Borealin: a novel chromosomal passenger required for stability of the bipolar mitotic spindle.
ABSTRACT: The chromosomal passenger complex of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, and Survivin has essential regulatory roles at centromeres and the central spindle in mitosis. Here, we describe Borealin, a novel member of the complex. Approximately half of Aurora B in mitotic cells is complexed with INCENP, Borealin, and Survivin; and Borealin binds Survivin and INCENP in vitro. A second complex contains Aurora B and INCENP, but no Borealin or Survivin. Depletion of Borealin by RNA interference delays mitotic progression and results in kinetochore-spindle misattachments and an increase in bipolar spindles associated with ectopic asters. The extra poles, which apparently form after chromosomes achieve a bipolar orientation, severely disrupt the partitioning of chromosomes in anaphase. Borealin depletion has little effect on histone H3 serine10 phosphorylation. These results implicate the chromosomal passenger holocomplex in the maintenance of spindle integrity and suggest that histone H3 serine10 phosphorylation is performed by an Aurora B-INCENP subcomplex.
Project description:Chromosome association of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC; consisting of Borealin, Survivin, INCENP, and the Aurora B kinase) is essential to achieve error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. Hence, understanding the mechanisms driving the chromosome association of the CPC is of paramount importance. Here using a multifaceted approach, we show that the CPC binds nucleosomes through a multivalent interaction predominantly involving Borealin. Strikingly, Survivin, previously suggested to target the CPC to centromeres, failed to bind nucleosomes on its own and requires Borealin and INCENP for its binding. Disrupting Borealin-nucleosome interactions excluded the CPC from chromosomes and caused chromosome congression defects. We also show that Borealin-mediated chromosome association of the CPC is critical for Haspin- and Bub1-mediated centromere enrichment of the CPC and works upstream of the latter. Our work thus establishes Borealin as a master regulator determining the chromosome association and function of the CPC.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, thereby allowing it to act at the right place at the right time. Here, we addressed the individual contributions of INCENP, Survivin and Borealin to the proper functioning of this complex. We show that INCENP has an important role in stabilizing the complex, and that Borealin acts to promote binding of Survivin to INCENP. Importantly, when Survivin is directly fused to INCENP, this hybrid can restore CPC function at the centromeres and midbody, even in the absence of Borealin and the centromere-targeting domain of INCENP. Thus, Survivin is an important mediator of centromere and midbody docking of Aurora-B during mitosis.
Project description:The ubiquitin-like SUMO system controls cellular key functions, and several lines of evidence point to a critical role of SUMO for mitotic progression. However, in mammalian cells mitotic substrates of sumoylation and the regulatory components involved are not well defined. Here, we identify Borealin, a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), as a mitotic target of SUMO. The CPC, which additionally comprises INCENP, Survivin, and Aurora B, regulates key mitotic events, including chromosome congression, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. We show that Borealin is preferentially modified by SUMO2/3 and demonstrate that the modification is dynamically regulated during mitotic progression, peaking in early mitosis. Intriguingly, the SUMO ligase RanBP2 interacts with the CPC, stimulates SUMO modification of Borealin in vitro, and is required for its modification in vivo. Moreover, the SUMO isopeptidase SENP3 is a specific interaction partner of Borealin and catalyzes the removal of SUMO2/3 from Borealin. These data thus delineate a mitotic SUMO2/3 conjugation-deconjugation cycle of Borealin and further assign a regulatory function of RanBP2 and SENP3 in the mitotic SUMO pathway.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), consisting of the serine/threonine kinase Aurora B, the inner centromere protein INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/DasraB, has essential functions at the centromere in ensuring correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Despite observations that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of any one member of the CPC abolishes localization of the other subunits, it remains unclear how the complex is targeted to the centromere. We have now identified a ternary subcomplex of the CPC comprising Survivin, Borealin, and the N-terminal 58 amino acids of INCENP in vitro and in vivo. This subcomplex was found to be essential and sufficient for targeting to the centromere. Notably, Aurora B kinase, the enzymatic core of the CPC, was not required for centromere localization of the subcomplex. We demonstrate that CPC targeting to the centromere does not depend on CENP-A and hMis12, two core components for kinetochore/centromere assembly, and provide evidence that the CPC may be directed to centromeric DNA directly via the Borealin subunit. Our findings thus establish a functional module within the CPC that assembles on the N terminus of INCENP and controls centromere recruitment.
Project description:Accurate mitosis requires the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC) containing Aurora B kinase, borealin, INCENP, and survivin, which orchestrates chromosome dynamics. However, the chromatin factors that specify the CPC to the centromere remain elusive. Here we show that borealin interacts directly with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and that this interaction is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved PXVXL motif in the C-terminal borealin with the chromo shadow domain of HP1. This borealin-HP1 interaction recruits the CPC to the centromere and governs an activation of Aurora B kinase judged by phosphorylation of Ser-7 in CENP-A, a substrate of Aurora B. Consistently, modulation of the motif PXVXL leads to defects in CPC centromere targeting and aberrant Aurora B activity. On the other hand, the localization of the CPC in the midzone is independent of the borealin-HP1 interaction, demonstrating the spatial requirement of HP1 in CPC localization to the centromere. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but direct link between HP1 and CPC localization in the centromere and illustrate the critical role of borealin-HP1 interaction in orchestrating an accurate cell division.
