Domain architecture of the catalytic subunit in the ISW2-nucleosome complex.
ABSTRACT: ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling has an important role in the regulation of cellular differentiation and development. For the first time, a topological view of one of these complexes has been revealed, by mapping the interactions of the catalytic subunit Isw2 with nucleosomal and extranucleosomal DNA in the complex with all four subunits of ISW2 bound to nucleosomes. Different domains of Isw2 were shown to interact with the nucleosome near the dyad axis, another near the entry site of the nucleosome, and another with extranucleosomal DNA. The conserved DEXD or ATPase domain was found to contact the superhelical location 2 (SHL2) of the nucleosome, providing a direct physical connection of ATP hydrolysis with this region of nucleosomes. The C terminus of Isw2, comprising the SLIDE (SANT-like domain) and HAND domains, was found to be associated with extranucleosomal DNA and the entry site of nucleosomes. It is thus proposed that the C-terminal domains of Isw2 are involved in anchoring the complex to nucleosomes through their interactions with linker DNA and that they facilitate the movement of DNA along the surface of nucleosomes.
Project description:Distinct stages in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling are found as ISW2, an ISWI-type complex, forms a stable and processive complex with nucleosomes upon hydrolysis of ATP. There are two conformational changes of the ISW2-nucleosome complex associated with binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The initial binding of ISW2 to extranucleosomal DNA, to the entry site, and near the dyad axis of the nucleosome is enhanced by ATP binding, whereas subsequent ATP hydrolysis is required for template commitment and causes ISW2 to expand its interactions with nucleosomal DNA to an entire gyre of the nucleosome and a short approximately 3-4 bp site on the other gyre. The histone-fold-like subunit Dpb4 associates with nucleosomal DNA approximately 15 bp from the ATPase domain as part of this change and may help to disrupt histone-DNA interactions. These additional contacts are independent of the ATPase domain tracking along nucleosomal DNA and are maintained as ISW2 moves nucleosomes on DNA.
Project description:The ISWI family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers represses transcription by changing nucleosome positions. ISWI regulates nucleosome positioning by requiring a minimal length of extranucleosomal DNA for moving nucleosomes. ISW2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a member of the ISWI family, has a conserved domain called SLIDE (SANT-like ISWI domain) that binds to extranucleosomal DNA ~19 base pairs from the edge of nucleosomes. Loss of SLIDE binding does not perturb binding of the ATPase domain or the initial movement of DNA inside of nucleosomes. Not only is extranucleosomal DNA required to help recruit ISW2, but also the interactions of the SLIDE domain with extranucleosomal DNA are functionally required to move nucleosomes.
Project description:Members of the ISWI family of chromatin remodeling factors hydrolyze ATP to reposition nucleosomes along DNA. Here we show that the yeast Isw2 complex interacts with DNA in a nucleotide-dependent manner at physiological ionic strength. Isw2 efficiently binds DNA in the absence of nucleotides and in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog. Conversely, ADP promotes the dissociation of Isw2 from DNA. In contrast, Isw2 remains bound to mononucleosomes through multiple cycles of ATP hydrolysis. Solution studies show that Isw2 undergoes nucleotide-dependent alterations in conformation not requiring ATP hydrolysis. Our results indicate that during an Isw2 remodeling reaction, hydrolysis of successive ATP molecules coincides with cycles of DNA binding, release, and rebinding involving elements of Isw2 distinct from those interacting with nucleosomes. We propose that progression of the DNA-binding site occurs while nucleosome core contacts are maintained and generates a force dissipated by disruption of histone-DNA interactions.
Project description:The mobilization of nucleosomes by the ATP-dependent remodeler INO80 is quite different from another remodeler (SWI/SNF) that is also involved in gene activation. Unlike that recently shown for SWI/SNF, INO80 is unable to disassemble nucleosomes when remodeling short nucleosomal arrays. Instead, INO80 more closely resembles, although with notable exceptions, the nucleosome spacing activity of ISW2 and ISW1a, which are generally involved in transcription repression. INO80 required a minimum of 33 to 43 bp of extranucleosomal DNA for mobilizing nucleosomes, with 70 bp being optimal. INO80 prefers to move mononucleosomes to the center of DNA, like ISW2 and ISW1a, but does so with higher precision. Unlike ISW2/1a, INO80 does not require the H4 tail for nucleosome mobilization; instead, the H2A histone tail negatively regulates nucleosome movement by INO80. INO80 moved arrays of two or three nucleosomes with 50 or 79 bp of linker DNA closer together, with a final length of ?30 bp of linker DNA or a repeat length of ?177 bp. A minimum length of >30 bp of linker DNA was required for nucleosome movement and spacing by INO80 in arrays.
Project description:Linker DNA was found to be critical for the specific docking of ISW2 with nucleosomes as shown by mapping the physical contacts of ISW2 with nucleosomes at base-pair resolution. Hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that ISW2 not only extensively interacts with the linker DNA, but also approaches the nucleosome from the side perpendicular to the axis of the DNA superhelix and contacts two disparate sites on the nucleosomal DNA from opposite sides of the superhelix. The topography of the ISW2-nucleosome was further delineated by finding which of the ISW2 subunits are proximal to specific sites within the linker and nucleosomal DNA regions by site-directed DNA photoaffinity labeling. Although ISW2 was shown to contact approximately 63 bp of linker DNA, a minimum of 20 bp of linker DNA was required for stable binding of ISW2 to nucleosomes. The remaining approximately 43 bp of flanking linker DNA promoted more efficient binding under competitive binding conditions and was functionally important for enhanced sliding of nucleosomes when ISW2 was significantly limiting.
