Fission yeast myosin-I, Myo1p, stimulates actin assembly by Arp2/3 complex and shares functions with WASp.
ABSTRACT: Fission yeast myo1(+) encodes a myosin-I with all three tail homology domains (TH1, 2, 3) found in typical long-tailed myosin-Is. Myo1p tail also contains a COOH-terminal acidic region similar to the A-domain of WASp/Scar proteins and other fungal myosin-Is. Our analysis shows that Myo1p and Wsp1p, the fission yeast WASp-like protein, share functions and cooperate in controlling actin assembly. First, Myo1p localizes to cortical patches enriched at tips of growing cells and at sites of cell division. Myo1p patches partially colocalize with actin patches and are dependent on an intact actin cytoskeleton. Second, although deletion of myo1(+) is not lethal, Deltamyo1 cells have actin cytoskeletal defects, including loss of polarized cell growth, delocalized actin patches, and mating defects. Third, additional disruption of wsp1(+) is synthetically lethal, suggesting that these genes may share functions. In mapping the domains of Myo1p tail that share function with Wsp1p, we discovered that a Myo1p construct with just the head and TH1 domains is sufficient for cortical localization and to rescue all Deltamyo1 defects. However, it fails to rescue the Deltamyo1 Deltawsp1 lethality. Additional tail domains, TH2 and TH3, are required to complement the double mutant. Fourth, we show that a recombinant Myo1p tail binds to Arp2/3 complex and activates its actin nucleation activity.
Project description:Genetic analyses of budding and fission yeast identified >50 proteins that assemble at sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in structures called actin patches. These proteins include clathrin, clathrin-interacting proteins, actin binding proteins, and peripheral membrane proteins such as F-BAR proteins. Many questions remain regarding the interactions of these proteins, particularly the participation of F-BAR proteins in the assembly of actin filaments.Our microscopic and genetic interaction experiments on fission yeast show that F-BAR proteins Cdc15p and Bzz1p accumulate in two distinct zones on invaginating membrane tubules and interact with Myo1p and Wsp1p, nucleation-promoting factors for Arp2/3 complex. The two F-BAR proteins peak prior to movement of the actin patch and their accumulation in actin patches depends on the nucleation-promoting factors. At their peak local concentrations, we estimated the stoichiometries of the proteins in actin patches to be one Bzz1p per two Wsp1p and one Cdc15p per Myo1p. Purified Bzz1p has two SH3 domains that interact with Wsp1p and stimulate actin polymerization by Arp2/3 complex. Cells lacking either Cdc15p or Bzz1p assemble 3- to 5-fold less actin in patches (in spite of normal levels of Wsp1p, Myo1p, and Arp2/3 complex), and patches move shorter distances from the plasma membrane.We propose that during clathrin-mediated endocytosis, F-BAR proteins interact with nucleation-promoting factors to stimulate Arp2/3 complex in two different zones along the invaginating tubule. We further propose that polymerization of actin filaments in these two zones contributes to membrane scission.
Project description:To internalize nutrients and cell surface receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cells assemble at least 50 proteins, including clathrin, clathrin-interacting proteins, actin filaments, and actin binding proteins, in a highly ordered and regulated manner. The molecular mechanism by which actin filament polymerization deforms the cell membrane is unknown, largely due to lack of knowledge about the organization of the regulatory proteins and actin filaments. We used high-speed superresolution localization microscopy of live fission yeast cells to improve the spatial resolution to ?35 nm with 1-s temporal resolution. The nucleation promoting factors Wsp1p (WASp) and Myo1p (myosin-I) define two independent pathways that recruit Arp2/3 complex, which assembles two zones of actin filaments. Myo1p concentrates at the site of endocytosis and initiates a zone of actin filaments assembled by Arp2/3 complex. Wsp1p appears simultaneously at this site but subsequently moves away from the cell surface as it stimulates Arp2/3 complex to assemble a second zone of actin filaments. Cells lacking either nucleation-promoting factor assemble only one, stationary, zone of actin filaments. These observations support our two-zone hypothesis to explain endocytic tubule elongation and vesicle scission in fission yeast.
