ECM regulates MT1-MMP localization with beta1 or alphavbeta3 integrins at distinct cell compartments modulating its internalization and activity on human endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Regulation of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by different extracellular matrices (ECMs) on human endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated. First, MT1-MMP is found at the intercellular contacts of confluent ECs grown on beta1 integrin-dependent matrix such as type 1 collagen (COL I), fibronectin (FN), or fibrinogen (FG), but not on gelatin (GEL) or vitronectin (VN). The novel localization of MT1-MMP at cell-cell contacts is assessed by confocal videomicroscopy of MT1-MMP-GFP-transfected ECs. Moreover, MT1-MMP colocalizes with beta1 integrins at the intercellular contacts, whereas it is preferentially found with alphavbeta3 integrin at motility-associated structures on migrating ECs. In addition, clustered integrins recruit MT1-MMP and neutralizing anti-beta1 or anti-alphav integrin mAb displace MT1-MMP from its specific sites, pointing to a biochemical association that is finally demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation assays. On the other hand, COL I, FN, or FG up-regulate cell surface MT1-MMP on confluent ECs by an impairment of its internalization, whereas expression and internalization are not modified on GEL or VN. In addition, MT1-MMP activity is diminished in confluent ECs on COL I, FN, or FG. Finally, MT1-MMP participates and cooperates with beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins in the migration of ECs on different ECM. These data show a novel mechanism by which ECM regulates MT1-MMP association with beta1 or alphavbeta3 integrins at distinct cellular compartments, thus modulating its internalization, activity, and function on human ECs.
Project description:1. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) plays a role in agonist- and tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA). 2. MMP-2 is synthesized as a proenzyme and is activated at the cell surface by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14). 3. The significance of tumour cell-associated MT1-MMP for TCIPA was investigated using human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells stably coexpressing the integrin alphavbeta3 with MT1-MMP, cells expressing alphavbeta3 alone and mock-transfected cells. 4. Western blot and zymography confirmed that alphavbeta3/MT1-MMP cells expressed MT1-MMP and efficiently processed proMMP-2 to MMP-2. 5. Aggregometry, phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry were used to characterize TCIPA induced by MCF7 cell lines. 6. The aggregating potency of cells was: alphavbeta3/MT1-MMP >alphavbeta3=mock cells, as shown by aggregometry and phase-contrast microscopy. 7. Electron microscopy revealed close, membrane-membrane interactions between activated platelets and alphavbeta3/MT1-MMP cells during TCIPA. 8. Inhibition of MMP-2 with the neutralizing anti-MMP-2 antibody (5 microg ml(-1)) and o-phenanthroline (100 microm) reduced aggregation induced by alphavbeta3/MT1-MMP cells. 9. TCIPA induced by alphavbeta3/MT1-MMP cells was also reduced by inhibiting the generation and actions of ADP with apyrase (250 microg ml(-1)) and 2-methylthio-AMP (2-MeSAMP) (30 microm), but not N(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate (MRS2179) (30 microm). 10. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TCIPA enhanced expression of glycoprotein (GP) Ib and IIb/IIIa receptors not only on platelets but also on breast cancer cells. 11. Thus, (a) human breast carcinoma cell surface-associated MT1-MMP, via activating proMMP-2, stimulates TCIPA; (b) ADP amplifies the effects of MMPs via stimulation of P2Y(12) receptors and (c) both tumour- and platelet-derived GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa are involved in the aggregatory effects of MT1-MMP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an endopeptidase that facilitates extracellular matrix remodeling and molecular regulation, and is implicated in tumor metastasis. Type I collagen (Col I) regulates the activation of MMP-2 through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional means; however gaps remain in our understanding of the involvement of collagen-binding ?1 integrins in collagen-stimulated MMP-2 activation. METHODS:Three ?1 integrin siRNAs were used to elucidate the involvement of ?1 integrins in the Col I-induced MMP-2 activation mechanism. ?1 integrin knockdown was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot and FACS analysis. Adhesion