Construction and characterization of single-chain variable fragment antibodies directed against the Bordetella pertussis surface adhesins filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin.
ABSTRACT: A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library against Bordetella pertussis was constructed using M13 phage display. The library was enriched for phages surface displaying functional scFv by biopanning against B. pertussis immobilized on polystyrene plates. Two hundred eighty-eight individual clones from the enriched library were screened for binding to B. pertussis cells, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and pertactin (PRN) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Based on the binding ability, the clones were put into eight groups. The scFv DNA inserts from the 288 clones were digested with BstOI, and 18 unique restriction patterns, named types 1 to 18, were found. Eight clones (types 1 to 7 and 18) were selected for further testing against FHA, PRN, and B. pertussis by ELISA. The results showed that types 1, 5, 7, and 18 bound strongly to B. pertussis cells as well as FHA and PRN. Type 3 bound strongly to the cells and FHA but weakly to PRN. Types 4 and 6 bound FHA only, and type 2 did not bind to the cells or antigens. The ability of the eight clones to inhibit B. pertussis from binding to HEp-2 cells was assayed. Types 1, 5, and 7, but not the remaining clones, inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to HEp-2 cells. The scFvs were sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed that the scFvs were different antibodies. Maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins composed of three different regions of FHA (heparin-binding domain, carbohydrate recognition domain, and the RGD triplet motif) were constructed. The three fusion proteins and Mal85 (MBP-FHA type I domain) were used to map the binding sites for scFvs of types 1, 5, and 7 by ELISA. The results showed that all three scFvs bound to the heparin-binding domain fusion protein but not the other fusion proteins. BALB/c mice who received recombinant phage-treated B. pertussis had reduced bacterial counts in the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs compared to the control groups.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis vaccine escape mutants that lack expression of the pertussis antigen pertactin (Prn) have emerged in vaccinated populations in the last 10-20 years. Additionally, clinical isolates lacking another acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine component, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), have been found sporadically. Here, we show that both whole-cell pertussis (wP) and aP vaccines induced protection in the lungs of mice, but that the wP vaccine was more effective in nasal clearance. Importantly, bacterial populations isolated from the lungs shifted to an FHA-negative phenotype due to frameshift mutations in the fhaB gene. Loss of FHA expression was strongly selected for in Prn-deficient strains in the lungs following aP but not wP vaccination. The combined loss of Prn and FHA led to complete abrogation of bacterial surface binding by aP-induced serum antibodies. This study demonstrates vaccine- and anatomical site-dependent adaptation of B. pertussis and has major implications for the design of improved pertussis vaccines.
Project description:IntroductionPertussis outbreaks have occurred in several industrialised countries using acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) since the 1990s. High prevalence of pertactin (PRN)-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates has been found in these countries.AimsTo evaluate in Europe: (i) whether proportions of PRN-deficient strains increased in consecutive collections of B. pertussis clinical isolates; (ii) if the frequency of PRN-deficient strains in countries correlated with the time since ACV introduction; (iii) the presence of pertussis toxin (PT)-, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA)- or fimbriae (Fim)-deficient isolates.MethodsB. pertussis clinical isolates were obtained from different European countries during four periods (EUpert I-IV studies): 1998 to 2001 (n?=?102), 2004 to 2005 (n?=?154), 2007 to 2009 (n?=?140) and 2012 to 2015 (n?=?265). The isolates' selection criteria remained unchanged in all periods. PRN, PT, FHA and Fim2 and Fim3 expression were assessed by ELISA.ResultsIn each period 1.0% (1/102), 1.9% (3/154), 6.4% (9/140) and 24.9% (66/265) of isolates were PRN-deficient. In EUpert IV, PRN-deficient isolates occurred in all countries sampled and in six countries their frequency was higher than in EUpert III (for Sweden and the United Kingdom, p?<?0.0001 and p?=?0.0155, respectively). Sweden and Italy which used ACVs since the mid 1990s had the highest frequencies (69%; 20/29 and 55%; 11/20, respectively) while Finland, where primary immunisations with ACV containing PRN dated from 2009 had the lowest (3.6%). Throughout the study, no PT- or FHA-deficient isolate and one Fim2/3-deficient was detected.ConclusionResults suggest that the longer the period since the introduction of ACVs containing PRN, the higher the frequency of circulating PRN-deficient isolates.
