical of melanosomes, the repeat domain (RPT) of human Pmel17 can form amyloid in vitro. Combined with the known presence of RPT in the melanosome filaments and the requirement of this domain for filament formation, we proposed that RPT may be the core of the amyloid formed in vivo. Although most of Pmel17 is highly conserved across a broad range of vertebrates, the RPT domains vary dramatically, with no apparent homology in some cases. Here, we report that the RPT domains of mouse and zebrafish, as well as a small splice variant of human Pmel17, all form amyloid specifically at mildly acid pH (pH ?5.0). Protease digestion, mass per unit length measurements, and solid-state NMR experiments suggest that amyloid of the mouse RPT has an in-register parallel ?-sheet architecture with two RPT molecules per layer, similar to amyloid of the A? peptide. Although there is no sequence conservation between human and zebrafish RPT, amyloid formation at acid pH is conserved.
Project description:Melanosomes are a class of lysosome-related organelles produced by melanocytes. Biogenesis of melanosomes requires the transport of melanin-synthesizing enzymes from tubular recycling endosomes to maturing melanosomes. The SNARE proteins involved in these transport or fusion steps have been poorly studied. We found that depletion of syntaxin 13 (STX13, also known as STX12), a recycling endosomal Qa-SNARE, inhibits pigment granule maturation in melanocytes by rerouting the melanosomal proteins such as TYR and TYRP1 to lysosomes. Furthermore, live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies showed that STX13 co-distributed with melanosomal cargo in the tubular-vesicular endosomes that are closely associated with the maturing melanosomes. STX family proteins contain an N-terminal regulatory domain, and deletion of this domain in STX13 increases both the SNARE activity in vivo and melanosome cargo transport and pigmentation, suggesting that STX13 acts as a fusion SNARE in melanosomal trafficking pathways. In addition, STX13-dependent cargo transport requires the melanosomal R-SNARE VAMP7, and its silencing blocks the melanosome maturation, reflecting a defect in endosome-melanosome fusion. Moreover, we show mutual dependency between STX13 and VAMP7 in regulating their localization for efficient cargo delivery to melanosomes.
Project description:Pmel17 is a pigment cell-specific integral membrane protein that participates in the formation of the intralumenal fibrils upon which melanins are deposited in melanosomes. The Pmel17 cytoplasmic domain is truncated by the mouse silver mutation, which is associated with coat hypopigmentation in certain strain backgrounds. Here, we show that the truncation interferes with at least two steps in Pmel17 intracellular transport, resulting in defects in melanosome biogenesis. Human Pmel17 engineered with the truncation found in the mouse silver mutant (hPmel17si) is inefficiently exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Localization and metabolic pulse-chase analyses with site-directed mutants and chimeric proteins show that this effect is due to the loss of a conserved C-terminal valine that serves as an ER exit signal. hPmel17si that exits the ER accumulates abnormally at the plasma membrane due to the loss of a di-leucine-based endocytic signal. The combined effects of reduced ER export and endocytosis significantly deplete Pmel17 within endocytic compartments and delay proteolytic maturation required for premelanosome-like fibrillogenesis. The ER export delay and cell surface retention are also observed for endogenous Pmel17si in melanocytes from silver mice, within which Pmel17 accumulation in premelanosomes is dramatically reduced. Mature melanosomes in these cells are larger, rounder, more highly pigmented, and less striated than in control melanocytes. These data reveal a dual sorting defect in a natural mutant of Pmel17 and support a requirement of endocytic trafficking in Pmel17 fibril formation.
