IL10 polymorphisms are associated with airflow obstruction in severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.
ABSTRACT: Severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in individuals who smoke. There is marked variability in the development of lung disease in individuals homozygous (PI ZZ) for this autosomal recessive condition, suggesting that modifier genes could be important. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of obstructive lung disease may be modifiers of airflow obstruction in individuals with severe AAT deficiency. To identify modifier genes, we performed family-based association analyses for 10 genes previously associated with asthma and/or COPD, including IL10, TNF, GSTP1, NOS1, NOS3, SERPINA3, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and EPHX1. All analyses were performed in a cohort of 378 PI ZZ individuals from 167 families. Quantitative spirometric phenotypes included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC). A qualitative phenotype of moderate-to-severe COPD was defined for individuals with FEV(1)
Project description:The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We have previously identified Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (PLAUR) as an asthma susceptibility gene. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLAUR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine baseline lung function and contribute to the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in smokers. METHODS:25 PLAUR SNPs were genotyped in COPD subjects and individuals with smoking history (n = 992). Linear regression was used to determine the effects of polymorphism on baseline lung function (FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC) in all smokers. Genotype frequencies were compared in spirometry defined smoking controls (n = 176) versus COPD cases (n = 599) and COPD severity (GOLD stratification) using logistic regression. RESULTS:Five SNPs showed a significant association (p < 0.01) with baseline lung function; rs2302524(Lys220Arg) and rs2283628(intron 3) were associated with lower and higher FEV(1) respectively. rs740587(-22346), rs11668247(-20040) and rs344779(-3666) in the 5'region were associated with increased FEV(1)/FVC ratio. rs740587 was also protective for COPD susceptibility and rs11668247 was protective for COPD severity although no allele dose relationship was apparent. Interestingly, several of these associations were driven by male smokers not females. CONCLUSION:This study provides tentative evidence that the asthma associated gene PLAUR also influences baseline lung function in smokers. However the case-control analyses do not support the conclusion that PLAUR is a major COPD susceptibility gene in smokers. PLAUR is a key serine protease receptor involved in the generation of plasmin and has been implicated in airway remodelling.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the significance of decreased FEV(1) in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects. We hypothesized that a lower FEV(1) in these subjects is a potential marker of an increased susceptibility to obstructive lung disease such as asthma and COPD. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1505 Japanese adults. We divided the population of healthy adults with no respiratory diseases whose FEV(1)/FVC ratio was ≥ 70% (n = 1369) into 2 groups according to their prebronchodilator FEV(1) (% predicted) measurements: < 80% (n = 217) and ≥ 80% (n = 1152). We compared clinical data - including gender, age, smoking habits, total IgE levels, and annual decline of FEV(1) - between these 2 groups. In addition, as our group recently found that TSLP variants are associated with asthma and reduced lung function, we assessed whether TSLP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with baseline lung function in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects (n = 1368). Although about half of the subjects with lower FEV(1) had never smoked, smoking was the main risk factor for the decreased FEV(1) in non-COPD, nonasthmatic subjects. However, the subjects with lower FEV(1) had a significantly higher annual decline in FEV(1) independent of smoking status. Airflow obstruction was associated with increased levels of total serum IgE (P = 0.029) and with 2 functional TSLP SNPs (corrected P = 0.027-0.058 for FEV(1)% predicted, corrected P = 0.015-0.033 for FEV(1)/FVC). This study highlights the importance of early recognition of a decreased FEV(1) in healthy subjects without evident pulmonary diseases because it predicts a rapid decline in FEV(1) irrespective of smoking status. Our series of studies identified TSLP variants as a potential susceptibility locus to asthma and to lower lung function in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects, which may support the contention that genetic determinants of lung function influence susceptibility to asthma.