Project description:Pertussis ("whooping cough") is a re-emerging disease with increasing incidence among fully vaccinated individuals. We explored the genetic diversity of five Bordetella pertussis proteins used to generate the subunit vaccine across ancestral and newly emergent strains using immunoinformatics and evolutionary selection measurements. The five subunits of pertussis toxin (Ptx1⁻Ptx5) were highly conserved with regard to sequence, predicted structure, predicted antigenicity, and were under purifying selection. In contrast, the adhesin proteins pertactin (Prn) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were under statistically significant (p < 0.01) diversifying selection. Most heavily diversified sites of each protein fell within antigenic epitopes, and the functional adhesin motifs were conserved. Protein secondary structure was conserved despite sequence diversity for FHA but was changeable in Prn. These findings suggest that subunit vaccine-derived immunity does not impact Ptx1⁻Ptx5 but may apply evolutionary pressure to Prn and FHA to undergo diversifying selection. These findings offer further insight into the emergence of vaccine-resistant strains of B. pertussis.
Project description:Despite high vaccine coverage, pertussis cases in the United States have increased over the last decade. Growing evidence suggests that disease resurgence results, in part, from genetic divergence of circulating strain populations away from vaccine references. The United States employs acellular vaccines exclusively, and current Bordetella pertussis isolates are predominantly deficient in at least one immunogen, pertactin (Prn). First detected in the United States retrospectively in a 1994 isolate, the rapid spread of Prn deficiency is likely vaccine driven, raising concerns about whether other acellular vaccine immunogens experience similar pressures, as further antigenic changes could potentially threaten vaccine efficacy. We developed an electrochemiluminescent antibody capture assay to monitor the production of the acellular vaccine immunogen filamentous hemagglutinin (Fha). Screening 722 U.S. surveillance isolates collected from 2010 to 2016 identified two that were both Prn and Fha deficient. Three additional Fha-deficient laboratory strains were also identified from a historic collection of 65 isolates dating back to 1935. Whole-genome sequencing of deficient isolates revealed putative, underlying genetic changes. Only four isolates harbored mutations to known genes involved in Fha production, highlighting the complexity of its regulation. The chromosomes of two Fha-deficient isolates included unexpected structural variation that did not appear to influence Fha production. Furthermore, insertion sequence disruption of fhaB was also detected in a previously identified pertussis toxin-deficient isolate that still produced normal levels of Fha. These results demonstrate the genetic potential for additional vaccine immunogen deficiency and underscore the importance of continued surveillance of circulating B. pertussis evolution in response to vaccine pressure.
Project description:The maternal Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccination programme in the United Kingdom has successfully reduced cases of pertussis in young infants. In addition to prevention of pertussis cases, it is also important to investigate the persistence of maternal antibodies during infancy and the possible interference of maternal antibodies with infant responses to vaccines. We recruited mother-infant pairs from vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnancies and measured concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)G against pertussis toxin (PTx), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), diphtheria toxin (DTx), tetanus toxoid (TTx) Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers and infants at birth, and in infants at 7 weeks and at 5 months. Thirty-one mother-infant pairs were tested. Tdap-vaccinated women had significantly higher antibody against Tdap antigens, compared to unvaccinated women (DTx, P = 0·01; PTx, FHA, Prn and TTx, P < 0·001). All antibodies were actively transferred to the infants (transfer ratio > 1) with higher transfer of DTx (P = 0·04) and TTx (P = 0·02) antibody in Tdap-vaccinated pregnancies compared to unvaccinated pregnancies. Infants from Tdap-vaccinated pregnancies had significantly elevated antibodies to all antigens at birth (P < 0.001) and at 7 weeks (FHA, Prn, TTx, P < 0·001; DTx, P = 0.01; PTx, P = 0·004) compared to infants from unvaccinated pregnancies. Infants from Tdap-vaccinated and -unvaccinated pregnancies had comparable antibody concentrations following primary pertussis immunization (PTx, P = 0·77; FHA, P = 0·58; Prn, P = 0·60; DTx, P = 0·09; TTx, P = 0·88). These results support maternal immunization as a method of protecting vulnerable infants during their first weeks of life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acellular Pertussis vaccines against whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis present a much-improved safety profile compared to the original vaccine of killed whole cells. The principal antigen of acellular Pertussis vaccine, Pertussis Toxin (PT), must be chemically inactivated to obtain the corresponding toxoid (PTd). This process, however, results in extensive denaturation of the antigen. The development of acellular Pertussis vaccines containing PTd or recombinant PT (rPT) with inactivated S1, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA), and Pertactin (PRN) has shown that the yield of PRN was limiting, whereas FHA was overproduced. To improve antigen yields and process