assay and collagen gel contraction were used to test the biological effects of ?1 integrin abrogation. MMP-2 activation levels were monitored by gelatin zymography. RESULTS:All three ?1 integrin siRNAs were efficient at ?1 integrin knockdown and FACS analysis revealed commensurate reductions of integrins ?2 and ?3, which are heterodimeric partners of ?1, but not ?V, which is not. All three ?1 integrin siRNAs inhibited adhesion and collagen gel contraction, however only the siRNA showing the greatest magnitude of ?1 knockdown inhibited Col I-induced MMP-2 activation and reduced the accompanying upregulation of MT1-MMP, suggesting a dose response threshold effect. Re-transfection with codon-swapped ?1 integrin overcame the reduction in MMP-2 activation induced by Col-1, confirming the ?1 integrin target specificity. MMP-2 activation induced by TPA or Concanavalin A (Con A) was not inhibited by ?1 integrin siRNA knockdown. CONCLUSION:Together, the data reveals that strong abrogation of ?1 integrin is required to block MMP-2 activation induced by Col I, which may have implications for the therapeutic targeting of ?1 integrin.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for vascular homeostasis and is also a critical modulator of angiogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of NO action during angiogenesis remain elusive. We have investigated the potential relationship between NO and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during endothelial migration and capillary tube formation. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) colocalizes with MT1-MMP at motility-associated structures in migratory human endothelial cells (ECs); moreover, NO is produced at these structures and is released into the medium during EC migration. We have therefore addressed 2 questions: (1) the putative regulation of MT1-MMP by NO in migratory ECs; and (2) the requirement for MT1-MMP in NO-induced EC migration and tube formation. NO upregulates MT1-MMP membrane clustering on migratory human ECs, and this is accompanied by increased degradation of type I collagen substrate. MT1-MMP membrane expression and localization are impaired in lung ECs from eNOS-deficient mice, and these cells also show impaired migration and tube formation in vitro. Inhibition of MT1-MMP with a neutralizing antibody impairs NOinduced tube formation by human ECs, and NO-induced endothelial migration and tube formation are impaired in lung ECs from mice deficient in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP thus appears to be a key molecular effector of NO during the EC migration and angiogenic processes, and is a potential therapeutic target for NO-associated vascular disorders.
Project description:To determine the beta1/beta3 integrin-mediated pathways that regulate cross-linked actin network (CLAN) formation in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. CLANs form in glaucomatous and steroid-treated TM cells, which may contribute to reducing outflow facility through the TM.Expression of CD47 (an alphavbeta3 integrin coreceptor/thrombospondin-1 receptor) and integrins alphavbeta3 and beta1 was assessed by FACS. CLANs were induced by plating cells on fibronectin (a beta1 integrin ligand) in the absence or presence of the beta3 integrin-activating mAb AP-5 and were identified by phalloidin labeling. The role of Src kinases, PI-3 kinase (PI-3K), Rac1, and CD47 was determined by incubating cells with the inhibitors PP2 and EPA (Src kinases), LY294002 (PI-3K), or NSC23766 (Rac1). Tiam1 and Trio siRNAs and dominant-negative Tiam1 were used to determine which Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor was involved. The role of CD47 was determined using the thrombospondin-1-derived agonist peptide 4N1K and the CD47 function blocking antibody B6H12.2.HTM cells expressed CD47 and integrins alphavbeta3 and beta1. beta3 Integrin or CD47 activation significantly increased CLAN formation over beta1 integrin-induced levels, whereas anti-CD47 mAb B6H12.2 inhibited this increase. PP2, NSC23766, and Trio siRNA decreased beta3-induced CLAN formation by 72%, 45%, and 67%, respectively, whereas LY294002 and dominant negative Tiam1 had no effect. LY294002 decreased beta1 integrin-mediated CLAN formation by 42%, and PP2 completely blocked it.Distinct beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrin signaling pathways converge to enhance CLAN formation. beta1-Mediated CLAN formation was PI-3K dependent, whereas beta3-mediated CLAN formation was CD47 and Rac1/Trio dependent and might have been regulated by thrombospondin-1. Both integrin pathways were Src dependent.
