Centrobin: a novel daughter centriole-associated protein that is required for centriole duplication.
ABSTRACT: In mammalian cells, the centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and amorphous pericentriolar material. The pair of centrioles, which are the core components of the centrosome, duplicate once per cell cycle. Centrosomes play a pivotal role in orchestrating the formation of the bipolar spindle during mitosis. Recent studies have linked centrosomal activity on centrioles or centriole-associated structures to cytokinesis and cell cycle progression through G1 into the S phase. In this study, we have identified centrobin as a centriole-associated protein that asymmetrically localizes to the daughter centriole. The silencing of centrobin expression by small interfering RNA inhibited centriole duplication and resulted in centrosomes with one or no centriole, demonstrating that centrobin is required for centriole duplication. Furthermore, inhibition of centriole duplication by centrobin depletion led to impaired cytokinesis.
Project description:Centriole duplication is the process by which two new daughter centrioles are generated from the proximal end of preexisting mother centrioles. Accurate centriole duplication is important for many cellular and physiological events, including cell division and ciliogenesis. Centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), centrosomal protein of 152 kDa (CEP152), and centrobin are known to be essential for centriole duplication. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to centriole duplication is not known. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with CEP152 and CPAP, and the centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for centriole duplication. Although depletion of centrobin from cells did not have an effect on the centriolar levels of CEP152, it caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly formed centrioles. Moreover, exogenous expression of the CPAP-binding fragment of centrobin also caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly synthesized centrioles, possibly in a dominant negative manner, thereby inhibiting centriole duplication and the PLK4 overexpression-mediated centrosome amplification. Interestingly, exogenous overexpression of CPAP in the centrobin-depleted cells did not restore CPAP localization to the centrioles. However, restoration of centrobin expression in the centrobin-depleted cells led to the reappearance of centriolar CPAP. Hence, we conclude that centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for the recruitment of CPAP to procentrioles to promote the elongation of daughter centrioles and for the persistence of CPAP on preexisting mother centrioles. Our study indicates that regulation of CPAP levels on the centrioles by centrobin is critical for preserving the normal size, shape, and number of centrioles in the cell.
Project description:DNA repair proteins have been found to localize to the centrosomes and defects in these proteins cause centrosome abnormality. Centrobin is a centriole-associated protein that is required for centriole duplication and microtubule stability. A recent study revealed that centrobin is a candidate substrate for ATM/ATR kinases. However, whether centrobin is involved in DNA damage response (DDR) remains unexplored. Here we show that centrobin is phosphorylated after UV exposure and that the phosphorylation is detected exclusively in the detergent/DNase I-resistant nuclear matrix. UV-induced phosphorylation of centrobin is largely dependent on ATR activity. Centrobin-depleted cells show impaired DNA damage-induced microtubule stabilization and increased sensitivity to UV radiation. Interestingly, depletion of centrobin leads to defective homologous recombination (HR) repair, which is reversed by expression of wild-type centrobin. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that centrobin plays an important role in DDR.
Project description:Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older "mother" and a younger "daughter" centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and live-cell imaging, we show in fly neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that the mitotic kinase Polo and its centriolar protein substrate Centrobin (Cnb) accumulate on the daughter centriole during mitosis, thereby generating molecularly distinct mother and daughter centrioles before interphase. Cnb's asymmetric localization, potentially involving a direct relocalization mechanism, is regulated by Polo-mediated phosphorylation, whereas Polo's daughter centriole enrichment requires both Wdr62 and Cnb. Based on optogenetic protein mislocalization experiments, we propose that the establishment of centriole asymmetry in mitosis primes biased interphase MTOC activity, necessary for correct spindle orientation.
Project description:The BRCA2 interactor, centrobin, is a centrosomal protein that has been implicated in centriole duplication and microtubule stability. We used genome editing to ablate CNTROB in hTERT-RPE1 cells and observed an increased frequency of monocentriolar and acentriolar cells. Using a novel monoclonal antibody, we found that centrobin primarily localizes to daughter centrioles but also associates with mother centrioles upon serum starvation. Strikingly, centrobin loss abrogated primary ciliation upon serum starvation. Ultrastructural analysis of centrobin nulls revealed defective axonemal extension after mother centriole docking. Ciliogenesis required a C-terminal portion of centrobin that interacts with CP110 and tubulin. We also depleted centrobin in zebrafish embryos to explore its roles in an entire organism. Centrobin-depleted embryos showed microcephaly, with curved and shorter bodies, along with marked defects in laterality control, morphological features that indicate ciliary dysfunction. Our data identify new roles for centrobin as a positive regulator of vertebrate ciliogenesis.
Project description:Centrosome overduplication promotes mitotic abnormalities, invasion and tumorigenesis. Cells regulate the number of centrosomes by limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. The orthogonal orientation between a mother and a daughter centriole, established at the time of centriole duplication, is thought to block further duplication of the mother centriole. Loss of orthogonal orientation (disengagement) between two centrioles during anaphase is considered a licensing event for the next round of centriole duplication. Disengagement requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), but how Plk1 drives this process is not clear. Here we employ correlative live/electron microscopy and demonstrate that Plk1 induces maturation and distancing of the daughter centriole, allowing reduplication of the mother centriole even if the original daughter centriole is still orthogonal to it. We find that mother centrioles can undergo reduplication when original daughter centrioles are only ?80?nm apart, which is the distance centrioles normally reach during prophase.
