Centriolar satellites: molecular characterization, ATP-dependent movement toward centrioles and possible involvement in ciliogenesis.
ABSTRACT: We identified Xenopus pericentriolar material-1 (PCM-1), which had been reported to constitute pericentriolar material, cloned its cDNA, and generated a specific pAb against this molecule. Immunolabeling revealed that PCM-1 was not a pericentriolar material protein, but a specific component of centriolar satellites, morphologically characterized as electron-dense granules, approximately 70-100 nm in diameter, scattered around centrosomes. Using a GFP fusion protein with PCM-1, we found that PCM-1-containing centriolar satellites moved along microtubules toward their minus ends, i.e., toward centrosomes, in live cells, as well as in vitro reconstituted asters. These findings defined centriolar satellites at the molecular level, and explained their pericentriolar localization. Next, to understand the relationship between centriolar satellites and centriolar replication, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of PCM-1 in ciliated epithelial cells during ciliogenesis. When ciliogenesis was induced in mouse nasal respiratory epithelial cells, PCM-1 immunofluorescence was markedly elevated at the apical cytoplasm. At the electron microscopic level, anti-PCM-1 pAb exclusively labeled fibrous granules, but not deuterosomes, both of which have been suggested to play central roles in centriolar replication in ciliogenesis. These findings suggested that centriolar satellites and fibrous granules are identical novel nonmembranous organelles containing PCM-1, which may play some important role(s) in centriolar replication.
Project description:Centriolar satellites are small cytoplasmic granules that play important roles in regulating the formation of centrosomes and primary cilia. Ubiquitylation of satellite proteins, including the core satellite scaffold protein pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1), regulates centriolar satellite integrity. Currently, deubiquitylases that control centriolar satellite integrity have not been identified. In this study, we find that the deubiquitylase USP9X binds PCM1, and antagonizes PCM1 ubiquitylation to protect it from proteasomal degradation. Knockdown of USP9X in human cell lines reduces PCM1 protein levels, disrupts centriolar satellite particles and causes localization of satellite proteins, such as CEP290, to centrosomes. Interestingly, knockdown of mindbomb 1 (MIB1), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes PCM1 ubiquitylation and degradation, in USP9X-depleted cells largely restores PCM1 protein levels and corrects defects caused by the loss of USP9X. Overall, our study reveals that USP9X is a constituent of centriolar satellites and functions to maintain centriolar satellite integrity by stabilizing PCM1.
Project description:Centriolar satellites are PCM-1-positive granules surrounding centrosomes. Proposed functions of the centriolar satellites include protein targeting to the centrosome, as well as communication between the centrosome and surrounding cytoplasm. CEP90 is a centriolar satellite protein that is critical for spindle pole integrity in mitotic cells. In this study, we examined the biological functions of CEP90 in interphase cells. CEP90 physically interacts with PCM-1 at centriolar satellites, and this interaction is essential for centrosomal accumulation of the centriolar satellites and eventually for primary cilia formation. CEP90 is also required for BBS4 loading on centriolar satellites and its localization in primary cilia. Our results imply that the assembly and transport of centriolar satellites are critical steps for primary cilia formation and ciliary protein recruitment.
Project description:The centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). Many vertebrate cells also have an array of granules, termed centriolar satellites, that localize around the centrosome and are associated with centrosome and cilium function. Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle and is effected by a set of proteins including PLK4, CEP192, CEP152, CEP63, and CPAP. Information on the relationships between these components is limited due to the difficulty in assaying interactions in the context of the centrosome. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) to identify proximity interactions among centriole duplication proteins. PLK4, CEP192, and CEP152 BioID identified known physically interacting proteins and a new interaction between CEP152 and CDK5RAP2 consistent with a function of CEP152 in PCM recruitment. BioID for CEP63 and its paralog CCDC67 revealed extensive proximity interactions with centriolar satellite proteins. Focusing on these satellite proteins identified two new regulators of centriole duplication, CCDC14 and KIAA0753. Both proteins colocalize with CEP63 to satellites, bind to CEP63, and identify other satellite proteins by BioID. KIAA0753 positively regulates centriole duplication and CEP63 centrosome localization, whereas CCDC14 negatively regulates both processes. These results suggest that centriolar satellites have a previously unappreciated function in regulating centriole duplication.
Project description:Centrioles are core structural elements of both centrosomes and cilia. Although cytoplasmic granules called centriolar satellites have been observed around these structures, lack of a comprehensive inventory of satellite proteins impedes our understanding of their ancestry. To address this, we performed mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome profiling of centriolar satellites obtained by affinity purification of their key constituent, PCM1, from sucrose gradient fractions. We defined an interactome consisting of 223 proteins, which showed striking enrichment in centrosome components. The proteome also contained new structural and regulatory factors with roles in ciliogenesis. Quantitative MS on whole-cell and centriolar satellite proteomes of acentriolar cells was performed to reveal dependencies of satellite composition on intact centrosomes. Although most components remained associated with PCM1 in acentriolar cells, reduced cytoplasmic and satellite levels were observed for a subset of centrosomal proteins. These results demonstrate that centriolar satellites and centrosomes form independently but share a substantial fraction of their proteomes. Dynamic exchange of proteins between these organelles could facilitate their adaptation to changing cellular environments during development, stress response and tissue homeostasis.