Project description:Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and other bacterial pathogens are known to interact with integrins as an initial step in a complex pathway of bacterial ingestion by host cells. Efficient GAS invasion depends on the interaction of bound fibronectin (Fn) with integrins and activation of integrin signaling. TGF-beta1 regulates expression of integrins, Fn, and other extracellular matrix proteins, and positively controls the integrin signaling pathway. Therefore, we postulated that TGF-beta1 levels could influence streptococcal invasion of mammalian cells. Pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with TGF-beta1 increased their capacity to ingest GAS when the bacteria expressed fibronectin-binding proteins (M1 or PrtF1). Western blots revealed significant induction of alpha5 integrin and Fn expression by HEp-2 cells in response to TGF-beta1. Increased ingestion of streptococci by these cells was blocked by a specific inhibitor of the TGF-beta1 receptor I and antibodies directed against alpha5 integrin and Fn, indicating that increased invasion depends on TGF-beta1 up-regulation of both the alpha5 integrin and Fn. The capacity of TGF-beta1 to up-regulate integrin expression and intracellular invasion by GAS was reproduced in primary human tonsil fibroblasts, which could be a source of TGF-beta1 in chronically infected tonsils. The relationship between TGF-beta1 and GAS invasion was strengthened by the observation that TGF-beta1 production was stimulated in GAS-infected primary human tonsil fibroblasts. These findings suggest a mechanism by which GAS induce a cascade of changes in mammalian tissue leading to elevated expression of the alpha5beta1 receptor, enhanced invasion, and increased opportunity for survival and persistence in their human host.
Project description:Hydrocephalus is characterized by abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular cavity. The circulation of CSF in brain ventricles is controlled by the coordinated beating of motile cilia at the surface of ependymal cells (ECs). Here, we show that MT1-MMP is highly expressed in olfactory bulb, rostral migratory stream, and the ventricular system. Mice deficient for membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) developed typical phenotypes observed in hydrocephalus, such as dome-shaped skulls, dilated ventricles, corpus callosum agenesis, and astrocyte hypertrophy, during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development. MT1-MMP-deficient mice exhibited reduced and disorganized motile cilia with the impaired maturation of ECs, leading to abnormal CSF flow. Consistent with the defects in motile cilia morphogenesis, the expression of promulticiliogenic genes was significantly decreased, with a concomitant hyperactivation of Notch signaling in the walls of lateral ventricles in Mmp14-/- brains. Inhibition of Notch signaling by ?-secretase inhibitor restored ciliogenesis in Mmp14-/- ECs. Taken together, these data suggest that MT1-MMP is required for ciliogenesis and EC maturation through suppression of Notch signaling during early brain development. Our findings indicate that MT1-MMP is critical for early brain development and loss of MT1-MMP activity gives rise to hydrocephalus.
Project description:MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the most critical factors in the invasion machinery of tumor cells. Subcellular localization to invasive structures is key for MT1-MMP proinvasive activity. However, the mechanism driving this polarized distribution remains obscure. We now report that polarized exocytosis of MT1-MMP occurs during MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cell migration into collagen type I three-dimensional matrices. Polarized trafficking of MT1-MMP is triggered by beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to collagen, and is required for protease localization at invasive structures. Localization of MT1-MMP within VSV-G/Rab8-positive vesicles, but not in Rab11/Tf/TfRc-positive compartment in invasive cells, suggests the involvement of the exocytic traffic pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rab8 mutants induce MT1-MMP exocytic traffic, collagen degradation and invasion, whereas Rab8- but not Rab11-knockdown inhibited these processes. Altogether, these data reveal a novel pathway of MT1-MMP redistribution to invasive structures, exocytic vesicle trafficking, which is crucial for its role in tumor cell invasiveness. Mechanistically, MT1-MMP delivery to invasive structures, and therefore its proinvasive activity, is regulated by Rab8 GTPase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Angiogenesis, or the remodeling of existing vasculature serves as a lifeline to nourish developing embryos and starved tissues, and to accelerate wound healing, diabetic retinopathy, and tumor progression. Recent studies indicate that angiogenesis requires growth factor activity as well as cell adhesion events mediated by alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins. We previously demonstrated that human lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-3 (LPP3) acts as a cell-associated ligand for alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anti-LPP3 antibody can inhibit basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced capillary morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs). RESULTS:We report that bFGF and VEGF up-regulate LPP3 protein expression in ECs. Immunoprecipitation analyses show that LPP3 is a cell surface protein and undergoes N-glycosylation. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) data suggest that anti-LPP3-RGD detects native neoepitope on the surface of activated ECs. Moreover, we demonstrate LPP3 protein expression in tumor endothelium alongside VEGF. The embedding of ECs into three-dimensional type I collagen in the presence of bFGF and VEGF induce capillary formation. Importantly, we show that the addition of an anti-LPP3 antibody specifically and significantly blocks bFGF- and VEGF-induced capillary morphogenesis of ECs. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that activated ECs as well as tumor endothelium express LPP3 protein. In an in vitro assay, the anti-LPP3-RGD specifically blocks bFGF and VEGF induced capillary morphogenesis of ECs. Our results, therefore, suggest a role for LPP3 in angiogenesis.