Project description:Centriole duplication is of crucial importance during both mitotic and male meiotic divisions, but it is currently not known whether this process is regulated differently during the two modes of division. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the kinase ZYG-1 plays an essential role in both mitotic and meiotic centriole duplication. We have found that the C-terminus of ZYG-1 is necessary and sufficient for targeting to centrosomes and is important for differentiating mitotic and meiotic centriole duplication. Small truncations of the C-terminus dramatically lower the level of ZYG-1 at mitotic centrosomes but have little effect on the level of ZYG-1 at meiotic centrosomes. Interestingly, truncation of ZYG-1 blocks centrosome duplication in the mitotic cycle but leads to centrosome amplification in the meiotic cycle. Meiotic centriole amplification appears to result from the overduplication of centrioles during meiosis I and leads to the formation of multipolar meiosis II spindles. The extra centrioles also disrupt spermatogenesis by inducing the formation of supernumerary fertilization-competent spermatids that contain abnormal numbers of chromosomes and centrioles. Our data reveal differences in the regulation of mitotic and meiotic centrosome duplication, particularly with regard to ZYG-1 activity, and reveal an important role for centrosomes in spermatid formation.
Project description:Vertebrate centrioles lose their geometric scaffold, the cartwheel, during mitosis, concurrently with gaining the ability to recruit the pericentriolar material (PCM) and thereby function as the centrosome. Cartwheel removal has recently been implicated in centriole duplication, but whether "cartwheel-less" centrioles are intrinsically stable or must be maintained through other modifications remains unclear. Here, we identify a newborn centriole-enriched protein, KIAA1731/CEP295, specifically mediating centriole-to-centrosome conversion but dispensable for cartwheel removal. In the absence of CEP295, centrioles form in the S/G2 phase and lose their associated cartwheel in mitosis but cannot be converted to centrosomes, uncoupling the two events. Strikingly, centrioles devoid of both the PCM and the cartwheel progressively lose centriolar components, whereas centrioles associating with either the cartwheel or PCM alone can exist stably. Thus, cartwheel removal can have grave repercussions to centriole stability, and centriole-to-centrosome conversion mediated by CEP295 must occur in parallel to maintain cartwheel-less centrioles for duplication.
Project description:Centrioles are required to assemble centrosomes for cell division and cilia for motility and signalling. New centrioles assemble perpendicularly to pre-existing ones in G1-S and elongate throughout S and G2. Fully elongated daughter centrioles are converted into centrosomes during mitosis to be able to duplicate and organize pericentriolar material in the next cell cycle. Here we show that centriole-to-centrosome conversion requires sequential loading of Cep135, Ana1 (Cep295) and Asterless (Cep152) onto daughter centrioles during mitotic progression in both Drosophila melanogaster and human. This generates a molecular network spanning from the inner- to outermost parts of the centriole. Ana1 forms a molecular strut within the network, and its essential role can be substituted by an engineered fragment providing an alternative linkage between Asterless and Cep135. This conserved architectural framework is essential for loading Asterless or Cep152, the partner of the master regulator of centriole duplication, Plk4. Our study thus uncovers the molecular basis for centriole-to-centrosome conversion that renders daughter centrioles competent for motherhood.
Project description:Control of the number of centrosomes is critical for cell division, trafficking and cilia. Regulation of centrosome number occurs through the precise duplication of centrioles that reside in the center of centrosomes. Here we explored transcriptional control of centriole assembly by focusing on alternative splicing factors in isolation from other cell cycle processes. Of five splicing factors originally identified as required for centriole assembly, only SON is specifically required. Procentriole assembly is severely disrupted when SON is reduced but early centriole assembly events still occur. Whole genome mRNA sequencing identified thousands of genes whose splicing and expression are affected by the reduction of SON, with an enrichment of genes involved in the microtubule cytoskeleton. SON is required for the proper splicing and expression of the centriolar satellite protein, CEP131. Fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography establish key differences to the trafficking and microtubule network around the centrosomes that contribute to the centriole assembly defects. This establishes SON as required for centriole assembly, partially through its activity in splicing CEP131 and through control of microtubules organized by the centrosome. Overall design: Analysis of changes in mRNA abundance and alternative splicing after knockdown of the human splicing factor SON.
Project description:Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle, ensuring that each cell contains two centrosomes, each containing a mother-daughter pair of tightly engaged centrioles at mitotic entry. Loss of the tight engagement between mother and daughter centrioles appears to license the next round of centriole duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain largely unknown. Mutations in CDK5RAP2, which encodes a centrosomal protein, cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in humans. Here we show that CDK5RAP2 loss of function in mice causes centriole amplification with a preponderance of single, unpaired centrioles and increased numbers of daughter-daughter centriole pairs. These results indicate that CDK5RAP2 is required to maintain centriole engagement and cohesion, thereby restricting centriole replication. Early in mitosis, amplified centrosomes assemble multipolar spindles in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells. Moreover, both mother and daughter centrioles are amplified and the excess mother centrioles template multiple primary cilia in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells.