Aminoglycoside binding to the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site: thermodynamics and effect on the kissing-loop to duplex conversion.
ABSTRACT: Owing to a striking, and most likely fortuitous, structural and sequence similarity with the bacterial 16 S ribosomal A site, the RNA kissing-loop complex formed by the HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) specifically binds 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) aminoglycoside antibiotics. We used chemical probing, molecular modeling, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and UV melting to investigate aminoglycoside binding to the DIS loop-loop complex. We showed that apramycin, an aminoglycoside containing a bicyclic moiety, also binds the DIS, but in a different way than 4,5-disubstituted 2-DOS aminoglycosides. The determination of thermodynamic parameters for various aminoglycosides revealed the role of the different rings in the drug-RNA interaction. Surprisingly, we found that the affinity of lividomycin and neomycin for the DIS (K(d) approximately 30 nM) is significantly higher than that obtained in the same experimental conditions for their natural target, the bacterial A site (K(d) approximately 1.6 microM). In good agreement with their respective affinity, aminoglycoside increase the melting temperature of the loop-loop interaction and also block the conversion from kissing-loop complex to extended duplex. Taken together, our data might be useful for selecting new molecules with improved specificity and affinity toward the HIV-1 DIS RNA.
Project description:The kissing-loop complex that initiates dimerization of genomic RNA is crucial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We showed that owing to its strong similitude with the bacterial ribosomal A site it can be targeted by aminoglycosides. Here, we present its crystal structure in complex with neamine, ribostamycin, neomycin and lividomycin. These structures explain the specificity for 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine (DOS) derivatives and for subtype A and subtype F kissing-loop complexes, and provide a strong basis for rational drug design. As a consequence of the different topologies of the kissing-loop complex and the A site, these aminoglycosides establish more contacts with HIV-1 RNA than with 16S RNA. Together with biochemical experiments, they showed that while rings I, II and III confer binding specificity, rings IV and V are important for affinity. Binding of neomycin, paromomycin and lividomycin strongly stabilized the kissing-loop complex by bridging the two HIV-1 RNA molecules. Furthermore, in situ footprinting showed that the dimerization initiation site (DIS) of HIV-1 genomic RNA could be targeted by these aminoglycosides in infected cells and virions, demonstrating its accessibility.
Project description:The HIV-1 Dimerization Initiation Site (DIS) is an intriguing, yet underutilized, viral RNA target for potential antiretroviral therapy. To study the recognition features of this target and to provide a quantitative, rapid, and real-time tool for the discovery of new binders, a fluorescence-based assay has been constructed. It relies on strategic incorporation of 2-aminopurine, an isosteric fluorescent adenosine analogue, into short hairpin RNA constructs. These oligomers self-associate to form a kissing loop that thermally rearranges into a more stable extended duplex, thereby mimicking the association and structural features of the native RNA sequence. We demonstrate the ability of two fluorescent DIS constructs, DIS272(2AP) and DIS273(2AP), to report the binding of known DIS binders via changes in their emission intensity. Binding of aminoglycosides such as paromomycin to DIS272(2AP) results in significant fluorescence enhancement, while ligand binding to DIS273(2AP) results in fluorescence quenching. These observations are rationalized by comparison to the sequence-analogous bacterial A-site, where the relative emission of the fluorescent probe is dependent on the placement of the flexible purine residues inside or outside the helical domain. Analysis of binding isotherms generated using DIS272(2AP) yields submicromolar EC50 values for paromomycin (0.5 +/- 0.2 microM) and neomycin B (0.6 +/- 0.2 microM). Other neomycin-family aminoglycosides are less potent binders with neamine, the core pharmacophore, displaying the lowest affinity of 21 +/- 1 microM. Screening of additional aminoglycosides and their derivatives led to the discovery of new, previously unreported, aminoglycoside binders of the HIV DIS RNA, among them butirosin A (5.5 +/- 0.6 microM) and apramycin (7.6 +/- 1.0 microM). A conformationally constrained neomycin B analogue displays a rather high affinity to the DIS (1.9 +/- 0.2 microM). Among a series of nucleobase aminoglycoside conjugates, only the uracil derivatives display a measurable affinity using this assay with EC50 values in the 2 microM range. In addition, similarity between the solution behavior of HIV-1 DIS and the bacterial decoding A-site has been observed, particularly with respect to the intra- and extra-helical residence of the conformationally flexible A residues within the bulge. Taken together, the observations reported here shed light on the solution behavior of this important RNA target and are likely to facilitate the design of new DIS selective ligands as potential antiretroviral agents.