Project description:Intracellular transport is essential for cytoplasm organization, but mechanisms regulating transport are mostly unknown. In Xenopus melanophores, melanosome transport is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Melanosome aggregation is triggered by melatonin, whereas dispersion is induced by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The action of hormones is mediated by cAMP: High cAMP in MSH-treated cells stimulates PKA, whereas low cAMP in melatonin-treated cells inhibits it. PKA activity is typically restricted to specific cell compartments by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Recently, Rab32 has been implicated in protein trafficking to melanosomes and shown to function as an AKAP on mitochondria. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Rab32 is involved in regulation of melanosome transport by PKA. We demonstrated that Rab32 is localized to the surface of melanosomes in a GTP-dependent manner and binds to the regulatory subunit RIIalpha of PKA. Both RIIalpha and Cbeta subunits of PKA are required for transport regulation and are recruited to melanosomes by Rab32. Overexpression of wild-type Rab32, but not mutants unable to bind PKA or melanosomes, inhibits melanosome aggregation by melatonin. Therefore, in melanophores, Rab32 is a melanosome-specific AKAP that is essential for regulation of melanosome transport.
Project description:Small GTPase Rab functions as a molecular switch that drives membrane trafficking through specific interaction with its effector molecule. Thus, identification of its specific effector domain is crucial to revealing the molecular mechanism that underlies Rab-mediated membrane trafficking. Because of the large numbers of Rab isoforms in higher eukaryotes, however, the effector domains of most of the vertebrate- or mammalian-specific Rabs have yet to be determined. In this study we screened for effector molecules of Rab36, a previously uncharacterized Rab isoform that is largely conserved in vertebrates, and we succeeded in identifying nine Rab36-binding proteins, including RILP (Rab interacting lysosomal protein) family members. Sequence comparison revealed that five of nine Rab36-binding proteins, i.e. RILP, RILP-L1, RILP-L2, and JIP3/4, contain a conserved coiled-coil domain. We identified the coiled-coil domain as a RILP homology domain (RHD) and characterized it as a common Rab36-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the RHD of RILP revealed the different contributions by amino acids in the RHD to binding activity toward Rab7 and Rab36. Expression of RILP in melanocytes, but not expression of its Rab36 binding-deficient mutants, induced perinuclear aggregation of melanosomes, and this effect was clearly attenuated by knockdown of endogenous Rab36 protein. Moreover, knockdown of Rab36 in Rab27A-deficient melanocytes, which normally exhibit perinuclear melanosome aggregation because of increased retrograde melanosome transport activity, caused dispersion of melanosomes from the perinucleus to the cell periphery, but knockdown of Rab7 did not. Our findings indicated that Rab36 mediates retrograde melanosome transport in melanocytes through interaction with RILP.
Project description:Melanosomes are melanin-containing organelles that provide pigmentation and protection from solar UV radiation to the skin. In melanocytes, melanosomes mature and traffic to dendritic tips, where they are transferred to adjacent epidermal keratinocytes through pathways that involve microtubule networks and the actin cytoskeleton. However, the role of scaffold proteins in these processes is poorly understood. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein that regulates microtubule stability and F-actin dynamics. Here we show that ILK is necessary for normal trafficking of melanosomes along microtubule tracks. In the absence of ILK, immature melanosomes are not retained in perinuclear regions, and mature melanosome trafficking along microtubule tracks is impaired. These deficits can be attenuated by microtubule stabilization. Microtubules are also necessary for the formation of dendrites in melanocytes, and Ilk inactivation reduces melanocyte dendricity. Activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) interferes with microtubule assembly. Significantly, inhibition of GSK-3 activity or exogenous expression of the GSK-3 substrate collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) in ILK-deficient melanocytes restored dendricity. ILK is also required for normal melanin transfer, and GSK-3 inhibition in melanocytes partially restored melanin transfer to neighboring keratinocytes. Thus, our work shows that ILK is a central modulator of melanosome movements in primary epidermal melanocytes and identifies ILK and GSK-3 as important modulators of melanin transfer to keratinocytes, a key process for epidermal UV photoprotection.