Project description:The Aurora kinase complex, also called the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and completion of cell division. In Fungi and Animalia, this complex consists of the kinase Aurora B/AIR-2/Ipl1p, INCENP/ICP-1/Sli15p, and Survivin/BIR-1/Bir1p. A fourth subunit, Borealin/Dasra/CSC-1, is required for CPC targeting to centromeres and central spindles and has only been found in Animalia. Here we identified a new core component of the CPC in budding yeast, Nbl1p. NBL1 is essential for viability and nbl1 mutations cause chromosome missegregation and lagging chromosomes. Nbl1p colocalizes and copurifies with the CPC, and it is essential for CPC localization, stability, integrity, and function. Nbl1p is related to the N-terminus of Borealin/Dasra/CSC-1 and is similarly involved in connecting the other CPC subunits. Distant homology searching identified nearly 200, mostly unannotated, Borealin/Dasra/CSC-1-related proteins from nearly 150 species within Fungi and Animalia. Analysis of the sequence of these proteins, combined with comparative protein structure modeling of Bir1p-Nbl1p-Sli15p using the crystal structure of the human Survivin-Borealin-INCENP complex, revealed a striking structural conservation across a broad range of species. Our biological and computational analyses therefore establish that the fundamental design of the CPC is conserved from Fungi to Animalia.
Project description:The kinase Aurora B forms the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) together with Borealin, INCENP, and Survivin to mediate chromosome condensation, the correction of erroneous spindle-kinetochore attachments, and cytokinesis. Phosphorylation of histone H3 Thr3 by Haspin kinase and of histone H2A Thr120 by Bub1 concentrates the CPC at the centromere. However, how the CPC is recruited to chromosome arms upon mitotic entry is unknown. Here, we show that asymmetric dimethylation at Arg2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a) by protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) recruits the CPC to chromosome arms and facilitates histone H3S10 phosphorylation by Aurora B for chromosome condensation. Furthermore, in vitro assays show that Aurora B preferentially binds to the H3 peptide containing H3R2me2a and phosphorylates H3S10. Our findings indicate that the long-awaited key histone mark for CPC recruitment onto mitotic chromosomes is H3R2me2a, which is indispensable for maintaining appropriate CPC levels in dynamic translocation throughout mitosis.
Project description:Chromatin-induced spindle assembly depends on regulation of microtubule-depolymerizing proteins by the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), consisting of Incenp, Survivin, Dasra (Borealin), and the kinase Aurora B, but the mechanism and significance of the spatial regulation of Aurora B activity remain unclear. Here, we show that the Aurora B pathway is suppressed in the cytoplasm of Xenopus egg extract by phosphatases, but that it becomes activated by chromatin via a Ran-independent mechanism. While spindle microtubule assembly normally requires Dasra-dependent chromatin binding of the CPC, this function of Dasra can be bypassed by clustering Aurora B-Incenp by using anti-Incenp antibodies, which stimulate autoactivation among bound complexes. However, such chromatin-independent Aurora B pathway activation promotes centrosomal microtubule assembly and produces aberrant achromosomal spindle-like structures. We propose that chromosomal enrichment of the CPC results in local kinase autoactivation, a mechanism that contributes to the spatial regulation of spindle assembly and possibly to other mitotic processes.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) comprises at least four protein components and functions at various cellular localizations during different mitotic stages to ensure correct chromosome segregation and completion of cytokinesis. Borealin, the most recently identified member of the CPC, is an intrinsically unstructured protein of low solubility and stability. Recent reports have demonstrated the formation of binary or ternary CPC subcomplexes incorporating short Borealin fragments in vitro. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that full-length Borealin, instead of a Borealin fragment possessing the complete Survivin and INCENP recognition sequence, is required for the composition of a Borealin-Survivin complex competent to interact with INCENP. In addition, we show evidence that full-length Borealin, which forms high-order oligomers in its isolated form, is a monomer in the Borealin-Survivin CPC subcomplex.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) regulates various events in cell division. This complex is composed of a catalytic subunit, Aurora B kinase, and three nonenzymatic subunits, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin. Together, these four subunits interdependently regulate CPC function, and they are highly conserved among eukaryotes. However, a Borealin homologue has never been characterized in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we isolate a previously uncharacterized S. pombe protein through association with the Cdc14 phosphatase homologue, Clp1/Flp1, and identify it as a Borealin-like member of the CPC. Nbl1 (novel Borealin-like 1) physically associates with known CPC components, affects the kinase activity and stability of the S. pombe Aurora B homologue, Ark1, colocalizes with known CPC subunits during mitosis, and shows sequence similarity to human Borealin. Further analysis of the Clp1-Nbl1 interaction indicates that Clp1 requires CPC activity for proper accumulation at the contractile ring (CR). Consistent with this, we describe negative genetic interactions between mutant alleles of CPC and CR components. Thus, this study characterizes a fission yeast Borealin homologue and reveals a previously unrecognized connection between the CPC and the process of cytokinesis in S. pombe.