Project description:The "Dutch hypothesis" suggests that asthma and COPD have common genetic determinants. The serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 2 (SERPINE2) gene previously has been associated with COPD. We sought to determine whether SERPINE2 is associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes.We measured the association of 39 SERPINE2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with asthma-related phenotypes in 655 parent-child trios from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP), and we measured the association of 19 SERPINE2 SNPs with asthma in a case-control design of 359 CAMP probands and 846 population control subjects. We attempted to replicate primary asthma-related phenotype findings in one independent population and primary asthma affection status findings in two independent populations. We compared association results with CAMP proband expression quantitative trait loci.Nine of 39 SNPs had P < .05 for at least one phenotype in CAMP, and two of these replicated in an independent population of 426 people with childhood asthma. Six of 19 SNPs had P < .05 for association with asthma in CAMP/Illumina. None of these replicated in two independent populations. The expression quantitative trait loci revealed that five SNPs associated with asthma in CAMP/Illumina and one SNP associated with FEV(1) in CAMP are strongly correlated with SERPINE2 expression levels. Comparison of results to previous COPD studies identified five SNPs associated with both asthma- and COPD-related phenotypes.Our results weakly support SERPINE2 as a Dutch hypothesis candidate gene through nominally significant associations with asthma and related traits. Further study of SERPINE2 is necessary to verify its involvement in asthma and COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic variants influencing lung function in children and adults may ultimately lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in high-risk groups. METHODS:We tested for an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) and a measure of lung function (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)]) in more than 8300 subjects in seven cohorts that included children and adults. Within the Normative Aging Study (NAS), a cohort of initially healthy adult men, we tested for an association between SNPs that were associated with FEV(1) and the time to the onset of COPD. We then examined the relationship between MMP12 SNPs and COPD in two cohorts of adults with COPD or at risk for COPD. RESULTS:The minor allele (G) of a functional variant in the promoter region of MMP12 (rs2276109 [-82A-->G]) was positively associated with FEV(1) in a combined analysis of children with asthma and adult former and current smokers in all cohorts (P=2x10(-6)). This allele was also associated with a reduced risk of the onset of COPD in the NAS cohort (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.92; P=0.02) and with a reduced risk of COPD in a cohort of smokers (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P=0.005) and among participants in a family-based study of early-onset COPD (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The minor allele of a SNP in MMP12 (rs2276109) is associated with a positive effect on lung function in children with asthma and in adults who smoke. This allele is also associated with a reduced risk of COPD in adult smokers.
Project description:Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic condition associated with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is significant variability in lung function impairment among persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype. Early identification of persons at highest risk of developing lung disease could be beneficial in guiding monitoring and treatment decisions. Using a multicenter, family-based study sample (2002-2005) of 372 persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype, the authors developed prediction models for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and the presence of severe COPD using demographic, clinical, and genetic variables. Half of the data sample was used for model development, and the other half was used for model validation. In the training sample, variables found to be predictive of both FEV(1) and severe COPD were age, sex, pack-years of smoking, bronchodilator responsiveness, chronic bronchitis symptoms, and index case status. In the validation sample, the predictive model for FEV(1) explained 50% of the variance in FEV(1), and the model for severe COPD exhibited excellent discrimination (c statistic = 0.88).
Project description:Rationale:Individuals with a single Z mutation in the SERPINA1 gene that codes for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) are at increased risk for COPD if they have ever-smoked. Whether additional variants alter the risk for COPD in this population remains unknown. Objectives:To determine whether additional SERPINA1 variants impact COPD development in a previously identified MZ (carrier) cohort. Methods:Individuals with prior MZ results and AAT serum level <16uM were recruited from the Alpha-1 Coded Testing study and Alpha-1 Foundation Research Registry. Participants completed smoking history, demographics, and COPD Severity Score (Range 0-33) using REDCap data capture. At-home finger-stick tests were performed for next generation sequencing (NGS) at the Biocerna LLC laboratory. A genetic counselor reviewed records and interviewed participants with additional variants by NGS. A Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was used to assess correlation between variants and the COPD severity score. Results:A second SERPINA1 variant of known or possible significance was identified in 6 (5.8%) participants. One each of ZZ, SZ, FZ, ZSmunich, ZM2obernburg, and Z/c.922G>T genotypes were identified. ZZ, SZ, and FZ are known pathogenic genotypes. Smunich is a likely pathogenic variant. M2obernburg and c.922G>T are variants of uncertain significance. The ZZ individual was on augmentation therapy when determined MZ by protease inhibitor (Pi) phenotyping; the others had limited targeted genotyping with MZ results. These six participants with biallelic variants had positive COPD severity scores >1. Presence of additional variants was not significantly associated with COPD symptoms in this small sample size. Conclusions:Some diagnosed MZ individuals instead have biallelic variants. Larger studies are needed to determine COPD-risk liability of variants. Accurate diagnosis impacts medical management and familial risk assessment. Pi phenotyping can be confounded by augmentation therapy and liver transplantation. Because a normal M allele may be reported in the absence of tested mutation(s) in AATD genotyping, clinicians should consider clinical circumstances and laboratory methods when selecting and interpreting AATD tests. Advanced testing, including NGS, may be beneficial for select individuals with prior MZ results. Clinical Trial Registration:This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT NCT02810327).