Project description:An ATP-dependent DNA translocase domain consisting of seven conserved motifs is a general feature of all ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers. While motifs on the ATPase domains of the yeast SWI/SNF and ISWI families of remodelers are highly conserved, the ATPase domains of these complexes appear not to be functionally interchangeable. We found one reason that may account for this is the ATPase domains interact differently with nucleosomes even though both associate with nucleosomal DNA 17-18?bp from the dyad axis. The cleft formed between the two lobes of the ISW2 ATPase domain is bound to nucleosomal DNA and Isw2 associates with the side of nucleosomal DNA away from the histone octamer. The ATPase domain of SWI/SNF binds to the same region of nucleosomal DNA, but is bound outside of the cleft region. The catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF also appears to intercalate between the DNA gyre and histone octamer. The altered interactions of SWI/SNF with DNA are specific to nucleosomes and do not occur with free DNA. These differences are likely mediated through interactions with the histone surface. The placement of SWI/SNF between the octamer and DNA could make it easier to disrupt histone-DNA interactions.
Project description:ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelers influence genetic processes by altering nucleosome occupancy, positioning, and composition. In vitro, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISWI and CHD remodelers require ?30-85 bp of extranucleosomal DNA to reposition nucleosomes, but linker DNA in S. cerevisiae averages <20 bp. To address this discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations, we have mapped the genomic distributions of the yeast Isw1, Isw2, and Chd1 remodelers at base-pair resolution on native chromatin. Although these remodelers act in gene bodies, we find that they are also highly enriched at nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs), where they bind to extended regions of DNA adjacent to particular transcription factors. Surprisingly, catalytically inactive remodelers show similar binding patterns. We find that remodeler occupancy at NDRs and gene bodies is associated with nucleosome turnover and transcriptional elongation rate, suggesting that remodelers act on regions of transient nucleosome unwrapping or depletion within gene bodies subsequent to transcriptional elongation.
Project description:The Imitation SWItch (ISWI) chromatin remodeling factors have been implicated in nucleosome positioning. In vitro, they can mobilize nucleosomes bi-directionally, making it difficult to envision how they can establish precise translational positioning of nucleosomes in vivo. It has been proposed that they require other cellular factors to do so, but none has been identified thus far. Here, we demonstrate that both ISW2 and TUP1 are required to position nucleosomes across the entire coding sequence of the DNA damage-inducible gene RNR3. The chromatin structure downstream of the URS is indistinguishable in Deltaisw2 and Deltatup1 mutants, and the crosslinking of Tup1 and Isw2 to RNR3 is independent of each other, indicating that both complexes are required to maintain repressive chromatin structure. Furthermore, Tup1 repressed RNR3 and blocked preinitiation complex formation in the Deltaisw2 mutant, even though nucleosome positioning was completely disrupted over the promoter and ORF. Our study has revealed a novel collaboration between two nucleosome-positioning activities in vivo, and suggests that disruption of nucleosome positioning is insufficient to cause a high level of transcription.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent enzymes that are critical for reorganizing and repositioning nucleosomes in concert with many basic cellular processes. For the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 1 (Chd1) remodeler, nucleosome sliding has been shown to depend on the DNA flanking the nucleosome, transcription factor binding at the nucleosome edge, and the presence of the histone H2A/H2B dimer on the entry side. Here, we report that Chd1 is also sensitive to the sequence of DNA within the nucleosome and slides nucleosomes made with the 601 Widom positioning sequence asymmetrically. Kinetic and equilibrium experiments show that poly(dA:dT) tracts perturb remodeling reactions if within one and a half helical turns of superhelix location 2 (SHL2), where the Chd1 ATPase engages nucleosomal DNA. These sequence-dependent effects do not rely on the Chd1 DNA-binding domain and are not due to differences in nucleosome affinity. Using site-specific cross-linking, we show that internal poly(dA:dT) tracts do not block the engagement of the ATPase motor with SHL2, yet they promote multiple translational positions of DNA with respect to both Chd1 and the histone core. We speculate that Chd1 senses the sequence-dependent response of DNA as the remodeler ATPase perturbs the duplex at SHL2. These results suggest that the sequence sensitivity of histones and remodelers occur at unique segments of DNA on the nucleosome, allowing them to work together or in opposition to determine nucleosome positions throughout the genome.
Project description:Histone octamers are thought to be a rigid part of nucleosomes that shape chromatin and block cellular machinery from accessing DNA. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers like ISW2 mobilize nucleosomes to provide DNA access. We find evidence for histone octamer distortion preceding DNA being moved into nucleosomes and processive movement of the ATPase motor of ISW2 on nucleosomal DNA. DNA entering nucleosome is uncoupled from the ATPase activity of ISW2 and alterations of the histone octamer structure mediated by ISW2 by deletion of the SANT domain from the C-terminus of the Isw2 catalytic subunit. We also find that restricting histone movement by chemical crosslinking traps remodeling intermediates resembling those seen by loss of the SANT domain, further supporting the importance of changes in histone octamer structure early in ISW2 remodeling. Transient octamer distortions are stabilized by H3-H4 tetramer disulfide crosslinking, thereby linking intrinsic histone octamer flexibility to chromatin remodeling.