Distinct in vivo roles for double-stranded RNA-binding domains of the Xenopus RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 in chromosomal targeting.
ABSTRACT: The RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR1) deaminates adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNA substrates. Currently, it is not clear how the enzyme targets and discriminates different substrates in vivo. However, it has been shown that the deaminase domain plays an important role in distinguishing various adenosines within a given substrate RNA in vitro. Previously, we could show that Xenopus ADAR1 is associated with nascent transcripts on transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes, indicating that initial substrate binding and possibly editing itself occurs cotranscriptionally. Here, we demonstrate that chromosomal association depends solely on the three double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) found in the central part of ADAR1, but not on the Z-DNA-binding domain in the NH2 terminus nor the catalytic deaminase domain in the COOH terminus of the protein. Most importantly, we show that individual dsRBDs are capable of recognizing different chromosomal sites in an apparently specific manner. Thus, our results not only prove the requirement of dsRBDs for chromosomal targeting, but also show that individual dsRBDs have distinct in vivo localization capabilities that may be important for initial substrate recognition and subsequent editing specificity.
Project description:RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 involves the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine within imperfectly duplexed RNA. ADAR1- and ADAR2-mediated editing occurs within transcripts of glutamate receptors (GluR) in the brain and in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA in the liver. Although the Q/R site within the GluR-B premessage is edited more efficiently by ADAR2 than it is by ADAR1, the converse is true for the +60 site within this same transcript. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are homologs having two common functional regions, an N-terminal double-stranded RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal deaminase domain. It is neither understood why only certain adenosines within a substrate molecule serve as targets for ADARs, nor is it known which domain of an ADAR confers its specificity for particular editing sites. To assess the importance of several aspects of RNA sequence and structure on editing, we evaluated 20 different mutated substrates, derived from four editing sites, for their ability to be edited by either ADAR1 or ADAR2. We found that when these derivatives contained an A:C mismatch at the editing site, editing by both ADARs was enhanced compared to when A:A or A:G mismatches or A:U base pairs occurred at the same site. Hence substrate recognition and/or catalysis by ADARs could involve the base that opposes the edited adenosine. In addition, by using protein chimeras in which the deaminase domains were exchanged between ADAR1 and ADAR2, we found that this domain played a dominant role in defining the substrate specificity of the resulting enzyme.
Project description:Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs.
Project description:Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding proteins interact with substrate RNAs via dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). Several proteins harboring these domains exhibit nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and possibly remain associated with their substrate RNAs bound in the nucleus during nuclear export. In the human RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1-c, the nuclear localization signal overlaps the third dsRBD, while the corresponding import factor is unknown. The protein also lacks a clear nuclear export signal but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Here we identify transportin-1 as the import receptor for ADAR1. Interestingly, dsRNA binding interferes with transportin-1 binding. At the same time, each of the dsRBDs in ADAR1 interacts with the export factor exportin-5. RNA binding stimulates this interaction but is not a prerequisite. Thus, our data demonstrate a role for some dsRBDs as RNA-sensitive nucleocytoplasmic transport signals. dsRBD3 in ADAR1 can mediate nuclear import, while interaction of all dsRBDs might control nuclear export. This finding may have implications for other proteins containing dsRBDs and suggests a selective nuclear export mechanism for substrates interacting with these proteins.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) hydrolytically deaminate adenosines (A) in a wide variety of duplex RNAs and misregulation of editing is correlated with human disease. However, our understanding of reaction selectivity is limited. ADARs are modular enzymes with multiple double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a catalytic domain. While dsRBD binding is understood, little is known about ADAR catalytic domain/RNA interactions. Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions. We introduced the nucleoside analog 8-azanebularine (8-azaN) into this RNA (and derived constructs) to mechanistically trap the protein-RNA complex without catalytic turnover for EMSA and ribonuclease footprinting analyses. EMSA showed that hADAR2-D requires duplex RNA and is sensitive to 2'-deoxy substitution at nucleotides opposite the editing site, the local sequence and 8-azaN nucleotide positioning on the duplex. Ribonuclease V1 footprinting shows that hADAR2-D protects ? 23 nt on the edited strand around the editing site in an asymmetric fashion (? 18 nt on the 5' side and ? 5 nt on the 3' side). These studies provide a deeper understanding of the ADAR catalytic domain-RNA interaction and new tools for biophysical analysis of ADAR-RNA complexes.