Project description:Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) cluster as a risk factor for nicotine dependency and COPD. We investigated whether SNPs in the nAChR cluster are associated with smoking habits and lung function decline, and if these potential associations are independent of each other. The SNPs rs569207, rs1051730 and rs8034191 in the nAChR cluster were analyzed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 1,390) that was followed for 25 years. We used GEE and LME models to analyze the associations of the SNPs with quitting or restarting smoking and with the annual FEV(1) decline respectively. Individuals homozygote (CC) for rs569207 were more likely to quit smoking (OR (95%CI) = 1.58 (1.05-2.38)) compared to wild-type (TT) individuals. Individuals homozygote (TT) for rs1051730 were less likely to quit smoking (0.64 (0.42; 0.97)) compared to wild-type (CC) individuals. None of the SNPs was significantly associated with the annual FEV(1) decline in smokers and ex-smokers. We show that SNPs in the nAChR region are associated with smoking habits such as quitting smoking, but have no significant effect on the annual FEV(1) decline in smokers and ex-smokers, suggesting a potential role of these SNPs in COPD development via smoking habits rather than via direct effects on lung function.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. An important fraction of COPD cases harbor a major genetic determinant, inherited ZZ (Glu342Lys) ?1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A study was undertaken to investigate gene expression patterns in end-stage COPD lungs from patients with and without AATD. METHODS: Explanted lungs of end-stage ZZ AATD-related (treated and non-treated with AAT augmentation therapy) and "normal" MM COPD, and liver biopsies from patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with and without ZZ AATD were used for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix microarrays or RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 162 genes were found to be differentially expressed (p-value???0.05 and |FC|???2) between MM and ZZ COPD patients. Of those, 134 gene sets were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated in ZZ relative to MM lung tissue. A subgroup of genes, zinc finger protein 165, snail homolog 1 (Drosophila) (SNAI1), and Krüppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) 4 (gut), 9 and 10, perfectly segregated ZZ and MM COPD patients. The higher expression of KLF 9 and KLF10 has been verified in the replication cohort with AATD-related end-stage lung emphysema and liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, higher expression of KLF9, SNAI1 and DEFA1 was found in ZZ COPD lungs without augmentation therapy relative to MM COPD or ZZ COPD with augmentation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal the involvement of transcriptional regulators of the zinc-finger family in COPD pathogenesis and provide deeper insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD with and without AATD.
Project description:Several chromosomal regions have been identified using family-based linkage analysis to contain genes contributing to the development of asthma and allergic disorders. One of these regions, chromosome 2q32-q33, contains a gene cluster containing CFLAR, CASP10 and CASP8. These genes regulate the extrinsic apoptosis pathway utilized by several types of immune and structural cells that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma.To assess the role of genetic variation in CFLAR, CASP10 and CASP8 in asthma and related phenotypes in individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds.We tested 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFLAR, CASP10 and CASP8 gene cluster for association with asthma and related phenotypes in African-American, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanic case-control populations (cases, N=517, controls, N=644).Five CASP10 SNPS were associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/forced expiration volume capacity (FVC) in the African-American subjects with asthma (P=0.0009-0.047). Nine SNPs, seven in CASP10 and two in CASP8, were also associated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (as determined by PC(20)) in race-specific analysis, predominately in the Non-Hispanic white cases. Two SNPs, rs6750157 in CASP10 and rs1045485 in CASP8 were modestly associated with asthma in the African-American (P=0.025) and Hispanic (P=0.033) populations, respectively.These data suggest a role for CASP10 as a potential modifier of the asthma phenotype, specifically with measures of airway obstruction and BHR.