Project description:An early event in the metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is shedding of cells from the primary tumor into the peritoneal cavity followed by diffuse i.p. seeding of secondary lesions. Anchorage-independent metastatic cells are present as both single cells and multicellular aggregates (MCA), the latter of which adhere to and disaggregate on human mesothelial cell monolayers, subsequently forming invasive foci. Although this unique metastatic mechanism presents a distinct set of therapeutic challenges, factors that regulate MCA formation and dissemination have not been extensively evaluated. Proteolytic activity is important at multiple stages in i.p. metastasis, catalyzing migration through the mesothelial monolayer and invasion of the collagen-rich submesothelial matrix to anchor secondary lesions, and acquisition of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP-14) expression promotes a collagen-invasive phenotype in ovarian carcinoma. MT1-MMP is regulated posttranslationally through multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail, and the current data using ovarian cancer cells expressing wild-type, phosphomimetic (T567E-MT1-MMP), and phosphodefective (T567A-MT1-MMP) MT1-MMP show that MT1-MMP promotes MCA formation. Confluent T567E-MT1-MMP-expressing cells exhibit rapid detachment kinetics, spontaneous release as cell-cell adherent sheets concomitant with MT1-MMP-catalyzed alpha(3) integrin ectodomain shedding, and robust MCA formation. Expansive growth within three-dimensional collagen gels is also MT1-MMP dependent, with T567E-MT1-MMP-expressing cells exhibiting multiple collagen invasive foci. Analysis of human ovarian tumors shows elevated MT1-MMP in metastases relative to paired primary tumors. These data suggest that MT1-MMP activity may be key to ovarian carcinoma metastatic success by promoting both formation and dissemination of MCAs.
Project description:Directed protein evolution, which employs a combination of random mutagenesis, phage display, and in vitro selection, was used to identify second-site suppressors of the fibronectin (Fn) cell binding domain mutation Asp1495Ala (RGA). The mutations in the Fn 9th (3fn9) and 10th (3fn10) type III repeats obtained after selection on purified integrins alphaIIbbeta3(D119Y) and alpha5beta1 are reported. The 3fn9-10(D1495A) phage with substitution mutations at Asp1418, which is located within the linker region between 3fn9 and 3fn10, enhanced binding to the integrins alphaIIbbeta3 and alpha5beta1, but not alphavbeta3. The substitution mutations identified at residue Asp1418 were introduced into the native recombinant 3fn9-10 sequence and found to augment binding to alphaIIbbeta3, demonstrating that the observed gain-of-function phenotype was independent of the multivalent character of the phage. These results support the following conclusions. First, regions of Fn in addition to the RGD loop are in close proximity to alphaIIbbeta3 and alpha5beta1 and are capable of participating in the binding to these integrins. Secondly, the conformational relationship between the 3fn9 and 3fn10 modules may be an important factor in the binding of Fn to these two integrins. Thirdly, other altered properties of Fn-integrin interactions, such as integrin specificity, may also be selected. This is the first description of Fn mutations that augment binding to integrins. The ability to select for particular phenotypes in vitro and the subsequent characterization of these mutations should further our understanding of the molecular details involved in the association of integrins and their ligands. Additionally, these higher-affinity 3fn9-10 ligands provide a starting point for further in vitro evolution and engineering of integrin-specific modules.