Project description:Centrosomes are composed of two centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM). However, the sperm and the oocyte modify or lose their centrosomes. Consequently, how the zygote establishes its first centrosome, and in particular, the origin of the second zygotic centriole, is uncertain. Drosophila melanogaster spermatids contain a single centriole called the Giant Centriole (GC) and a Proximal centriole-like (PCL) structure whose function is unknown. We found that, like the centriole, the PCL loses its protein markers at the end of spermiogenesis. After fertilization, the first two centrioles are observed via the recruitment of the zygotic PCM proteins and are seen in asterless mutant embryos that cannot form centrioles. The zygote's centriolar proteins label only the daughter centrioles of the first two centrioles. These observations demonstrate that the PCL is the origin for the second centriole in the Drosophila zygote and that a paternal centriole precursor, without centriolar proteins, is transmitted to the egg during fertilization.
Project description:The transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex was initially identified as a tethering factor for COPII vesicle. Subsequently, three forms (TRAPPI, II, and III) have been found and TRAPPIII has been reported to serve as a regulator in autophagy. This study investigates a new role of mammalian TRAPPIII in ciliogenesis. We found a ciliopathy protein, oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1), interacting with the TRAPPIII-specific subunits TRAPPC8 and TRAPPC12. TRAPPC8 is necessary for the association of OFD1 with pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1). Its depletion reduces the extent of colocalized signals between OFD1 and PCM1, but does not compromise the structural integrity of centriolar satellites. The interaction between TRAPPC8 and OFD1 inhibits that between OFD1 and TRAPPC12, suggesting different roles of TRAPPIII-specific subunits in ciliogenesis and explaining the differences in cilium lengths in TRAPPC8-depleted and TRAPPC12-depleted hTERT-RPE1 cells. On the other hand, TRAPPC12 depletion causes increased ciliary length because TRAPPC12 is required for the disassembly of primary cilia. Overall, this study has revealed different roles of TRAPPC8 and TRAPPC12 in the assembly of centriolar satellites and demonstrated a possible tethering role of TRAPPIII during ciliogenesis.
Project description:Centriolar satellites are small electron-dense granules that cluster in the vicinity of centrosomes. Satellites have been implicated in multiple critical cellular functions including centriole duplication, centrosome maturation, and ciliogenesis, but their precise composition and assembly properties have remained poorly explored. Here, we perform in vivo proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) on 22 human satellite proteins, to identify 2,113 high-confidence interactions among 660 unique polypeptides. Mining this network, we validate six additional satellite components. Analysis of the satellite interactome, combined with subdiffraction imaging, reveals the existence of multiple unique microscopically resolvable satellite populations that display distinct protein interaction profiles. We further show that loss of satellites in PCM1-depleted cells results in a dramatic change in the satellite interaction landscape. Finally, we demonstrate that satellite composition is largely unaffected by centriole depletion or disruption of microtubules, indicating that satellite assembly is centrosome-independent. Together, our work offers the first systematic spatial and proteomic profiling of human centriolar satellites and paves the way for future studies aimed at better understanding the biogenesis and function(s) of these enigmatic structures.
Project description:Centriolar satellites are non-membrane cytoplasmic granules that deliver proteins to centrosome during centrosome biogenesis and ciliogenesis. Centriolar satellites are highly dynamic during cell cycle or ciliogenesis and how they are regulated remains largely unknown. We report here that sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) regulates the homeostasis of a subset of centriolar satellite proteins including PCM1, CEP131, and OFD1 during serum-starvation-induced ciliogenesis. Mechanistically, SNX17 recruits the deubiquitinating enzyme USP9X to antagonize the mindbomb 1 (MIB1)-induced ubiquitination and degradation of PCM1. SNX17 deficiency leads to enhanced degradation of USP9X as well as PCM1 and disrupts ciliogenesis upon serum starvation. On the other hand, SNX17 is dispensable for the homeostasis of PCM1 and USP9X in serum-containing media. These findings reveal a SNX17/USP9X mediated pathway essential for the homeostasis of centriolar satellites under serum starvation, and provide insight into the mechanism of USP9X in ciliogenesis, which may lead to a better understating of USP9X-deficiency-related human diseases such as X-linked mental retardation and neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Centriolar satellites are small, granular structures that cluster around centrosomes, but whose biological function and regulation are poorly understood. We show that centriolar satellites undergo striking reorganization in response to cellular stresses such as UV radiation, heat shock, and transcription blocks, invoking acute and selective displacement of the factors AZI1/CEP131, PCM1, and CEP290 from this compartment triggered by activation of the stress-responsive kinase p38/MAPK14. We demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MIB1 is a new component of centriolar satellites, which interacts with and ubiquitylates AZI1 and PCM1 and suppresses primary cilium formation. In response to cell stress, MIB1 is abruptly inactivated in a p38-independent manner, leading to loss of AZI1, PCM1, and CEP290 ubiquitylation and concomitant stimulation of ciliogenesis, even in proliferating cells. Collectively, our findings uncover a new two-pronged signalling response, which by coupling p38-dependent phosphorylation with MIB1-catalysed ubiquitylation of ciliogenesis-promoting factors plays an important role in controlling centriolar satellite status and key centrosomal functions in a cell stress-regulated manner.
Project description:The protein PCM-1 localizes to cytoplasmic granules known as "centriolar satellites" that are partly enriched around the centrosome. We inhibited PCM-1 function using a variety of approaches: microinjection of antibodies into cultured cells, overexpression of a PCM-1 deletion mutant, and specific depletion of PCM-1 by siRNA. All approaches led to reduced targeting of centrin, pericentrin, and ninein to the centrosome. Similar effects were seen upon inhibition of dynactin by dynamitin, and after prolonged treatment of cells with the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole. Inhibition or depletion of PCM-1 function further disrupted the radial organization of microtubules without affecting microtubule nucleation. Loss of microtubule organization was also observed after centrin or ninein depletion. Our data suggest that PCM-1-containing centriolar satellites are involved in the microtubule- and dynactin-dependent recruitment of proteins to the centrosome, of which centrin and ninein are required for interphase microtubule organization.