Project description:ADAR2 is a member of a family of RNA editing enzymes found in metazoa that bind double helical RNAs and deaminate select adenosines. We find that when human ADAR2 is overexpressed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae it substantially reduces the rate of cell growth. This effect is dependent on the deaminase activity of the enzyme, suggesting yeast transcripts are edited by ADAR2. Characterization of this novel set of RNA substrates provided a unique opportunity to gain insight into ADAR2's site selectivity. We used RNA-Seq. to identify transcripts present in S. cerevisiae subject to ADAR2-catalyzed editing. From this analysis, we identified 17 adenosines present in yeast RNAs that satisfied our criteria for candidate editing sites. Substrates identified include both coding and noncoding RNAs. Subsequent Sanger sequencing of RT-PCR products from yeast total RNA confirmed efficient editing at a subset of the candidate sites including BDF2 mRNA, RL28 intron RNA, HAC1 3'UTR RNA, 25S rRNA, U1 snRNA, and U2 snRNA. Two adenosines within the U1 snRNA sequence not identified as substrates during the original RNA-Seq. screen were shown to be deaminated by ADAR2 during the follow-up analysis. In addition, examination of the RNA sequence surrounding each edited adenosine in this novel group of ADAR2 sites revealed a previously unrecognized sequence preference. Remarkably, rapid deamination at one of these sites (BDF2 mRNA) does not require ADAR2's dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). Human glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) mRNA is a known ADAR2 substrate with similar flanking sequence and secondary structure to the yeast BDF2 site discovered here. As observed with the BDF2 site, rapid deamination at the GLI1 site does not require ADAR2's dsRBDs.
Project description:RATIONALE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A?I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle ?-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are best known for altering the coding sequences of mRNA through RNA editing, as in the GluR-B Q/R site. ADARs have also been shown to affect RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA processing by deamination of specific adenosines to inosine. Here, we show that ADAR proteins can affect RNA processing independently of their enzymatic activity. We show that ADAR2 can modulate the processing of mir-376a2 independently of catalytic RNA editing activity. In addition, in a Drosophila assay for RNAi deaminase-inactive ADAR1 inhibits RNAi through the siRNA pathway. These results imply that ADAR1 and ADAR2 have biological functions as RNA-binding proteins that extend beyond editing per se and that even genomically encoded ADARs that are catalytically inactive may have such functions.
Project description:The human RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) carries a unique nuclear localization signal (NLS) that overlaps one of its double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). This dsRBD-NLS is recognized by the nuclear import receptor transportin 1 (Trn1; also called karyopherin-β2) in an RNA-sensitive manner. Most Trn1 cargos bear a well-characterized proline-tyrosine-NLS, which is missing from the dsRBD-NLS. Here, we report the structure of the dsRBD-NLS, which reveals an unusual dsRBD fold extended by an additional N-terminal α-helix that brings the N- and C-terminal flanking regions in close proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that the atypical ADAR1-NLS is bimodular and is formed by the combination of the two flexible fragments flanking the folded domain. The intervening dsRBD acts only as an RNA-sensing scaffold, allowing the two NLS modules to be properly positioned for interacting with Trn1. We also provide a structural model showing how Trn1 can recognize the dsRBD-NLS and how dsRNA binding can interfere with Trn1 binding.
Project description:ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) editing enzymes target coding and noncoding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and are essential for neuronal function. Early studies showed that ADARs preferentially target adenosines with certain 5' and 3' neighbours. Here we use current Sanger sequencing protocols to perform a more accurate and quantitative analysis. We quantified editing sites in an ?800-bp dsRNA after reaction with human ADAR1 or ADAR2, or their catalytic domains alone. These large data sets revealed that neighbour preferences are mostly dictated by the catalytic domain, but ADAR2's dsRNA-binding motifs contribute to 3' neighbour preferences. For all proteins, the 5' nearest neighbour was most influential, but adjacent bases also affected editing site choice. We developed algorithms to predict editing sites in dsRNA of any sequence, and provide a web-based application. The predictive power of the algorithm on fully base-paired dsRNA, compared with biological substrates containing mismatches, bulges and loops, elucidates structural contributions to editing specificity.
Project description:The RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) and the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) are both interferon-inducible double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding proteins. ADAR1, an RNA editing enzyme that converts adenosine to inosine, possesses three copies of a dsRNA-binding motif (dsRBM). PKR, a regulator of translation, has two copies of the highly conserved dsRBM motif. To assess the functional selectivity of the dsRBM motifs in ADAR1, we constructed and characterized chimeric proteins in which the dsRBMs of ADAR1 were substituted with those of PKR. Recombinant PKR-ADAR1 chimeras retained significant RNA adenosine deaminase activity measured with a synthetic dsRNA substrate when the spacer region between the RNA-binding and catalytic domains of the deaminase was exactly preserved. However, with natural substrates, substitution of the first two dsRBMs of ADAR1 with those from PKR dramatically reduced site-selective editing activity at the R/G and (+)60 sites of the glutamate receptor B subunit pre-RNA and completely abolished editing of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) pre-RNA at the A site. Chimeric deaminases possessing only the two dsRBMs from PKR were incapable of editing either glutamate receptor B subunit or 5-HT(2C)R natural sites but edited synthetic dsRNA. Finally, RNA antagonists of PKR significantly inhibited the activity of chimeric PKR-ADAR1 proteins relative to wild-type ADAR1, further demonstrating the functional selectivity of the dsRBM motifs.