Project description:In both unicellular and multicellular organisms, long-tailed class I myosins function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Myosin 1e (Myo1e) in vertebrates and Myo1 in fission yeast have similar domain organization, yet whether these proteins or their individual protein domains are functionally interchangeable remains unknown. In an effort to assess functional conservation of class I myosins, we tested whether human Myo1e could replace Myo1 in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that it was unable to substitute for yeast Myo1. To determine if any individual protein domain is responsible for the inability of Myo1e to function in yeast, we created human-yeast myosin-I chimeras. By functionally testing these chimeric myosins in vivo, we concluded that the Myo1e motor domain is unable to function in yeast, even when combined with the yeast Myo1 tail and a full complement of yeast regulatory light chains. Conversely, the Myo1e tail, when attached to the yeast Myo1 motor domain, supports localization to endocytic actin patches and partially rescues the endocytosis defect in myo1? cells. Further dissection showed that both the TH1 and TH2-SH3 domains in the human Myo1e tail are required for localization and function of chimeric myosin-I at endocytic sites. Overall, this study provides insights into the role of individual myosin-I domains, expands the utility of fission yeast as a simple model system to study the effects of disease-associated MYO1E mutations, and supports a model of co-evolution between a myosin motor and its actin track.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mother cell and bud are connected by a narrow neck. The mechanism by which this neck is closed during cytokinesis has been unclear. Here we report on the role of a contractile actomyosin ring in this process. Myo1p (the only type II myosin in S. cerevisiae) forms a ring at the presumptive bud site shortly before bud emergence. Myo1p ring formation depends on the septins but not on F-actin, and preexisting Myo1p rings are stable when F-actin is depolymerized. The Myo1p ring remains in the mother-bud neck until the end of anaphase, when a ring of F-actin forms in association with it. The actomyosin ring then contracts to a point and disappears. In the absence of F-actin, the Myo1p ring does not contract. After ring contraction, cortical actin patches congregate at the mother-bud neck, and septum formation and cell separation rapidly ensue. Strains deleted for MYO1 are viable; they fail to form the actin ring but show apparently normal congregation of actin patches at the neck. Some myo1Delta strains divide nearly as efficiently as wild type; other myo1Delta strains divide less efficiently, but it is unclear whether the primary defect is in cytokinesis, septum formation, or cell separation. Even cells lacking F-actin can divide, although in this case division is considerably delayed. Thus, the contractile actomyosin ring is not essential for cytokinesis in S. cerevisiae. In its absence, cytokinesis can still be completed by a process (possibly localized cell-wall synthesis leading to septum formation) that appears to require septin function and to be facilitated by F-actin.
Project description:Nonmuscle myosin type II (Myo1p) is required for cytokinesis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Loss of Myo1p activity has been associated with growth abnormalities and enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress, making it an appealing antifungal therapeutic target. The Myo1p tail-only domain was previously reported to have functional activity equivalent to the full-length Myo1p whereas the head-only domain did not. Since Myo1p tail-only constructs are biologically active, the tail domain must have additional functions beyond its previously described role in myosin dimerization or trimerization. The identification of new Myo1p-interacting proteins may shed light on the other functions of the Myo1p tail domain. To identify novel Myo1p-interacting proteins, and determine if Myo1p can serve as a scaffold to recruit proteins to the bud neck during cytokinesis, we used the integrated split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (iMYTH) system. Myo1p was iMYTH-tagged at its C-terminus, and screened against both cDNA and genomic prey libraries to identify interacting proteins. Control experiments showed that the Myo1p-bait construct was appropriately expressed, and that the protein colocalized to the yeast bud neck. Thirty novel Myo1p-interacting proteins were identified by iMYTH. Eight proteins were confirmed by coprecipitation (Ape2, Bzz1, Fba1, Pdi1, Rpl5, Tah11, and Trx2) or mass spectrometry (AP-MS) (Abp1). The novel Myo1p-interacting proteins identified come from a range of different processes, including cellular organization and protein synthesis. Actin assembly/disassembly factors such as the SH3 domain protein Bzz1 and the actin-binding protein Abp1 represent likely Myo1p interactions during cytokinesis.
Project description:Type I myosins in yeast, Myo3p and Myo5p (Myo3/5p), are involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The SH3 domain of Myo5p regulates the polymerization of actin through interactions with both Las17p, a homolog of mammalian Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), and Vrp1p, a homolog of WASP-interacting protein (WIP). Vrp1p is required for both the localization of Myo5p to cortical patch-like structures and the ATP-independent interaction between the Myo5p tail region and actin filaments. We have identified and characterized a new adaptor protein, Mti1p (Myosin tail region-interacting protein), which interacts with the SH3 domains of Myo3/5p. Mti1p co-immunoprecipitated with Myo5p and Mti1p-GFP co-localized with cortical actin patches. A null mutation of MTI1 exhibited synthetic lethal phenotypes with mutations in SAC6 and SLA2, which encode actin-bundling and cortical actin-binding proteins, respectively. Although the mti1 null mutation alone did not display any obvious phenotype, it suppressed vrp1 mutation phenotypes, including temperature-sensitive growth, abnormally large cell morphology, defects in endocytosis and salt-sensitive growth. These results suggest that Mti1p and Vrp1p antagonistically regulate type I myosin functions.