Project description:The APH(2?)-Ia aminoglycoside resistance enzyme forms the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional AAC(6')-Ie/APH(2?)-Ia enzyme and confers high-level resistance to natural 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides. In addition, reports have suggested that the enzyme can phosphorylate 4,5-disubstituted compounds and aminoglycosides with substitutions at the N1 position. Previously determined structures of the enzyme with bound aminoglycosides have not indicated how these noncanonical substrates may bind and be modified by the enzyme. We carried out crystallographic studies to directly observe the interactions of these compounds with the aminoglycoside binding site and to probe the means by which these noncanonical substrates interact with the enzyme. We find that APH(2?)-Ia maintains a preferred mode of binding aminoglycosides by using the conserved neamine rings when possible, with flexibility that allows it to accommodate additional rings. However, if this binding mode is made impossible because of additional substitutions to the standard 4,5- or 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside architecture, as in lividomycin A or the N1-substituted aminoglycosides, it is still possible for these aminoglycosides to bind to the antibiotic binding site by using alternate binding modes, which explains the low rates of noncanonical phosphorylation activities seen in enzyme assays. Furthermore, structural studies of a clinically observed arbekacin-resistant mutant of APH(2?)-Ia revealed an altered aminoglycoside binding site that can stabilize an alternative binding mode for N1-substituted aminoglycosides. This mutation may alter and expand the aminoglycoside resistance spectrum of the wild-type enzyme in response to newly developed aminoglycosides.
Project description:Butirosin is unique among the naturally occurring aminoglycosides, having a substituted amino group at position 1 (N1) of the 2-deoxystreptamine ring with an (S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyrate (AHB) group. While bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides can be ascribed chiefly to drug inactivation by plasmid-encoded aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, the presence of an AHB group protects the aminoglycoside from binding to many resistance enzymes, and hence, the antibiotic retains its bactericidal properties. Consequently, several semisynthetic N1-substituted aminoglycosides, such as amikacin, isepamicin, and netilmicin, were developed. Unfortunately, butirosin, amikacin, and isepamicin are not resistant to inactivation by 3'-aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferase type IIIa [APH(3')-IIIa]. We report here the crystal structure of APH(3')-IIIa in complex with an ATP analog, AMPPNP [adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate], and butirosin A to 2.4-A resolution. The structure shows that butirosin A binds to the enzyme in a manner analogous to other 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides, and the flexible antibiotic-binding loop is key to the accommodation of structurally diverse substrates. Based on the crystal structure, we have also constructed a model of APH(3')-IIIa in complex with amikacin, a commonly used semisynthetic N1-substituted 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside. Together, these results suggest a strategy to further derivatize the AHB group in order to generate new aminoglycoside derivatives that can elude inactivation by resistance enzymes while maintaining their ability to bind to the ribosomal A site.
Project description:2-Deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) aminoglycosides exert their antibiotic actions by binding to the A site of the 16S rRNA and interfering with bacterial protein synthesis. However, the molecular forces that govern the antitranslational activities of aminoglycosides are poorly understood. Here, we describe studies aimed at elucidating these molecular forces. In this connection, we compare the bactericidal, antitranslational, and rRNA binding properties of the 4,5-disubstituted 2-DOS aminoglycoside neomycin (Neo) and a conformationally restricted analog of Neo (CR-Neo) in which the 2'-nitrogen atom is covalently conjugated to the 5''-carbon atom. The bactericidal potency of Neo exceeds that of CR-Neo, with this enhanced antibacterial activity reflecting a correspondingly enhanced antitranslational potency. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy studies suggest that the enhanced antitranslational potency of Neo relative to that of CR-Neo is due to a greater extent of drug-induced reduction in the mobilities of the nucleotides at positions 1492 and 1493 of the rRNA A site. Buffer- and salt-dependent binding studies, coupled with high-resolution structural information, point to electrostatic contacts between the 2'-amino functionality of Neo and the host rRNA as being an important modulator of 1492 and 1493 base mobilities and therefore antitranslational activities.
Project description:Aminoglycoside 6'-acetyltransferase-Im (AAC(6')-Im) is the closest monofunctional homolog of the AAC(6')-Ie acetyltransferase of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6')-Ie/APH(2")-Ia. The AAC(6')-Im acetyltransferase confers 4- to 64-fold higher MICs to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides and the 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycoside neomycin than AAC(6')-Ie, yet unlike AAC(6')-Ie, the AAC(6')-Im enzyme does not confer resistance to the atypical aminoglycoside fortimicin. The structure of the kanamycin A complex of AAC(6')-Im shows that the substrate binds in a shallow positively-charged pocket, with the N6' amino group positioned appropriately for an efficient nucleophilic attack on an acetyl-CoA cofactor. The AAC(6')-Ie enzyme binds kanamycin A in a sufficiently different manner to position the N6' group less efficiently, thereby reducing the activity of this enzyme towards the 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides. Conversely, docking studies with fortimicin in both acetyltransferases suggest that the atypical aminoglycoside might bind less productively in AAC(6')-Im, thus explaining the lack of resistance to this molecule.