economics, we have constructed strains of Bordetella pertussis that produce enhanced levels of both rPT and PRN. RESULTS:Three recombinant strains of Bordetella pertussis were obtained by homologous recombination using an allelic exchange vector, pSS4245. In the first construct, the segment encoding PT subunit S1 was replaced by two mutations (R9K and E129G) that removed PT toxicity and Bp-WWC strain was obtained. In the second construct, a second copy of the whole cluster of PT structural genes containing the above mutations was inserted elsewhere into the chromosome of Bp-WWC and the Bp-WWD strain was obtained. This strain generated increased amounts of rPT (3.77 ± 0.53 ?g/mL) compared to Bp-WWC (2.61 ± 0.16 ?g/mL) and wild type strain (2.2 ?g/mL). In the third construct, a second copy of the prn gene was inserted into the chromosome of Bp-WWD to obtain Bp-WWE. Strain Bp-WWE produced PRN at 4.18 ± 1.02 ?g/mL in the cell extract which was about two-fold higher than Bp-WWC (2.48 ± 0.10 ?g/mL) and Bp-WWD (2.31 ± 0.17 ?g/mL). Purified PTd from Bp-WWD at 0.8-1.6 ?g/well did not show any toxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell whereas purified PT from WT demonstrated a cell clustering endpoint at 2.6 pg/well. CONCLUSIONS:We have constructed Bordetella pertussis strains expressing increased amounts of the antigens, rPT or rPT and PRN. Expression of the third antigen, FHA was unchanged (always in excess). These strains will be useful for the manufacture of affordable acellular Pertussis vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP) is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP). The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. RESULTS: Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP) and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the biochemical modulation of scFv binding. Also, the scFvs bound to the active site and denied the access to the substrate. The selection strategy could generate specific anti-enzyme antibodies to PLAP that can potentially be used for targeting, for modulating enzyme activity in in vitro and in vivo and as probes for the active site. This strategy also has a general application in selecting antibodies from combinatorial libraries to closely related molecules and conformations.
Project description:Background:Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, yet an increasing incidence of pertussis occurs in many countries. Thailand has a long-standing pertussis vaccination policy, therefore most expectant mothers today had received vaccines as children. The resurgence of pertussis among Thai infants in recent years led us to examine the pre-existing antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in a cohort of 90 pregnant women. Methods:We evaluated the IgG to the Pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) in maternal and cord blood sera using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results:When values of >10 IU/ml were accepted as potential protective concentrations, we found that the percentages of unprotected infants were 73.3%, 43.3% and 75.5% for anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG, respectively. Discussion:These results may explain the susceptibility for pertussis among newborn infants in Thailand and support the requirement for a pertussis booster vaccine during pregnancy, which may contribute to the passive seroprotection among newborns during the first months of life.
Project description:Antibodies that target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo are of particular interest for the treatment of neurological diseases. Here, we screened a phage display single-chain antibody (scFv) library by brain perfusion in an attempt to isolate scFv that target the rat BBB. After four rounds of screening, the resulting antibody pool remained highly complex and discrete clonal sampling did not identify any scFvs capable of binding to the rat BBB. Thus, the heavy chain CDR3 in the resulting pools was subjected to NGS, and the resulting data was used to identify 12 scFv clones that were of high abundance and/or enriched from round 3 to 4, signifying potential hits. Of these, two scFv, denoted scFv 4 and scFv 40, were identified that bound the rat BBB. Neither of these scFvs was identified by discrete sampling, motivating NGS as a tool to identify lead antibodies from complex in vivo screens.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and its receptors (FGFRs) regulate crucial biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant activation of FGFRs by their ligands can promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in many tumor types, including lung or breast cancer. The development of FGF1-targeting molecules with potential implications for the therapy of FGF1-driven tumors is recently being considered a promising approach in the treatment of cancer. In this study we have used phage display selection to find scFv antibody fragments selectively binding FGF1 and preventing it from binding to its receptor. Three identified scFv clones were expressed and characterized with regard to their binding to FGF1 and ability to interfere with FGF1-induced signaling cascades activation. In the next step the scFvs were cloned to scFv-Fc format, as dimeric Fc fusions prove beneficial in prospective therapeutic application. As expected, scFvs-Fc exhibited significantly increased affinity towards FGF1. We observed strong antiproliferative activity of the scFvs and scFvs-Fc in the in vitro cell models. Presented antibody fragments serve as novel FGF1 inhibitors and can be further utilized as powerful tools to use in the studies on the selective cancer therapy.