Project description:In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an actomyosin-based contractile ring is present during cytokinesis, as occurs in animal cells. However, the precise requirement for this structure during budding yeast cytokinesis has been controversial. Here we show that deletion of MYO1, the single myosin II gene, is lethal in a commonly used strain background. The terminal phenotype of myo1Delta is interconnected chains of cells, suggestive of a cytokinesis defect. To further investigate the role of Myo1p in cytokinesis, we conditionally disrupted Myo1 function by using either a dominant negative Myo1p construct or a strain where expression of Myo1p can be shut-off. Both ways of disruption of Myo1 function result in a failure in cytokinesis. Additionally, we show that a myo1Delta strain previously reported to grow nearly as well as the wild type contains a single genetic suppressor that alleviates the severe cytokinesis defects of myo1Delta. Using fluorescence time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy techniques, we show that cytokinesis in this strain is achieved through formation of multiple aberrant septa. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the actomyosin ring is crucial for successful cytokinesis in budding yeast, but new cytokinetic mechanisms can evolve through genetic changes when myosin II function is impaired.
Project description:Point mutations in the human MYO1E gene, encoding class I myosin Myo1e, are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a primary kidney disorder that leads to end-stage kidney disease. In this study, we used a simple model organism, fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to test the effects of FSGS-associated mutations on myosin activity. Fission yeast has only one class I myosin, Myo1, which is involved in actin patch assembly at the sites of endocytosis. The amino acid residues mutated in individuals with FSGS are conserved between human Myo1e and yeast Myo1, which allowed us to introduce equivalent mutations into yeast myosin and use the resulting mutant strains for functional analysis. Yeast strains expressing mutant Myo1 exhibited defects in growth and endocytosis similar to those observed in the myo1 deletion strain. These mutations also disrupted Myo1 localization to endocytic actin patches and resulted in mis-localization of Myo1 to eisosomes, linear membrane microdomains found in yeast cells. Although both mutants examined in this study exhibited loss of function, one of these mutants was also characterized by the decreased protein stability. Thus, using the yeast model system, we were able to determine that the kidney-disease-associated mutations impair myosin functional activity and have differential effects on protein stability.
Project description:We used quantitative confocal microscopy to measure the numbers of 16 proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins during assembly and disassembly of endocytic actin patches in fission yeast. The peak numbers of each molecule that accumulate in patches varied <30-50% between individual patches. The pathway begins with accumulation of 30-40 clathrin molecules, sufficient to build a hemisphere at the tip of a plasma membrane invagination. Thereafter precisely timed waves of proteins reach characteristic peak numbers: endocytic adaptor proteins (approximately 120 End4p and approximately 230 Pan1p), activators of Arp2/3 complex (approximately 200 Wsp1p and approximately 340 Myo1p) and approximately 300 Arp2/3 complexes just ahead of a burst of actin assembly into short, capped and highly cross-linked filaments (approximately 7000 actins, approximately 200 capping proteins, and approximately 900 fimbrins). Coronin arrives last as all other components disperse upon patch internalization and movement over approximately 10 s. Patch internalization occurs without recruitment of dynamins. Mathematical modeling, described in the accompanying paper (Berro et al., 2010, MBoC 21: 2803-2813), shows that the dendritic nucleation hypothesis can account for the time course of actin assembly into a branched network of several hundred filaments 100-200 nm long and that patch disassembly requires actin filament fragmentation in addition to depolymerization from the ends.
Project description:Core components of cytokinesis are conserved from yeast to human, but how these components are assembled into a robust machine that drives cytokinesis remains poorly understood. In this paper, we show by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis that Myo1, the sole myosin-II in budding yeast, was mobile at the division site before anaphase and became immobilized shortly before cytokinesis. This immobility was independent of actin filaments or the motor domain of Myo1 but required a small region in the Myo1 tail that is thought to be involved in higher-order assembly. As expected, proteins involved in actin ring assembly (tropomyosin and formin) and membrane trafficking (myosin-V and exocyst) were dynamic during cytokinesis. Strikingly, proteins involved in septum formation (the chitin synthase Chs2) and/or its coordination with the actomyosin ring (essential light chain, IQGAP, F-BAR, etc.) displayed Myo1-dependent immobility during cytokinesis, suggesting that Myo1 plays a scaffolding role in the assembly of a cytokinesis machine.