Project description:The premature stop codon mutations, Q70X and W402X, are the most common α-L-iduronidase gene (IDUA) mutations in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) patients. Read-through drugs have been used to suppress premature stop codons, and this can potentially be used to treat patients who have this type of mutation. We examined the effects of aminoglycoside treatment on the IDUA mutations Q70X and W402X in cultured cells and show that 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides induced more read-through for the W402X mutation, while 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides promoted more read-through for the Q70X mutation: lividomycin (4,5-disubstituted) induced a 7.8-fold increase in α-L-iduronidase enzyme activity for the W402X mutation; NB54 (4,5-disubstituted) induced a 3.7 fold increase in the amount of α-L-iduronidase enzyme activity for the W402X mutation, but had less effect on the Q70X mutation, whereas gentamicin (4,6-disubstituted) had the reverse effect on read-through for both mutations. The predicted mRNA secondary structural changes for both mutations were markedly different, which may explain these different effects on read-through for these two premature stop codons.
Project description:Aminoglycoside-class antibiotics bind directly to ribosomal RNA, imparting pleiotropic effects on ribosome function. Despite in-depth structural investigations of aminoglycoside-RNA oligonucleotide and aminoglycoside-ribosome interactions, mechanisms explaining the unique ribosome inhibition profiles of chemically similar aminoglycosides remain elusive. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) methods, we show that high-affinity aminoglycoside binding to the conserved decoding site region of the functional pre-translocation ribosome complex specifically remodels the nature of intrinsic dynamic processes within the particle. The extents of these effects, which are distinct for each member of the aminoglycoside class, strongly correlate with their inhibition of EF-G-catalyzed translocation. Neomycin, a 4,5-linked aminoglycoside, binds with lower affinity to one or more secondary binding sites, mediating distinct structural and dynamic perturbations that further enhance translocation inhibition. These new insights help explain why closely related aminoglycosides elicit pleiotropic translation activities and demonstrate the potential utility of smFRET as a tool for dissecting the mechanisms of antibiotic action.
Project description:Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations (in total almost 800 ns including locally enhanced sampling runs) were applied with different ion conditions and with two force fields (AMBER and CHARMM) to characterize typical geometries adopted by the flanking bases in the RNA kissing-loop complexes. We focus on flanking base positions in multiple x-ray and NMR structures of HIV-1 DIS kissing complexes and kissing complex from the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui. An initial x-ray open conformation of bulged-out bases in HIV-1 DIS complexes, affected by crystal packing, tends to convert to a closed conformation formed by consecutive stretch of four stacked purine bases. This is in agreement with those recent crystals where the packing is essentially avoided. We also observed variants of the closed conformation with three stacked bases, while nonnegligible populations of stacked geometries with bulged-in bases were detected, too. The simulation results reconcile differences in positions of the flanking bases observed in x-ray and NMR studies. Our results suggest that bulged-out geometries are somewhat more preferred, which is in accord with recent experiments showing that they may mediate tertiary contacts in biomolecular assemblies or allow binding of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Project description:RNAs have diverse structures that are important for biological function. These structures include bulges and internal loops that can form tertiary contacts or serve as ligand binding sites. The most commonly exploited RNA drug target for small molecule intervention is the bacterial ribosome, more specifically the rRNA aminoacyl-tRNA site (rRNA A-site) which is a major target for the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics. The bacterial A-site is composed of a 1 x 1 nucleotide all-U internal loop and a 2 x 1 nucleotide all-A internal loop separated by a single GC base pair. Therefore, we probed the molecular recognition of a small library of four aminoglycosides for binding a 16384-member bacterial rRNA A-site-like internal loop library using two-dimensional combinatorial screening (2DCS). 2DCS is a microarray-based method that probes RNA and chemical spaces simultaneously. These studies sought to determine if aminoglycosides select their therapeutic target if given a choice of binding all possible internal loops derived from an A-site-like library. Results show that the bacterial rRNA A-site was not selected by any aminoglycoside. Analyses of selected sequences using the RNA Privileged Space Predictor (RNA-PSP) program show that each aminoglycoside preferentially binds different types of internal loops. For three of the aminoglycosides, 6''-azido-kanamycin A, 5-O-(2-azidoethyl)-neamine, and 6''-azido-tobramycin, the selected internal loops bind with approximately 10-fold higher affinity than the bacterial rRNA A-site. The internal loops selected to bind 5''-azido-neomycin B bind with an affinity similar to that of the therapeutic target. Selected internal loops that are unique for each aminoglycoside have dissociation constants ranging from 25 to 270 nM and are specific for the aminoglycoside they was selected to bind compared to the other arrayed aminoglycosides. These studies further establish a database of RNA motifs that are recognized by small molecules that could be used to enable the rational and modular design of small molecules targeting RNA.