Project description:Fish melanocytes aggregate or disperse their melanosomes in response to the level of intracellular cAMP. The role of cAMP is to regulate both melanosome travel along microtubules and their transfer between microtubules and actin. The factors that are downstream of cAMP and that directly modulate the motors responsible for melanosome transport are not known. To identify these factors, we are characterizing melanosome transport mutants in zebrafish.We report that a mutation (allele j120) in the gene encoding zebrafish melanophilin (Mlpha) interferes with melanosome dispersion downstream of cAMP. Based on mouse genetics, the current model of melanophilin function is that melanophilin links myosin V to melanosomes. The residues responsible for this function are conserved in the zebrafish ortholog. However, if linking myosin V to melanosomes was Mlpha's sole function, elevated cAMP would cause mlpha(j120) mutant melanocytes to hyperdisperse their melanosomes. Yet this is not what we observe. Instead, mutant melanocytes disperse their melanosomes much more slowly than normal and less than halfway to the cell margin. This defect is caused by a failure to suppress minus-end (dynein) motility along microtubules, as shown by tracking individual melanosomes. Disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, which causes wild-type melanocytes to hyperdisperse their melanosomes, does not affect dispersion in mutant melanocytes. Therefore, Mlpha regulates dynein independently of its putative linkage to myosin V.We propose that cAMP-induced melanosome dispersion depends on the actin-independent suppression of dynein by Mlpha and that Mlpha coordinates the early outward movement of melanosomes along microtubules and their later transfer to actin filaments.
Project description:Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. We characterized the processing and trafficking of Pmel17 via adaptor protein complexes within melanocytic cells. Proteomics analysis detected Pmel17, AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4 in early melanosomes. Real-time PCR, immunolabeling and tissue in-situ hybridization confirmed the coexpression of AP1 isoforms mu1A and mu1B (expressed only in polarized cells) in melanocytes and keratinocytes, but expression of mu1B is missing in some melanoma cell lines. Transfection with AP1 isoforms (mu1A or mu1B) showed two distinct distribution patterns that involved Pmel17, and only mu1B was able to restore the sorting of Pmel17 to the plasma membrane in cells lacking mu1B expression. Finally, we established that expression of mu1B is regulated physiologically in melanocytes by UV radiation or DKK1. These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Melanosomes are specialized membrane-surrounded organelles, which are involved in the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin. Glycoprotein (transmembrane) non-metastatic melanoma protein b (GPNMB), a melanosome-specific structural protein, shares significant amino acid sequence homology with Pmel-17. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that GPNMB is present in all stages (I-IV) of melanosomes. However, little is known about the role of GPNMB in melanosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of GPNMB in PIG1 melanocytes was up-regulated by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the total number of melanosomes in PIG1 melanocytes was sharply reduced by GPNMB-siRNA transfection. Simultaneously, the expression levels of tyrosinase (Tyr), tyrosinase related protein 1 (Trp1), Pmel17/gp100 and ocular albinism type 1 protein (OA1) were all significantly attenuated. But the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was up-regulated. Intriguingly, in GPNMB silenced PIG1 melanocytes, UVB radiation sharply reduced MITF expression. CONCLUSION: Our present work revealed that the GPNMB was critical for the formation of melanosomes. And GPNMB expression down-regulation attenuated melanosome formation in a MITF-independent fashion.
Project description:Pmel17 is a melanocyte protein necessary for eumelanin deposition 1 in mammals and found in melanosomes in a filamentous form. The luminal part of human Pmel17 includes a region (RPT) with 10 copies of a partial repeat sequence, pt.e.gttp.qv., known to be essential in vivo for filament formation. We show that this RPT region readily forms amyloid in vitro, but only under the mildly acidic conditions typical of the lysosome-like melanosome lumen, and the filaments quickly become soluble at neutral pH. Under the same mildly acidic conditions, the Pmel filaments promote eumelanin formation. Electron diffraction, circular dichroism, and solid-state NMR studies of Pmel17 filaments show that the structure is rich in beta sheet. We suggest that RPT is the amyloid core domain of the Pmel17 filaments so critical for melanin formation.